ժNO2004.44

Complexity Digest 2004.44

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
Mirror: http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think
the next century will be the century of complexity." Stephen Hawking

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Content:

01. New Human Species Discovered, NPR TOTN
01.01. Scientists Discover Species of Small Early Humans, NPR ME
01.02. Little Lady Of Flores Forces Rethink Of Human Evolution, Nature
01.03. Evolutionary Shrinkage: Stone Age Homo Find Offers Small Surprise,
Science News
01.04. Palaeoanthropology: Human Evolution Writ Small, Nature
01.05. Ancient, Tiny Humans Shed New Light on Evolution, NPR ATC
01.06. Small Archaic Human Stuns Paleoanthropologists, Science Now
01.07. Eton Or The Zoo?, BBC News
01.08. 'Hobbit' Joins Human Family Tree, BBC News
02. Knowledge-Based Economies, Organizations And The Sociocultural Regulation
Of Work, Econ. & Indus.Democ.
02.01. Mathematical Models For Explaining The Emergence Of Specialization In
Performing Tasks, Complexity
03. Buzzing the Web on a Meme Machine, NY Times
04. Black Hole Computers, Scientific American
04.01. Computing at the Speed of Light, Scientific American
05. Organised Chaos Gets Robots Going, New Scientist
05.01. Molecular Motors: Smooth Coupling In Salmonella, Nature
06. Mixing Biology and Electronics to Create Robotic Vision, U Arizona News
Release
06.01. Single Origin for Eyes?, Science Now
06.02. The Eyes Have It, The Feature
07. Doctors Use Nanotechnology to Improve Health Care, NY Times
07.01. Examining Antibiotic Resistance, NPR TOTN
08. Ultrasound Scans Accused Of Disrupting Brain Development, Nature
08.01. Prozac Paradox, Science Now
09. Daddies, Devotion, And Dollars, Ameri. J. Econ. & Socio.
10. Researchers Develop Neural Prosthesis Allowing A Monkey To Feed Self Using
Only Its Brain, ScienceDaily
10.01. Advent of the Robotic Monkeys, Wired
11. Music and the Brain
11.01. Can't Place A Name To The Face You Just Saw?, ScienceDaily
12. An Explanatory Model for Food-web Structure and Evolution, arXiv
13. Predation Risk Is An Ecological Constraint For Helper Dispersal In A
Cooperatively Breeding Cichlid, Alphagalileo & Proc. B
13.01. The Evolutionary Origin of Cooperators and Defectors, Science
13.02. Symmetry Breaking and the Evolution of Development, Science
14. That Familiar Nest Odor, Science Now
14.01. 'Smelly' Mates Guide Seabirds, BBC News
14.02. Partner-Specific Odor Recognition in an Antarctic Seabird, Science
15. Evolutionary Biology: Mortality And Lifespan, Nature
15.01. Hunted Guppies Live Longer, Science Now
16. Earthquake Prediction: A Seismic Shift In Thinking, Nature
17. An Effective Approach to Climate Change, Science
17.01. Deluge Of Typhoons May Aid Forecast Models, Nature
17.02. Tidal Wave Threat 'Over-hyped', BBC News
17.03. Abrupt Climate Change, Scientific American
18. How Strategists Design the Perfect Candidate, Science
18.01. Gambling With Our Votes?, Science
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terroist Networks
19.01. Bin Laden's October Surprise, BBC News
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

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01. New Human Species Discovered , NPR TOTN

Excerpts: Researchers report this week that they have found the remains of a
group of small hominids that may be a new species of human -- one that may have
existed on an island near Indonesia as late as 14,000 years ago. The dwarf
species of human was found in a cave on the Indonesian island of Flores. What
does it mean to be a "new species?" And does the finding of these proto-humans
shake up the human family tree?

* New Human Species Discovered, 04/10/29, NPR TOTN


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01.01. Scientists Discover Species of Small Early Humans , NPR ME

Excerpts: Scientists discover fossils of a new species of early human on the
Indonesian island of Flores. Like the Neanderthals, it is an alternate human
line that disappeared. The creatures were surprisingly small -- no more than a
meter tall, with heads the size of a grapefruit. NPR's Christopher Joyce
reports.

* Scientists Discover Species of Small Early Humans, 04/10/28, NPR ME


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01.02. Little Lady Of Flores Forces Rethink Of Human Evolution , Nature

Excerpts: The discovery is prompting increased scrutiny of sites on other
Southeast Asian islands, both to look for more of the same species and to place
it in context with Homo sapiens and Homo erectus, our closest relative. Homo
erectus was found to have lived on the nearby island of Java as long as 1.6
million years ago; the team suggests that the Flores hominins may be their
descendants.

(...) researchers are hoping to find DNA in the bones, which would help to
clarify the relationships between species.

