ժ NO2004.09


Complexity Digest 2004.09 

European Mirror:
Asian Mirror:
http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think the next century will be the
century of complexity." Stephen Hawking



01. Science, Complexity, and the Ethics of Global Governance, Conference Videos
02. The Evolution of the Golden Rule, Science
02.01. How Can We Think the Complex?, arXiv
03. On the Emergence of Complex Systems on the Basis of the Coordination of Complex Behavior of
Their Elements, SFI Working Papers
04. What Really Causes Large Price Changes?, SFI Working Papers
05. Scaling Laws and Urban Systems, SFI Working Papers
06. Genetically Induced Communication Network Fault Tolerance, Complexity
06.01. Complexity Estimates For Detection Of Viruses In Biologically Inspired Security Systems,
07. Testing Transnational Networked Cooperation, Alphagalileo
07.01. Spontaneous Emergence of Complex Optimal Networks through Evolutionary Adaptation, arXiv
07.02. Business Intelligence From Web Usage Mining, J. Info. & Knowledge Manag.
08. Computation's New Leaf, Science News
09. Catching Waves: Ocean-Surface Changes May Mark Tsunamis, Science News
10. Decoherence Of Matter Waves By Thermal Emission Of Radiation, Nature
11. Particle Physics: Two Is The Magic Number, Nature
11.01. Superconductivity: Shine A Light, Nature
12. Origins Of Life: Born In A Watery Commune, Nature
12.01. Transcription: Origins Of Licensing Control, Nature
12.02. Evidence Of A "Lost World": Antarctica Yields Two Unknown Dinosaur Species, ScienceDaily
13. Adolescent Brains Show Reduced Reward Anticipation, ScienceDaily
13.01. New Findings On Memory Could Enhance Learning, ScienceDaily
14. Use Of Information Technology And Music Learning In The Search For Quality Education, British
J. Edu. Tech.
15. Smoking Out the Rain, Science Now
15.01. Sing a Song to Save the Species, Science Now
15.02. Uses And Abuses Of Fractal Methodology In Ecology, Ecol. Lett.
15.03. Coexistence Of Cryptic Species, Ecol. Lett.
16. Filling Gaps in Genome Organization, Science
17. Neuroscience: Immigration Denied, Nature
17.01. Imaging Studies Show How Brain Thinks About Pain, Science
18. The Where and When of Intention, Science
18.01. Attention to Intention, Science
18.02. Synthetic Thought, Nature
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks 
19.01. On The Pedagogy Of 'Small Wars', Int. Affairs
20. Links & Snippets 
20.01. Other Publications 
20.02. Webcast Announcements 
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements 
20.03.01. Strategic Thinking in a Complex World, Smithsonian Resident Associates Program


01. Science, Complexity, and the Ethics of Global Governance , Conference Videos

The Ethos Of ETHOS: Participating In The Emergence Of A Global Political Culture, Linda Dennard,
Video Summary

A Public Sphere For A Global Society, Vessela Misheva, Video Summary

The Resurrection Of Spirit: Reanimating The Social & Political World, David Peat, Video Summary

Thinking About The Law As A Complex Adaptive System, JB Ruhl, Video Summary

Instabilities In Democratic Systems: Complex Self-  Organization In Iraq And The U.S. , Gottfried
Mayer-Kress, Presentation Slides 

The Great Bifurcation: Information And Emerging Society, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, Presentation Slides
(quicktime format)

Self-Organizing Of The Political System In A Globalizing World,  Christian Fuchs, Video Summary

Self-Control And Social Parameters: Personalizing Change Through Social Learning,  Fred Abraham:,
Video Summary

Viewing Note: For best results download videos and use 

free quicktime player .

* Science, Complexity, and the Ethics of Global Governance, 04/02/26-28, Cork, Ireland 


02. The Evolution of the Golden Rule , Science

Excerpts: [The article describes results from altruistic punishment studies, Ed.]

"In that culture, social status depends on how much you give," explains Herbert Gintis, an
economist at the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico and one of the study coordinators. Those who made
excessive offers were perceived as putting on airs, he says, and were rejected. What all the groups
have in common, says Gintis, is strong reciprocity. "What is considered to be fair varies from
society to society, but the fact that people punish those who violate norms does not vary."

* The Evolution of the Golden Rule, Gretchen Vogel , Science Feb 20 2004: 1128-1131


02.01. How Can We Think the Complex? , arXiv

Abstract: In this chapter we want to provide philosophical tools for understanding and reasoning
about complex systems. Classical thinking, which is taught at most schools and universities, has
several problems for coping with complexity. We review classical thinking and its drawbacks when
dealing with complexity, for then presenting ways of thinking which allow the better understanding
of complex systems. Examples illustrate the ideas presented. This chapter does not deal with
specific tools and techniques for managing complex systems, but we try to bring forth ideas that
facilitate the thinking and speaking about complex systems.

* How Can We Think the Complex?, Carlos Gershenson , Francis Heylighen , 2004-02-16, DOI:
nlin.AO/0402023, arXiv
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson 


03. On the Emergence of Complex Systems on the Basis of the Coordination of Complex Behavior of
Their Elements , SFI Working Papers

Abstract: We argue that the coordination of the activities of individual complex agents enables a
system to develop and sustain complexity at a higher level. We exemplify relevant mechanisms
through computer simulations of a toy system, a coupled map lattice with transmission delays. The
coordination here is achieved through the synchronization of the chaotic operations of the
individual elements, and on the basis of this, regular behavior at a longer temporal scale emerges
that is inaccessible to the uncoupled individual dynamics.

* On the Emergence of Complex Systems on the Basis of the Coordination of Complex Behavior of Their
Elements, Fatihcan Atay , Juergen Jost , DOI: SFI-WP 04-02-005, SFI Working Papers
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson 


04. What Really Causes Large Price Changes? , SFI Working Papers

Abstract: We study the cause of large fluctuations in prices in the London Stock Exchange. This is
done at the microscopic level of individual events, where an event is the placement or cancellation
of an order to buy or sell. We show that price fluctuations caused by individual market orders are
essentially independent of the volume of orders. Instead, large price fluctuations are driven by
liquidity fluctuations, variations in the market  ability to absorb new orders. Even for the most
liquid stocks there can be substantial gaps in the order book, corresponding to a block of adjacent
price levels containing no quotes. When such a gap exists next to the best price, a new order can
remove the best quote, triggering a large midpoint price change. Thus, the distribution of large
price changes merely reflects the distribution of gaps in the limit order book. This is a finite
size effect, caused by the granularity of order flow: In a market where participants placed many
small orders uniformly across prices, such large price fluctuations would not happen. We show that
this explains price fluctuations on longer time scales. In addition, we present results suggesting
that the risk profile varies from stock to stock, and is not universal: lightly traded stocks tend
to have more extreme risks.

* What Really Causes Large Price Changes?, J. Doyne Farmer , Laszlo Gillemot , Fabrizio Lillo ,
Szabolcs Mike , Anindya Sen , DOI: SFI-WP 04-02-006, SFI Working Papers
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson 


05. Scaling Laws and Urban Systems , SFI Working Papers

Abstract: This paper is a review of a few problems associated with the observation of scaling laws
in urban systems. Two levels in the spatial organization have to be formalized, cities as systems
and systems of cities. Both encounter problems of measurement, especially in the identification and
delimitation of towns and cities. The problem of city sizes and its relation to urbanization
processes have been conceptualized in connection with Pareto laws, central place theory, space-time
transformations, and fractal geometry. All approaches raise the question of how the autonomy that
characterizes the evolution of urban systems at a macro level can be realized, either by random
growth, or optimization processes, or controlled by systems of social and spatial interactions at a

* Scaling Laws and Urban Systems, Denise Pumain , DOI: SFI-WP 04-02-002, SFI Working Papers
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson 


06. Genetically Induced Communication Network Fault Tolerance , Complexity

Abstract: This article presents the architecture and initial feasibility results of a proto-type
communication network that utilizes genetic programming to evolve services and protocols as part of
network operation. The network evolves responses to environmental conditions in a manner that could
not be pre-programmed within legacy network nodes a priori. A priori in this case means before
network operation has begun. Genetic material is exchanged, loaded, and run dynamically within an
active network. Complexity and algorithmic information theory play a key role in understanding and
guiding code evolution within the network.

* Genetically Induced Communication Network Fault Tolerance, S. F. Bush bushsf@research.ge.com ,
online 2004/02/24, DOI: 10.1002/cplx.20002, Complexity
* Contributed by Atin Das 


06.01. Complexity Estimates For Detection Of Viruses In Biologically Inspired Security Systems ,

Abstract: This article presents results in two mutually complementary areas: distributed
immunological information assurance and a new signature-matching technique based on Kolmogorov
Complexity. This article introduces a distributed model for security based on biological paradigms
of epidemiology and immunology. In this model each node in the network has an immune system that
identifies and destroys pathogens in the incoming network traffic as well as files resident on the
node. Each node compiles a list of pathogens that are perceived as threats by using information
provided from all the nodes in the network. This work (...) examines the efficiency of different
detection schemes.

* Kolmogorov Complexity Estimates For Detection Of Viruses In Biologically Inspired Security
Systems: A Comparison With Traditional Approaches, S. Goel goel@albany.edu , S. F. Bush , online
2004/02/24, DOI: 10.1002/cplx.20004, Complexity
* Contributed by Atin Das 


07. Testing Transnational Networked Cooperation , Alphagalileo

Excerpts: Using next generation Internet technologies, MOICANE has created and tested (...) that
offers a virtual lab environment of 'networked collaboratories', where research institutes,
universities, manufacturers and service providers can collaborate, and remotely share applications,
knowledge, infrastructure and devices. "worked very well. The scope of the MOICANE was to
demonstrate the viability of the architecture to provide Quality of Service (QoS). With all the
different access technologies we were investigating a solution that is applicable to all the cases.
(...) all the MOICANE e-learning and virtual laboratory services and applications including chat,
whiteboard, file transfer, video on demand and videoconference applications.