* Little Lady Of Flores Forces Rethink Of Human Evolution, Rex Dalton ,
04/10/28, DOI: 10.1038/4311029a, Nature 431, 1029


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01.03. Evolutionary Shrinkage: Stone Age Homo Find Offers Small Surprise ,
Science News

Excerpts:     Little Big Find. The newly discovered Homo floresiensis skull
(left) comes up short next to a Homo sapiens skull (right).
  Brown
H. sapiens arrived in Australia and nearby islands by at least 55,000 years
ago, the scientists add, but it's not known whether or how these people
interacted with their diminutive counterparts.

Anthropologists familiar with the Flores specimen accept it as a new Homo
species. "It's amazingly tiny," (...). Further research needs to confirm that
H. floresiensis' small size evolved gradually on the island, he says.

Instead, dwarfing might have occurred rapidly in a Homo species that reached
Flores late in the Stone Age (...).

* Evolutionary Shrinkage: Stone Age Homo Find Offers Small Surprise, Bruce
Bower , 04/10/3, Science News


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01.04. Palaeoanthropology: Human Evolution Writ Small , Nature

Excerpts: We are the only living species of the genus Homo. Given the startling
results of a cave excavation in Southeast Asia, it seems that we coexisted with
another species until much more recently than had been thought.

The fossils described elsewhere in this issue probably left no descendants, are
not very old, and were found on a remote island. Despite this, they are among
the most outstanding discoveries in palaeoanthropology for half a century.

* Palaeoanthropology: Human Evolution Writ Small, Marta Mirazon Lahr , Robert
Foley , 04/10/28, DOI: 10.1038/4311043a, Nature 431, 1043 - 1044


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01.05. Ancient, Tiny Humans Shed New Light on Evolution , NPR ATC

Excerpts: Aside from the search for evidence of the earliest modern humans in
Flores, we shall also scour other remote Indonesian islands for their own array
of extinct, endemic animals, which may well include other species of human.
Sulawesi is an obvious target, being famous for a range of bizarre and unique
creatures that imply a long period of isolation -- a necessary precursor to
endemism. Perhaps the far-flung Indonesian islands have acted as a series of
independent "Noah's Arks," each with their own trademark endemic dwarfs and
giants.

* Ancient, Tiny Humans Shed New Light on Evolution, 04/10/27, NPR ATC


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01.06. Small Archaic Human Stuns Paleoanthropologists , Science Now

Excerpts:


Shrunken head. A new human species (right-hand skull) is much smaller than its
putative ancestor, Homo erectus.
CREDIT: P. BROWN/UNIVERSITY OF NEW ENGLAND, ARMIDALE, AUSTRALIA



Scientists have made the startling discovery of a lost world of small archaic
humans, who hunted dwarf elephants and Komodo dragons on an Indonesian island
as recently as 18,000 years ago. The researchers uncovered the skull and
skeleton of an adult human female with a brain the size of a grapefruit and a
body the size of a Hobbit. This diminutive new species lived on the tropical
island of Flores at the same time that modern humans inhabited nearby islands
and were circling the globe.

* Small Archaic Human Stuns Paleoanthropologists, 04/10/27, Science Now


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01.07. Eton Or The Zoo? , BBC News

Excerpts:


A cast of the 18,000-year-old 'Hobbit's' skull



Suppose for a moment that a living tribe of these beings is discovered, how
should they be treated?

Are they merely advanced apes, or are they miniature humans?

If an explorer brought back one of their infants to study, would you put him
down for Eton or the Zoo?


If he died, would he be buried in consecrated ground or a pet cemetery?

His very existence among us would make us question all over again what it is to
be human.

* Eton Or The Zoo?, Desmond Morris , 04/10/29, BBC News


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01.08. 'Hobbit' Joins Human Family Tree , BBC News

Excerpts:     A male Homo floresiensis may have looked something like this
(Image: National Geographic)
The 18,000-year-old specimen, known as Liang Bua 1 or LB1, has been assigned to
a new species called Homo floresiensis. It had long arms and a skull the size
of a large grapefruit.

The researchers have since found remains belonging to six other individuals
from the same species.

LB1 shared its island with a golden retriever-sized rat, giant tortoises and
huge lizards - including Komodo dragons - and a pony-sized dwarf elephant
called Stegodon which the "hobbits" probably hunted.

* 'Hobbit' Joins Human Family Tree, 04/10/27, BBC News


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02. Knowledge-Based Economies, Organizations And The Sociocultural Regulation
Of Work , Econ. & Indus.Democ.