* Testing Transnational Networked Cooperation, T. Morris tmorris@gopa-cartermill.com , 2004/02/24,
* Contributed by Atin Das 


07.01. Spontaneous Emergence of Complex Optimal Networks through Evolutionary Adaptation , arXiv

Abstract: An important feature of many complex systems, both natural and artificial, is the
structure and organization of their interaction networks with interesting properties. Here we
present a theory of self-organization by evolutionary adaptation in which we show how the structure
and organization of a network is related to the survival, or in general the performance, objectives
of the system. We propose that a complex system optimizes its network structure in order to
maximize its overall survival fitness which is composed of short-term and long-term survival
components. These in turn depend on three critical measures of the network, namely, efficiency,
robustness and cost, and the environmental selection pressure. Using a graph theoretical case
study, we show that when efficiency is paramount the "Star" topology emerges and when robustness is
important the "Circle" topology is found. When efficiency and robustness requirements are both
important to varying degrees, other classes of networks such as the "Hub" emerge. Our assumptions
and results are consistent with observations across a wide variety of applications.

* Spontaneous Emergence of Complex Optimal Networks through Evolutionary Adaptation, Venkat
Venkatasubramanian , Santhoji Katare , Priyan R. Patkar , Fangping Mu , 2004-02-24, DOI:
nlin.AO/0402046, arXiv
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson 


07.02. Business Intelligence From Web Usage Mining , J. Info. & Knowledge Manag.

Abstract: The rapid e-commerce growth has made both business community and customers face a new
situation. Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained
from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for
effective Web site management, creating adaptive Web sites, (...). This paper presents the
important concepts of Web usage mining and its various practical applications. Further a novel
approach called "intelligent-miner" (i-Miner) is presented. i-Miner could optimize the concurrent
architecture of a fuzzy clustering algorithm and a fuzzy inference system to analyze the Web site
visitor trends.

* Business Intelligence From Web Usage Mining, A. Abraham ajith.abraham@ieee.org , Dec. 2003, DOI:
10.1142/S0219649203000565, Journal of Information & Knowledge Management
* Contributed by Pritha Das 


08. Computation's New Leaf , Science News

Excerpts: According to a new study, however, complex computations may also be underway in another
bit of office equipment: the potted plant that brightens up the windowsill. Plants may perform what
scientists call distributed emergent computation. Unlike traditional computation, in which a
central processing unit carries out programs, distributed emergent computation lacks a central
controller. Instead, large numbers of simple units interact with each other to achieve complex,
large-scale computations.

Plants may use computation to figure out how wide to open pores in their leaves,(...)

* Computation's New Leaf, Erica Klarreich , 04/02/21, Science News, Also available in Audible


09. Catching Waves: Ocean-Surface Changes May Mark Tsunamis , Science News

Excerpts: A new theoretical model that describes a tsunami's interaction with winds may explain
enigmatic observations associated with some of the high-speed ocean waves and could lead to a
technique for spotting approaching tsunamis long before they hit shore.

On several occasions, people have observed dark, kilometer-wide bands on the ocean surface as
tsunamis approached or passed by  phenomenon that researchers call a tsunami shadow.(...)
The waves travel more than 700 kilometers per hour where the ocean is 4 km deep or deeper,

* Catching Waves: Ocean-Surface Changes May Mark Tsunamis, Sid Perkins , 04/02/21, Science News,
Also available in Audible


10. Decoherence Of Matter Waves By Thermal Emission Of Radiation , Nature

Excerpts: Emergent quantum technologies have led to increasing interest in decoherence he
processes that limit the appearance of quantum effects and turn them into classical phenomena. One
important cause of decoherence is the interaction of a quantum system with its environment, which
'entangles' the two and distributes the quantum coherence over so many degrees of freedom as to
render it unobservable. Decoherence theory has been complemented by experiments using matter waves
coupled to external photons or molecules, and by investigations using coherent photon states,
trapped ions and electron interferometers.

* Decoherence Of Matter Waves By Thermal Emission Of Radiation, Lucia Hackerm ler , Klaus
Hornberger , Bj n Brezger , Anton Zeilinger  , Markus Arndt markus.arndt@univie.ac.at
, 04/02/19, DOI: 10.1038/nature02276, Nature 427, 711 - 714 


11. Particle Physics: Two Is The Magic Number , Nature

Excerpts: A particle's properties can be modified by other quantum effects ?such as the emission
and absorption of particles on short timescales, allowed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
(...). The magnetic moment of the electron or muon is slightly modified in this way (...). Any
significant difference between the calculated value of the anomalous magnetic moment of either the
electron or muon and the corresponding measured value is a clear indication that there must be
something else, perhaps some as yet unknown particles, that should be included in the calculation.

* Particle Physics: Two Is The Magic Number, Ken Peach k.j.peach@rl.ac.uk
, 04/02.19, DOI: 10.1038/427688a, Nature 427, 688 - 689 


11.01. Superconductivity: Shine A Light , Nature

Excerpts: Copper oxides superconduct at unusually high temperatures. New evidence from optical
studies highlights the nature of the many-body interactions involved.

* Superconductivity: Shine A Light, Michael Norman norman@anl.gov , 04/02/19, DOI: 10.1038/427692a,
Nature 427, 692


12. Origins Of Life: Born In A Watery Commune , Nature

Excerpts: If you go back far enough, humans, frogs, bacteria and slime moulds share a common
ancestor. But scientists can't agree what it was like, or even whether it was a single creature.
John Whitfield reviews the evidence.

* Origins Of Life: Born In A Watery Commune, John Whitfield , 04/02/19, DOI: 10.1038/427674a,
Nature 427, 674 - 676


12.01. Transcription: Origins Of Licensing Control , Nature

Excerpts: Organ development requires precise regulation of both the total number and the different
types of cells. Much is known about how each process is controlled, but new light has been shed on
how the two are linked.

* Transcription: Origins Of Licensing Control, Xue Li  , Michael G. Rosenfeld , 04/02/19, DOI:
10.1038/427687a, Nature427, 687 - 688 


12.02. Evidence Of A "Lost World": Antarctica Yields Two Unknown Dinosaur Species , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: (...) found what they believe are the fossilized remains of two species of dinosaurs
previously unknown to science. One of the two finds, which were made less than a week apart, is an
early carnivore that would have lived many millions of years after the other, a plant-eating beast,
roamed the Earth. One was found at the sea bottom, the other on a mountaintop. (...) research team
believe they have found the fossilized bones of an entirely new species of carnivorous dinosaur
related to the enormous meat-eating tyrannosaurs and the equally voracious, but smaller and
swifter, velociraptors that terrified movie-goers in the film "Jurassic Park."

* Evidence Of A "Lost World": Antarctica Yields Two Unknown Dinosaur Species, 2004/02/27,
ScienceDaily & National Science Foundation
* Contributed by Atin Das 


13. Adolescent Brains Show Reduced Reward Anticipation , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Adolescents show less activity than adults in brain regions that motivate behavior to
obtain rewards, according to results from the first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study to
examine real-time adolescent response to incentives. The study also shows that adolescents and
adults exhibit similar brain responses to having obtained rewards. (...) scanned the brains of
twelve adolescents aged 12 to 17 years and twelve young adults aged 22 to 28 years. While being
scanned, the subjects participated in a game-like scenario risking monetary gain or loss. In
adolescents, however, the researchers found lower activation of the right ventral striatum (...).

* Adolescent Brains Show Reduced Reward Anticipation, 2004/02/25, ScienceDaily & NIH/National
Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism
* Contributed by Atin Das 


13.01. New Findings On Memory Could Enhance Learning , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: New research in monkeys may provide a clue about how the brain manages vast amounts of
information and remembers what it needs. Researchers (...) identified brain cells that streamline
and simplify sensory information - markedly reducing the brain's workload. "When you need to
remember people you've just met at a meeting, the brain probably doesn't memorize each person's
facial features to help you identify them later. Instead, it records vital information, such as
their hairstyle, height, or age, all classifications that we are familiar with from meeting people
in general. Our research suggests how the brain might do this, (...)."

* New Findings On Memory Could Enhance Learning, 2004/02/27, ScienceDaily & Wake Forest University
Baptist Medical Center
* Contributed by Atin Das 


14. Use Of Information Technology And Music Learning In The Search For Quality Education , British
J. Edu. Tech.

Abstract: This paper focuses on the paradigm shift in teaching that has resulted from the use of
information technology (IT) and the ways in which IT in the curriculum enhances music learning in
Hong Kong. In 1998 the government proposed a five-year strategy plan, Information Technology for
Quality Education, and since this time the Hong Kong education system has changed rapidly, with
increasing demands on teachers to upgrade their technological skills and practices. The paper
concludes that when IT is carefully planned, designed and integrated into good music practice in
classrooms, it can support students' motivation and enhance the quality of learning.

* Use Of Information Technology And Music Learning In The Search For Quality Education, M. Ahlert
ahlert@wiwi.uni-halle.de , A. Cr er , Jan. 2004, British Journal of Educational Technology
* Contributed by Pritha Das 


15. Smoking Out the Rain , Science Now

Excerpts: Clouds of smoke don't necessarily bring clouds of rain. Researchers have found that heavy
smoke over the Amazon River Basin interferes with the formation of clouds. This can reduce or delay
rainfall, (...), and it can make the storms that do occur more violent.
All clouds need a certain amount of smoke and dust in order for water droplets to condense. To
understand the effects of heavy smoke over the Amazon, two groups compared satellite pictures of
Amazon fires with measurements of smoke, rain, and water droplets in clouds.