Excepts: A predominant economic and managerial discourse drives imperatives for
a 'knowledge-based' economy, now widely espoused by economic leaders in much of
the developed world. Demands for ever-modernizing efficiencies, production
growth and competitive advantage encourage heightened emphasis on
knowledge-rich production and innovation. (...) This article critically
examines the knowledge-based economy discourse and its formulation of worker
and organizational learning. It argues that alternative conceptualizations of
organizational learning that recognize workers' cultural and non-material
demands may stimulate resources for culturally innovative practices. In
particular, the article considers ways in which learning economy discourses may
be strategically utilized by trade unions, worker educators (...).

* Knowledge-Based Economies, Organizations And The Sociocultural Regulation Of
Work, C. Casey , Nov. 2004, DOI: 10.1177/0143831X04047161, Economic and
Industrial Democracy
* Contributed by Pritha Das - prithadas01yahoo.com


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02.01. Mathematical Models For Explaining The Emergence Of Specialization In
Performing Tasks , Complexity

Abstract: In an evolving community consisting of many individuals, it is often
the case that the individuals tend, over time, to become more specialized in
performing the tasks necessary for survival and growth of the community as a
whole. The contribution in this work is a collection of linear and nonlinear
mathematical models that provide insights as to when and why functional
specialization emerges in general, rather than specific, settings. The results
from these models, which are based on an evolutionary approach, apply to
communities in which individuals allocate their time in the best interest of
the community as a whole.

* Mathematical Models For Explaining The Emergence Of Specialization In
Performing Tasks, D. Solow Daniel.Solow@case.edu , J. Szmerekovsky , Sep.-Oct.
2004, Online 2004/10/25, DOI: 10.1002/cplx.20048, Complexity
* Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinyahoo.co.in


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03. Buzzing the Web on a Meme Machine , NY Times

Excerpts: The World Wide Web is the perfect Petri dish for memes. Wikipedia,
the free collaborative online encyclopedia, calls the Internet "the ultimate
meme vector."

Meme and memetics (the study of memes, not to be confused with mimetics) were
once terms batted around only by thinkers like Mr. Dawkins, the philosopher
Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore, the author of "The Meme Machine." Now the
word "meme" is part of many would-be-trendy Web addresses.

A site called memes.org says it tests "new, old and emergent memes (...).

* Buzzing the Web on a Meme Machine, Sarah Boxer , 04/10/26, NYTimes


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04. Black Hole Computers , Scientific American

Excerpts: Physical existence and information content are inextricably linked.
(...), "It from bit."

Black holes might seem like the exception to the rule that everything computes.
(...) according to Einstein's general theory of relativity, getting information
out is impossible. (...) In the 1970s Stephen Hawking of the University of
Cambridge showed that when quantum mechanics is taken into account, black holes
do have an output: they glow like a hot coal. In Hawking's analysis, this
radiation is random, however. It carries no information about what went in.
Editor's Note: Earlier this year Dr. Hawking changed his mind, see

  Hawking cracks Black Hole Paradox , ComDig 2004.29.

* Black Hole Computers, 04/11, Scientific American


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04.01. Computing at the Speed of Light , Scientific American

Excerpts: Since about 1995, microprocessors have been outrunning the other
parts of computer systems (...). The latest processors churn through
instructions at up to 3.6 gigahertz (GHz); some operations, such as arithmetic,
run at double that rate. But the wiring on the motherboard that connects the
processor to its memory chips and other pieces of the system plods along at 1
GHz or less. So the brain of the machine spends as much as 75 percent of its
time idle, waiting for instructions and data that are stuck in traffic.

* Computing at the Speed of Light, 04/11, Scientific American


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05. Organised Chaos Gets Robots Going , New Scientist

Excerpts:     Chaos in control
A control system based on chaos has made a simulated, multi-legged robot walk
successfully. The researchers behind the feat say it may have brought us closer
to understanding how people and animals learn to move.

Standard robots control their leg motion either through complex computer
programs or by using so-called genetic algorithms to "evolve?a successful
walking strategy. Both these options are time-consuming and require a lot of
computer power.

(...) simulation of a 12-legged machine in which each leg was controlled by a
chaotic mathematical function.

* Organised Chaos Gets Robots Going, Will Knight , 04/11/01, New Scientist


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05.01. Molecular Motors: Smooth Coupling In Salmonella , Nature

Excerpts: Bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium move by the action of their
flagella. Depending on the direction of rotation, flagella either act singly,
causing uncoordinated tumbling, or clump together into a single helical
propeller for straight-line swimming. The 60-nm-long hook that joins the
flagellar filament to its motor in the bacterial cell wall must thus bend
through as much as 90?in a millisecond or less, all the time rotating at up to
300 revolutions per second. (...) determined the atomic structure of this
super-flexible universal joint, (...).