* Smoking Out the Rain, Kim Krieger , 04/02/27, Science Now


15.01. Sing a Song to Save the Species , Science Now

Excerpts: Passing on genes is the bottom line in the game of life. So if you hand off your DNA to
infertile kids, your evolutionary score plummets. Not surprisingly, animals have evolved all sorts
of ways to make sure they mate successfully. Perhaps the sweetest sounding approach is that of
European flycatchers. Researchers have now shown that by creating musical innovation, these birds
ensure that they'll woo the right lovers.(...)

Because the two species share the same habitat, they sometimes interbreed--a grave mistake, as
female hybrids are almost always sterile, (...)

* Sing a Song to Save the Species, Menno Schilthuizen , 04/02/24, Science Now


15.02. Uses And Abuses Of Fractal Methodology In Ecology , Ecol. Lett.

Abstract: Fractals have found widespread application in a range of scientific fields, including
ecology. This rapid growth has produced substantial new insights, but has also spawned confusion
and a host of methodological problems. In this paper, we review the value of fractal methods, in
particular for applications to spatial ecology, and outline potential pitfalls. Methods for
measuring fractals in nature (...) are surveyed. We stress the limitations and the strengths of
fractal models. Strictly speaking, no ecological pattern can be truly fractal, but fractal methods
may nonetheless provide the most efficient tool available for describing and predicting ecological
patterns at multiple scales.

* Uses And Abuses Of Fractal Methodology In Ecology, J. M. Halley  , S. Hartley  , A. S. Kallimanis
 , W. E. Kunin  , J. J. Lennon  , S. P. Sgardelis , Mar. 2004, Ecology Letters
* Contributed by Pritha Das 


15.03. Coexistence Of Cryptic Species , Ecol. Lett.

Abstract: Recent discovery of cryptic species in fig-pollinating wasps creates a puzzle for the
ecological competition theory: how do two or more apparently identical species coexist?
Conventional theory predicts that they should not. (...) identified one exception which he
considered unlikely to occur in reality: coexistence might be possible if appropriate social
behaviour was discriminately directed towards conspecifics and heterospecifics. Here we present an
example of the exception by showing that two identical species with local mate competition and
population size-dependent sex ratio adjustment may coexist. The new findings (...) provide a
putative example of unexpected coexistence of identical competitors via this mechanism.

* Coexistence Of Cryptic Species, D.-Y. Zhang  , K. Lin  , I. Hanski , Mar. 2004, Ecology Letters
* Contributed by Pritha Das 


16. Filling Gaps in Genome Organization , Science

Excerpts: Whole genome sequences of a variety of species are now known, and the next big challenge
is to understand how this vast amount of information is regulated with fidelity in each nucleus.
Genomes are organized into chromosomes and may be further subdivided into "domains" based on their
activity state, ranging from active (or potentially active) to silent and tightly condensed. (...)
The mechanism by which this code is initiated, delimited, and maintained may be central to the
fidelity of the gene expression program during development.

* Filling Gaps in Genome Organization, Artyom A. Alekseyenko  , Mitzi I. Kuroda
, Science Feb 20 2004: 1148-1149.


17. Neuroscience: Immigration Denied , Nature

Excerpts: The adult human brain cannot replace lost neurons. This might be because it is reluctant
to accept newcomers into an already established neural network, rather than because potential
progenitors are absent.(...)
First, neural stem cells that can potentially give rise to neurons, as well as to two types of
glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), are situated in a region of the forebrain (...).
Second, a pathway (...) ?which in adult rodents contains neurons that migrate (...) to the brain
region concerned with sensing smell ?is absent in humans.

* Neuroscience: Immigration Denied, Pasko Rakic pasko.rakic@yale.edu , 04/02/19, Nature427, 685 -


17.01. Imaging Studies Show How Brain Thinks About Pain , Science

Excerpts: When you see someone getting hurt, you flinch. And so does your brain. Indeed, when we
empathize with another person's pain, we use many of the same brain areas that are activated by our
own experience of pain, a new brain-imaging study on page 1157 has shown.

(...) experiment using 16 couples who were romantically involved and presumed to be acutely
sensitive to each other's pain. Keeping both partners in the same room, they put the female in a
magnetic resonance imaging machine and watched her brain (...)

* Imaging Studies Show How Brain Thinks About Pain, Constance Holden , Science Feb 20 2004: 1121


18. The Where and When of Intention , Science

Excerpts: At a moment of your own choosing, snap your fingers. Now ask yourself: "When did I first
feel the urge--or intention--to make that snap? (...)
Subjects asked to report when they first felt the "urge" or intention to move typically report the
time as ~200 ms before the actual movement. (...). Lau et al. found increased blood flow in the
dorsal prefrontal cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, and the pre-supplementary motor area when
subjects attended to the time of their urge to move, rather than the movement itself.