* Molecular Motors: Smooth Coupling In Salmonella, Christopher Surridge ,
04/10/28, DOI: 10.1038/4311047b, Nature 431, 1047


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06. Mixing Biology and Electronics to Create Robotic Vision , U Arizona News
Release

Excerpts:     Gimli is one of the robots in Charles Higgins' lab. It mimics
insect vision and is designed to follow a moving object. It's built on a
chassis originally designed for a radio-controlled model car.
Sure they can crush humans at chess. But they can't beat us at soccer ?half
the time they can't even recognize the soccer ball ?or defeat us in single
combat and walk away from the encounter.

"We don't have robots that can physically compete with humans in any
way,?(...).
(...) developing an airborne visual navigation system by creating electronic
clones of insect vision processing systems in analog integrated circuits. The
circuits create insect-like self-motion estimation, obstacle avoidance, target
tracking and other visual behaviors on two model blimps.

* Mixing Biology and Electronics to Create Robotic Vision, Ed Stiles ,
04/10/22, U Arizona News Release


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06.01. Single Origin for Eyes? , Science Now

Excerpts:


Eye opener. The ragworm has the eyes of an invertebrate and a brain with the
photoreceptor cells of a human.
CREDIT: COURTESY OF KRISTIN TESSMAR-RAIBLE




Biologists have argued for decades over whether the two basic eye plans of
vertebrates and invertebrates evolved independently or originated from a common
ancestor. New data showing unexpected similarities between the eyes of a marine
worm and those of humans

Despite incredible variation in size and shape, eyes come in just two basic
models. The vertebrates' photoreceptor cells, typified by rods and cones, are
quite distinctive from the invertebrates'. And although both use light-sensing
pigments called opsins, these differ in their amino acid makeup.

* Single Origin for Eyes?, 04/10/28, Science Now


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06.02. The Eyes Have It , The Feature

Excerpts:
On first glance, the virtual retinal display (VRD) developed at the University
of Washington's Human Interface Technology Laboratory resembles a traditional
heads-up display, a tiny monitor mounted just inches from your eyeball. In
fact, (...) Mitsubishi announced an inexpensive heads-up display called SCOPO.
What makes the VRD so unique is that there is no screen. The device literally
paints a video image onto your eyeball with a laser beam. The picture is
crisper and brighter than any competing heads-up display and doesn't guzzle
power like postage-stamp LCD or LED screens.

* The Eyes Have It, David Pescovitz , 04/10/28, The Feature


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07. Doctors Use Nanotechnology to Improve Health Care , NY Times

Excerpts: Evidence is accumulating that nanotechnology may enable better early
warning systems for cancer and heart disease, cures for progressive diseases
like cystic fibrosis, techniques for making implants like artificial hips more
successful, and even artificial kidneys. But there is no reliable timeline for
the home-run projects (...).

Nanotechnology involves industrial products and processes in the realm of
nanometers, or billionths of a meter. That is also the scale on which all
living cells - and the things that nourish or kill them - operate.

* Doctors Use Nanotechnology to Improve Health Care, Barnaby J. Feder ,
04/11/01, NYTimes


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07.01. Examining Antibiotic Resistance , NPR TOTN

Excerpts: We look at the problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Are
researchers and manufacturers doing enough to develop new angles of attack
against these medical threats?

* Examining Antibiotic Resistance, 04/10/29, NPR TOTN


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08. Ultrasound Scans Accused Of Disrupting Brain Development , Nature

Excerpts: The effect of ultrasound scans on brain development is to be
investigated in a study on monkeys starting next month in the United States.
The work has been prompted by unpublished research showing that ultrasound can
disrupt the normal movement of cells through the brains of unborn mice.

The $3-million study, which is funded by the US National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, Maryland, will examine the
effect of scans on the unborn offspring of around 50 rhesus macaque monkeys.

* Ultrasound Scans Accused Of Disrupting Brain Development, Jim Giles ,
04/10/28, DOI: 10.1038/4311026a, Nature 431, 1026


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08.01. Prozac Paradox , Science Now

Excerpts:     Chemical imbalance. Newborn mice treated with Prozac showed
reduced exploratory behavior in an elevated maze test. Credit: John Wood    The
drug fluoxetine--commonly known as Prozac--has been used as an antidepressant
for almost 20 years, but a new study suggests that it may actually raise
anxiety levels in newborn mice.

Fluoxetine is the oldest of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
and the only one approved for pediatric use.

In comparison to the saline-treated pups, the fluoxetine-treated mice explored
less while in a maze. (...) All these behaviors are regarded as signs of
anxiety and depression in animals.

* Prozac Paradox, 04/10/26, Science Now


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09. Daddies, Devotion, And Dollars , Ameri. J. Econ. & Socio.

Excerpt: Growing up in a family that lacks a biological father is correlated
with a number of poor outcomes for youths. (...) examine the extent to which
differences in income or parental involvement can explain the effects of family
structure on youth outcomes. We find that measurement error in income from
single-parent homes has a large effect on the results because of the
variability in income earned over a youth's teen years. Overall, we find that
lower income explains most of the disadvantages of youths in single-parent
homes, but neither gaps in income nor in parental involvement explain the
disadvantages of families with stepfathers.

* Daddies, Devotion, And Dollars, G. Painter  , D. I. Levine , Oct. 2004, The
American Journal of Economics and Sociology
* Contributed by Pritha Das - prithadas01yahoo.com


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10. Researchers Develop Neural Prosthesis Allowing A Monkey To Feed Self Using
Only Its Brain , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Researchers (...) demonstrated that a monkey can feed itself with a
robotic arm simply by using signals from its brain, an advance that could
enhance prosthetics for people (...). The robotic arm, or neural prosthesis, is
about the size of a child's arm and moves much like a natural arm, with a fully
mobile shoulder and elbow and a simple gripper that allows the monkey to grasp
and hold food while its own arms are restrained. The arm is wired into the
monkey's brain and intercepts signals through electrodes attached to tiny
probes that tap into neuronal pathways in the motor cortex, (...).

* Researchers Develop Neural Prosthesis Allowing A Monkey To Feed Self Using
Only Its Brain, 2004/10/28, ScienceDaily & University Of Pittsburgh Medical
Center
* Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinyahoo.co.in


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10.01. Advent of the Robotic Monkeys , Wired

Excerpts:     This time lapse photo shows a lab monkey at the University of
Pittsburgh using a robotic arm to feed itself. Photo: Courtesy of UPMC News
Bureau
If a monkey is hungry but has his arms pinned, there's not much he can do about
it. Unless that monkey can control a nearby robotic arm with his brain.


And that's exactly what the monkey (...) can do, feeding himself using a
prosthetic arm controlled solely by his thoughts.(...)

(...) as the monkey thinks about bringing the food to his mouth, electrodes in
the monkey's brain intercept the neuronal firings that are taking place in the
motor cortex, a region of the brain responsible for voluntary movement.

* Advent of the Robotic Monkeys, David Cohn , 04/10/26, Wired


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11. Music and the Brain

Excerpts: (...) when musicians listen to a piano playing, about 25 percent more
of their left-hemisphere auditory regions respond than do so in nonmusicians.
(...) expansion of response area is greater the younger the age at which
lessons began. Studies of children suggest that early musical experience may
facilitate development. (...) recorded brain responses to piano, violin and
pure tones in four- and five-year-old children. Youngsters who had received
greater exposure to music in their homes showed enhanced brain auditory
activity, comparable to that of unexposed kids about three years older.

* Music and the Brain, 04/11, Scientific American


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11.01. Can't Place A Name To The Face You Just Saw? , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Ever catch a glimpse of someone but can't quite fit a name to go with
the face? While it's something that happens to everyone, for older people
especially, difficulty in retrieving names is a common frustration. Scientists
(...) are trying to determine what goes on inside the brain when it sees a
face. How, for instance, does the brain recognize faces and retrieve the names
to go with them? Also, how does the brain determine whether the information
that it has retrieved is accurate? (...)

* Can't Place A Name To The Face You Just Saw?, 2004/10/27, ScienceDaily &
University Of Arizona
* Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinyahoo.co.in


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12. An Explanatory Model for Food-web Structure and Evolution , arXiv

Abstract: Food webs are networks describing who is eating whom in an ecological
community. By now it is clear that many aspects of food-web structure are
reproducible across diverse habitats, yet little is known about the driving
force behind this structure. Evolutionary and population dynamical mechanisms
have been considered. We propose a model for the evolutionary dynamics of
food-web topology and show that it accurately reproduces observed food-web
characteristic in the steady state. It is based on the observation that most
consumers are larger than their resource species and the hypothesis that
speciation and extinction rates decrease with increasing body mass. Results
give strong support to the evolutionary hypothesis.

* An Explanatory Model for Food-web Structure and Evolution, A. G. Rossberg ,
H. Matsuda , T. Amemiya , K. Itoh , 2004/10/26, DOI: q-bio.PE/0410030, arXiv
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


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13. Predation Risk Is An Ecological Constraint For Helper Dispersal In A
Cooperatively Breeding Cichlid , Alphagalileo & Proc. B

Abstract: Sexually mature subordinates of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid
Neolamprologus pulcher help raise the young of dominant breeders, and therefore
they are called 'helpers'. We show in a controlled field experiment that
helpers exposed to predators stay at home rather than disperse and breed
independently. Predators decreased the survival of helpers, but less so when
helpers were living in large groups. This experiment supports the long-held
view that predation risk selects for group-living and against independent
breeding of helpers.