* The Where and When of Intention, David M. Eagleman
, Science Feb 20 2004: 1144-1146


18.01. Attention to Intention , Science

Abstract: Intention is central to the concept of voluntary action. Using functional magnetic
resonance imaging, we compared conditions in which participants made self-paced actions and
attended either to their intention to move or to the actual movement. When they attended to their
intention rather than their movement, there was an enhancement of activity in the pre-supplementary
motor area (pre-SMA). We also found activations in the right dorsal prefrontal cortexand left
intraparietal cortex. Prefrontal activity, but not parietal activity, was more strongly coupled
with activity in the pre-SMA. We conclude that activity in the pre-SMA reflects the representation
of intention.

* Attention to Intention, Hakwan C. Lau , Robert D. Rogers , Patrick Haggard , Richard E.
Passingham , Science Feb 20 2004: 1208-1210.


18.02. Synthetic Thought , Nature

Excerpts: (...) touchstone problems by which progress in AI could be measured. The first was to
develop within ten years a computer program that could beat the world chess champion. The second
was to develop in about the same length of time a computer program that could translate from one
human language to another at a level indistinguishable from that of a professional translator.

Amusingly, the first goal has now been achieved by the program Deep Blue II ?but it taught us
nothing about human thought processes,

* Synthetic Thought, John L. Casti , 04/02/19, DOI: 10.1038/427680a, Nature 427, 680 


19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks 


19.01. On The Pedagogy Of 'Small Wars' , Int. Affairs

Abstract: This article argues that flawed western strategies for 'small wars', those fought in the
non-European world, have been informed by illusions concerning the cultural, military and political
superiority of the West. With 9/11, such wars ceased to be small. Nonetheless, old imperial and
orientalist constructions continue to inform western and particularly US perceptions of the war on
terror. 'Knowing thy enemy' and 'knowing thyself', (...) requires abandoning flattering accounts of
western identity and learning to empathize with those we call terrorists.

* On The Pedagogy Of 'Small Wars', T. Barkawi , Jan. 2004, International Affairs
* Contributed by Atin Das 


20. Links & Snippets 


20.01. Other Publications 

- Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Epigenetic Robotics: Modeling Cognitive
Development in Robotic Systems, Christopher G. Prince , Luc Berthouze , Hideki Kozima , Daniel
Bullock , Georgi Stojanov , Christian Balkenius , (Eds) , 2003-08, Lund University Cognitive
Studies 101
- How Is Sensory Information Processed?, Ilya Nemenman , 2004-02-12, arXiv, DOI: q-bio.NC/0402029
- Competitive Coevolution through Evolutionary Complexification, Stanley, K.O. , Miikkulainen, R. ,
2004-02, JAIR 21:63-100
- Optimizing the Mutual Intelligibility of Linguistic Agents in a Shared World, Natalia Komarova ,
Partha Niyogi , 2004-04, Artificial Intelligence 154(1-2):1-42, DOI: 10.1016/j.artint.2003.08.005
- A Fashion Model with Social Interaction, Shoichiro Nakayama , Yasuyuki Nakamura , 2004-02-19,
Physica A, Article in Press, Uncorrected Proof, DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2004.01.046
- Dynamic Stability of High Dimensional Dynamical Systems, D. J. Albers , J. C. Sprott , SFI
Working Papers, DOI: SFI-WP 04-02-007
- Delays, Connection Topology, and Synchronization of Coupled Chaotic Maps, Fatihcan Atay , Juergen
Jost , Andreas Wende , SFI Working Papers, DOI: SFI-WP 04-02-004
- Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading Room, Daniel
Beunza and David Stark , SFI Working Papers, DOI: SFI-WP 04-02-003
- Autonomic Defense: Thwarting Automated Attacks Via Real-Time Feedback Control, D. Armstrong  , S.
Carter  , G. Frazier glfrazier@dc.alphatech.com , T. Frazier , online 2004/02/24, Complexity, DOI:
- Blair's Project In Retrospect, J. Gray , Jan. 2004, International Affairs
- An Access Control Architecture For Managing Large-Scale Network Applications, H. Trickey  , A.
Barshefsky , Online 2004/02/05, Bell Labs Technical Journal, DOI: 10.1002/bltj.10084
- Diet Quality And Resource Allocation In The Zebra Finch, A. N. Rutstein  , P. J. B. Slater  , J.
A. Graves , 2004/02/23, Alphagalileo & Biology Letters
- The Effects Of Nectar Addition On Pollen Removal And Geitonogamy In The Non-Rewarding Orchid
Anacamptis Morio, S. D. Johnson  , C. I. Peter  , J. Agren , 2004/02/23, Alphagalileo & Proceedings
B (Biological Sciences)
- The Evolution Of Resistance Through Costly Acquired Immunity, M. R. Boots  , R. G. Bowers ,
2004/02/23, Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
- The Mode Of Pheromone Evolution: Evidence From Bark Beetles, M. R. E. Symonds  , M. A. Elgar ,
2004/02/23, Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
- Stars In Their Eyes - How Celebrities Are Related To Social Development, B. Whiteman ara@le.ac.uk
, 2004/02/26, Alphagalileo
- Researchers Produce A Hairier Mouse; Transgenic Mouse Shows Other Intriguing Physiological
Changes, 2004/02/24, ScienceDaily & University Of Southern California
- Consumer Effects Decline With Prey Diversity, H. Hillebrand  , B. J. Cardinale , Mar. 2004,
Ecology Letters
- EU Enlargement And Its Impacts On East Asia, H. Lee hlee@icsead.or.jp , D. van der Mensbrugghe
dvandermensbrugg@worldbank.org , online 2004/01/01, Journal of Asian Economics, DOI:
- Pill Puzzle: Do Antibiotics Increase Breast Cancer Risk?, Science News, 04/02/21, Also available
in Audible A new study links antibiotic use to breast cancer, although it's not clear the drugs
cause the disease.
- The Rat In The Hat, 04/02/21, Science News, Also available in Audible A compact positron-emission
tomography (PET) brain scanner may make possible studies of awake rats that link brain functions
and behaviors.
- Big, Hot Molecules Bridge the Gap Between Normal and Surreal, Science Feb 20 2004: 1119
- Scientists slam Bush record, Nature, DOI: 10.1038/427663b
- Multistability In The Lactose Utilization Network Of Escherichia Coli , Ertugrul M. Ozbudak ,
Mukund Thattai , Han N. Lim , Boris I. Shraiman , Alexander Van Oudenaarden
, Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature02298