* Predation Risk Is An Ecological Constraint For Helper Dispersal In A
Cooperatively Breeding Cichlid, D. Heg  , Z. Bachar  , L Brouwer  , M. Taborsky
, 2004/10/25, Alphagalileo & Proc. B (Biological Sciences)
* Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinyahoo.co.in


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13.01. The Evolutionary Origin of Cooperators and Defectors , Science

Abstract: Coexistence of cooperators and defectors is common in nature, yet the
evolutionary origin of such social diversification is unclear. Many models have
been studied on the basis of the assumption that benefits of cooperative acts
only accrue to others. Here, we analyze the continuous snowdrift game, in which
cooperative investments are costly but yield benefits to others as well as to
the cooperator. Adaptive dynamics of investment levels often result in
evolutionary diversification from initially uniform populations to a stable
state in which cooperators making large investments coexist with defectors who
invest very little. Thus, when individuals benefit from their own actions,
large asymmetries in cooperative investments can evolve.

* The Evolutionary Origin of Cooperators and Defectors, Michael Doebeli ,
Christoph Hauert , Timothy Killingback , 04/10/29, Science : 859-862.


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13.02. Symmetry Breaking and the Evolution of Development , Science

Excerpts: Because of its simplicity, the binary-switch nature of left-right
asymmetry permits meaningful comparisons among many different organisms.
Phylogenetic analyses of asymmetry variation, inheritance, and molecular
mechanisms reveal unexpected insights into how development evolves. First,
directional asymmetry, an evolutionary novelty, arose from nonheritable origins
almost as often as from mutations, implying that genetic assimilation
("phenotype precedes genotype") is a common mode of evolution.

Second, the molecular pathway directing hearts leftward-the nodal
cascade-varies considerably among vertebrates (homology of form does not
require homology of development) (...).

* Symmetry Breaking and the Evolution of Development, A. Richard Palmer ,
04/10/29, Science : 828-833.


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14. That Familiar Nest Odor , Science Now

Excerpts: But new research shows that a species of seabird prefers the scent of
its mate to those of other individuals in the colony. The odors may help the
birds locate their burrows and, perhaps, even choose a partner.

(...) The pairs build shallow burrows and then split the duty of incubating the
eggs, spending the rest of their time looking for food. Because prions can
locate their own burrows among those of hundreds of neighbors in the middle of
the night, researchers (...), began to suspect that they were using odor cues.

* That Familiar Nest Odor, 04/10/29, Science Now


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14.01. 'Smelly' Mates Guide Seabirds , BBC News

Excerpts:     Prions are strictly monogamous, although they rarely get to spend
any time with their partners
eabirds called prions, which mate for life, find their nests by sniffing out
their smelly partners, scientists say.

The birds make their nests in deep burrows, which are very dark, so they cannot
rely on any other sense to find them, Science magazine reports.

The birds also actively avoid their own smell, which could be a way of making
sure they do not breed with their kin.

* 'Smelly' Mates Guide Seabirds, 04/10/29, BBC News


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14.02. Partner-Specific Odor Recognition in an Antarctic Seabird , Science

Abstract: Among birds, the Procellariiform seabirds (petrels, albatrosses, and
shearwaters) are prime candidates for using chemical cues for individual
recognition. These birds have an excellent olfactory sense, and a variety of
species nest in burrows that they can recognize by smell. However, the nature
of the olfactory signature--the scent that makes one burrow smell more like
home than another--has not been established for any species. Here, we explore
the use of intraspecific chemical cues in burrow recognition and present
evidence for partner-specific odor recognition in a bird.

* Partner-Specific Odor Recognition in an Antarctic Seabird, Francesco
Bonadonna  , Gabrielle A. Nevitt , 04/10/29, Science : 835


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15. Evolutionary Biology: Mortality And Lifespan , Nature

Excerpts: How does natural selection affect lifespan? The question has
exercised biologists for some years. The latest twist comes from ingenious
experiments on tropical fish from different ecological backgrounds.

(...) investigated one of the main factors that influence the evolution of an
organism's lifespan. That factor is the risk of dying that a population faces
as a result of environmental conditions (such as, in this case, predation). The
study subjects are guppies, (...), that a higher environmental risk of
mortality can select for inherently longer-lived organisms.

* Evolutionary Biology: Mortality And Lifespan, Peter A. Abrams , 04/10/28,
DOI: 10.1038/4311048a, Nature 431, 1048


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15.01. Hunted Guppies Live Longer , Science Now

Excerpts:


Life in the slow lane. Contrary to evolutionary predictions, guppies forced to
share their pool with predators age more slowly.
CREDIT: DAVID REZNICK/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE




According to classical evolutionary theory, animals faced with low chances of
survival should do best by following the "live fast and die young" strategy.
But new studies of guppies suggest that we need more sophisticated theories to
describe how evolution shapes life span.