20.02. Webcast Announcements 

Creative Education Exposition, , Taipei, Taiwan, 04/02/12-14

Voices of Public Intellectuals Lecture Series: Democracy's Response to the Terrorist Threat
Now in its fifth year, the Radcliffe Institute Voices of Public Intellectuals lecture series brings
issues affecting civic life to a public forum. This year's series of three lectures features
experts in the study of terrorism and the prosecution of terrorists to explore the effects of
terrorism on democracy. These lectures take place in Cambridge on February 26, March 4, and March
11 at 4 p.m. 

World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland

 Riding the Next Democratic Wave, 
Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25
 The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan, Martin, Schwab, World
Economic Forum, 04/01/25

Why Victory Against Terrorism Demands Shared Values

The Process of Curricular Review: Redefining a World-Class Education, Benedict Gross, Thomas
Bender, Harvard@home, 04/01/21, Dean of Harvard College Benedict Gross discusses Harvard's first
comprehensive review of the undergraduate curriculum in almost 3 decades. This program introduces
the process of curricular review by presenting two segmented lectures. The first, by Dean Gross,
outlines the approach and considerations in undertaking the current review. The second lecture,
presented by NYU Professor Thomas Bender, presents a historical perspective on academic culture. 
Cancer Biology , NPR Talk of the Nation, 04/01/16, How the spread of cancer is like wound healing
gone awry. 

   Tracking Ebola , NPR Talk of the Nation, 04/01/16, A new study might help scientists predict
where Ebola may!
strike next. 

   Animal Thought and Communication, NPR Talk of the Nation, 04/01/16, 
How do animals think and communicate with each other? And what can studying animals tell us about
the evolution of language in humans? In this hour, NPR's Ira Flatow and guests look at thought and
communication in apes, gorillas and monkeys. What can non-human primates tell us about
communication in humans?

 CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And Intelligent Systems, 2004
Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10
  EVOLVABILITY & INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of 
  Communication, Signaling, and Perception in the Dynamics of Social 
  Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10 
  The Semantic Web 
  and Language Technology - Its Po
tential and Practicalities, 
  Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 
  ECAL 2003, 7th 
  European Conference on Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany, 
  New Santa 
  Fe Institute President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role, 
  (Video, Santa Fe, NM, 03/06/04) 
  SPIE's 1st Intl Symp 
  on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM, 2003/06/01-04 
  NAS Sackler 
  Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio Report, 
  13th Ann Intl Conf, 
  Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life Sciences, Boston, MA, USA, 
  Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and 
  Live Events 
  LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since 
  February 1998 
  Edge Videos


20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements 

 on Longevity , Sydney, Australia, 04/03/05-07
 Physik sozio-ökonomischer Systeme Jahrestagung
 (AKSOE), Regensburg, Germany, 04/03/08-12

 11th Annual Winter Chaos Conference Dynamical Systems Thinking in Science and Society, Stony
Creek, CT, USA, 04/03/12-14