When predators abound, it doesn't make much sense to invest energy in long-term
survival. Instead, animals should mature quickly and reproduce prolifically.
Studies in the wild and the lab have mostly supported this idea, but guppies
living in waterfall-strewn streams in Trinidad seem to buck the theory.

* Hunted Guppies Live Longer, 04/10/27, Science Now


_________________________________________________________________

16. Earthquake Prediction: A Seismic Shift In Thinking , Nature

Excerpts: (...) the USGS is moving to re-establish the National Earthquake
Prediction Evaluation Council, a committee charged with advising the director
of the USGS on the merits of particular predictions. (...) Regional Earthquake
Likelihood Models ?hopes to begin contrasting various forecast models for
California by January 2005.(...)

Even more discouraging, an assembly of 1,224 Global Positioning System (GPS)
stations and about 1,000 seismometers spread around the Japanese archipelago
failed to spot any seismic hints of the magnitude 8.0 Tokachi-Oki earthquake
that shook northern Japan last September.

* Earthquake Prediction: A Seismic Shift In Thinking, David Cyranoski ,
04/10/28, DOI: 10.1038/4311032a, Nature 431, 1032


_________________________________________________________________

17. An Effective Approach to Climate Change , Science

Excerpts: The Administration's more substantive R&D initiatives, such as
Hydrogen Fuels and FutureGen (clean coal) are relatively modest investments in
technologies that are decades away from deployment. We need a far more vigorous
effort to promote energy efficient technologies; to prepare for the hydrogen
economy; to develop affordable carbon capture and sequestration technologies;
and to spur the growth of renewable energy, biofuels, and coal-bed methane
capture.
Equally important, we need to encourage public and private investment in a
wide-ranging portfolio of low-carbon technologies.

* An Effective Approach to Climate Change, Eileen Claussen , 04/10/29, Science
: 816.


_________________________________________________________________

17.01. Deluge Of Typhoons May Aid Forecast Models , Nature

Excerpts: Kurihara and others are hoping that data from this year's storms can
be compared with results from models of typhoons and the wider global climate
system, and will lead to improvements in the models. Akira Hasegawa, also of
the Frontier centre, says that their model on the Earth Simulator ?Japan's
most powerful supercomputer ?suggests that increased levels of carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere will lead to lower or constant typhoon frequencies, with more
rain. "If global warming continues, we will get typhoons with increasingly
torrential rains, (...).

* Deluge Of Typhoons May Aid Forecast Models, David Cyranoski , 04/10/28, DOI:
10.1038/4311028a, Nature 431, 1028


_________________________________________________________________

17.02. Tidal Wave Threat 'Over-hyped' , BBC News

Excerpt: The risk of a landslide in the Canary Islands causing a tidal wave
(tsunami) able to devastate America's east coast is vastly overstated.

* Tidal Wave Threat 'Over-hyped', Ali Ayres , 2004/10/29, BBC News
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

17.03. Abrupt Climate Change , Scientific American

Excerpts: When the planet's climate destabilizes, as it sometimes has, average
seasonal temperatures can lurch six degrees Celsius within as little as a
decade.

* Abrupt Climate Change, 04/11, Scientific American


_________________________________________________________________

18. How Strategists Design the Perfect Candidate , Science

Excerpts: This year the two major parties in the U.S. presidential race have
spent nearly $500 million (...). Yet for all their talk of polls, strategies,
and spin control, many political scientists acknowledge that the "science" in
their discipline often resembles a black art. What really sways the electorate?
A candidate's record? (...) "The surprising reality," (...), "is that we still
understand relatively little about how presidential campaigns affect the
vote."

Political analysts are on the case, though, tackling age-old problems with
brute-force number crunching and even mathematics imported from theoretical
physics.

* How Strategists Design the Perfect Candidate, Mark Buchanan , 04/10/29,
Science : 799-800


_________________________________________________________________

18.01. Gambling With Our Votes? , Science

Excerpts: On the eve of the U.S. elections, many experts warn that it will take
a major overhaul to make reliable, secure electronic ballots more than a
virtual reality
(...) When Americans head to the polls next week, tens of millions of them will
vote in much the same way: by making ticks or writing names on slips of paper.
As many as 30% of ballots, however, will be cast electronically, on
touch-screen or push-button computerized tabulators built by vendors such as
Diebold, Sequoia, ES&S, and a handful of others.

* Gambling With Our Votes?, Charles Seife , 04/10/29, Science : 798-799


_________________________________________________________________

19. Complex Challenges: Global Terroist Networks





_________________________________________________________________

19.01. Bin Laden's October Surprise , BBC News

Excerpts: "We did not find it difficult to deal with Bush and his
administration because it is similar to regimes in our countries, half of which
are governed by the military and the other half of which are governed by the
sons of kings and presidents," he said. "In both categories, you find many who
are characterised by hubris, arrogance, greed, and unlawful acquisition of
money."