Alife Mutants' Hackingsession on Systems and Organisms, Bielefeld (Germany), 04/03/06-13
 Science 2004, Washington, 04/03/20-21
 Fractal 2004,
 "Complexity and Fractals in Nature", 8th Intl
 Multidisciplinary Conf, Vancouver, Canada, 04/04/04-07
 6th German Workshop on Artificial Life 2004 (GWAL-6), Bamberg, Germany, 04/04/14-16

 9th IEEE Intl Conf on Engineering of Complex Computer
 Systems, Florence, Italy, 04/04/14-16

 Complexity Science and the Exploration of the Emerging World, Austin, TX, 04/04/17
 Advanced Simulation Technologies Conference (ASTC'04),
 Arlington, VA., USA, 04/04/18-22
 (New Kind of Science) 2004 Conference and Minicourse,
 Boston, Massachusetts, 04/04/22-25
IDS'04 - Intentional Dynamic Systems Symposium, Memphis, TN, USA,  04/04/24-26

 Vulnerability and Network Failure: Constructions and Experiences
 of Emergencies, Crises and Collapse,  Manchester, UK,
What Really Matters ?The Global Forum 2004, Santa Fe, NM, 04/05/02-04

 International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS2004),
 Boston, MA, USA, 04/05/16-21
 3rd Intl Conf on
 Systems Thinking in Management (ICSTM 2004) "Transforming
 Organizations to Achieve Sustainable Success",
 Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 04/05/19-21 

4th Intl Conf on
Fractals And Dynamic Systems In Geoscience, München, Germany, 04/05/19-22
 Annual Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interaction Agents
 (WEHIA04), Kyoto, Japan, 2004/05/27-29
 International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious
 Diseases, Toulon, France, 04/06/03-05
 Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,

 An Intl Tribute to Francisco Varela, Paris,04/06/18-20

Intl Conf on Linking Systems Thinking, Innovation,Quality, Entrepreneurship and Environment
MARIBOR, SLOVENIA, 04/06/24-26 

NAACSOS 2004, North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science,
Pittsburgh PA, 04/06/27-29

Statphys - Kolkata V An International Conference on Complex Networks: Structure, Function and
Processes , Kolkata, India, 04/06/27-30 

ICAD 2004 10th International Conference on Auditory Display, Sydney, Australia, 04/07/06-09

3rd Intl School Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics Discrete Dynamical Systems and Applications , Urbino
(Italy), 04/07/07-09 

 `Perspectives on Nonlinear Dynamics 2004 (PNLD-2004), Chennai, India, 04/07/12-15

 From Animals To Animats
 8, 8th Intl Conf On The Simulation Of Adaptive Behavior
 (SAB'04), Los Angeles, USA, 04/07/13-17

 14th Annual International Conference The Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences ,
Milwaukee, WI, USA, 04/07/15-18 

Facing Complexity, Wellington, NZ, 04/07/15-17

 Gordon Research Conference on "Oscillations & Dynamic Instabilities In Chemical Systems",
Lewiston, ME, 04/07/18-23

Intl Conf Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems Conference (AAMAS 2004), New York City,

Intl Workshop on: Trust in Agent Societies , New York City, 04/07/19-20

 World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and
 Informatics, Orlando, Florida, USA, 04/07/18-21
 Summer Simulation MultiConference (SummerSim'04), San Jose
 Hyatt, San Jose, California, 04/07/25-29
 SME 2004 Symposium on Modeling
 and Control of Economic Systems , University in Redlands, CA, 04/01/28-31
 International Mathematica Symposium (IMS 2004), Banff,
 Canada, 04/08/02-06  

  Fractals and Natural Hazards at 
32nd Intl Geological Congress (IGC), Florence, Italy, 04/08/20-28
ICCC 2004, IEEE International Conference on Computational Cybernetics, ,
Vienna, Austria, 04/08/30-09/01

 2004, 4th International Workshop on Ant Colony
 Optimization and Swarm Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium,
 Ontology, An Inquiry into Systems, Emergence, Levels of Reality,
 and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy,
 Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems
 (ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts, 04/09/12-15

Verhulst 200 on Chaos, Brussels, BELGIUM, 04/09/16-18
 8th Intl Conf on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature
 (PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22
 XVII Brazilian
 Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao -
 Brazil, 04/09/22-24
  TEDMED Conference , 
Charleston SC, 04/10/12-15

 Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois,

 6th Intl Conf on Electronic Commerce
ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape,  Delft, The Netherlands, 04/10/25-27 

  Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio de Janeiro, 04/11 


20.03.01. Strategic Thinking in a Complex World , Smithsonian Resident Associates Program

Recognizing the world as one vast interconnected system is essential to understanding the level of
complexity in today  global environment. 

This course is designed to give you a working knowledge of complexity science, and to show how to
apply insights from the new science to your life and work, and to world events.

* Strategic Thinking in a Complex World, T. Irene Sanders  , David Rejeski , 04/05/01-22,
Smithsonian Resident Associates Program

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