* Bin Laden's October Surprise, Paul Reynolds , 04/10/30, BBC News


_________________________________________________________________

20. Links & Snippets





_________________________________________________________________

20.01. Other Publications



- A Mathematical Model Of The Effector Cell Response To Cancer, E. Allison  ,
A.D. Colton  , A.D. Gorman  , R. Kurt  , M. Shainheit , Jun. 2004, 2004/10/13,
Mathematical and Computer Modelling, DOI: 10.1016/j.mcm.2004.06.010
- It's Not Too Late To Privatise Royal Mail, I. Senior , Sep. 2004, Economic
Affairs, DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0270.2004.t01-1-00489.x
- Evolution In Complex Systems, P. E. Anderson  , H. J. Jensen
h.jensen@imperial.ac.uk , L. P. Oliveira  , P. Sibani , Sep.-Oct. 2004, Online
2004/10/25, Complexity, DOI: 10.1002/cplx.20049
- Selfish Peering and Routing in the Internet, Jacomo Corbo and Thomas
Petermann , 2004/10/26, arXiv, DOI: cs.GT/0410069
- Effect of Synchronous Incoming Spikes on Activity Pattern in A Network of
Spiking Neurons, Takaaki Aoki , Toshio Aoyagi , 2004/10/25, arXiv, DOI:
q-bio.NC/0410029
- The Asymptotic Behavior Of Dynamic Producer-Consumer Systems, F. Szidarovszky
szidar@sie.arizona.edu , C. Chiarella carl.chiarella@uts.edu.au , Jun. 2004,
2004/10/13, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, DOI: 10.1016/j.mcm.2004.06.009
- Scaling Behavior In The Temporal Context Model, M. W. Howard
marc@memory.syr.edu , Aug. 2004, online 2004/05/11, Journal of Mathematical
Psychology, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmp.2004.03.004
- Stability And Dissipativity Theory For Nonnegative Dynamical Systems: A
Unified Analysis Framework For Biological And Physiological Systems, W. M.
Haddad wm.haddad@aerospace.gatech.edu , VS. Chellaboin
chellaboinav@missouri.edu , Feb. 2005, online 2004 /09/16, Nonlinear Analysis:
Real World Applications, DOI: 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2004.01.006
- Evolutionary Vestigialization Of Sex In A Clonal Plant: Selection Versus
Neutral Mutation In Geographically Peripheral Populations, M. E. Dorken  , C.
G. Eckert  , K. J. Neville , 2004/10/25, Alphagalileo & Proc. B (Biological
Sciences)
- Tea Could Improve Memory, Study Shows, C. Jordan claire.jordan@ncl.ac.uk ,
2004/10/25, Alphagalileo & University of Newcastle upon Tyne
- Science Breakthrough Explains How Cells Repair Broken DNA, J. Bealing
j.a.bealing@sussex.ac.uk , 2004/10/25, Alphagalileo & University of Sussex
- Lighting Up The Human Brain At Night, S. Miller s.e.miller@surrey.ac.uk ,
2004/10/25, Alphagalileo & University of Surrey
- First Evidence That Smoking Affects Brain's Natural 'Feel Good' Chemical
System, 2004/10/28, ScienceDaily & University Of Michigan Health System
- Fatal Attraction: A New Study Suggests A Relationship Between Fear Of Death
And Political Preferences, 2004/10/29, ScienceDaily & American Psychological
Society
- Researching With Whom? Stability And Manipulation, J. Alcalde
alcalde@merlin.fae.ua.es , P. Revilla prevapa@dee.upo.es , Dec. 2004, Journal
of Mathematical Economics, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmateco.2003.12.001
- Can Indeterminacy Resolve The Cross-Country Correlation Puzzle?, W. Xiao
wxiao@uno.edu , Dec. 2004, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, DOI:
10.1016/j.jedc.2003.10.007
- Life Expectancy, Schooling Time, Retirement, And Growth, C. A. Echevarra ,
Oct. 2004, Economic Inquiry, DOI: 10.1093/ei/cbh084
- Time Preference And Life Cycle Consumption With Endogenous Survival, A. K.
Acharya  , R. J. Balvers , Oct. 2004, Economic Inquiry, DOI: 10.1093/ei/cbh088
- Chimera States for Coupled Oscillators, Daniel M. Abrams  , Steven H.
Strogatz , October 22, 2004, Physical Review Letters
22 October 2004
Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 174102 (2004), DOI: PhysRevLett.93.1704102
- Ode to the Code, Brian Hayes , November/December 2004, American Scientist
Volume: 92 Number: 6 Page: 494, DOI: DOI: 10.1511/2004.6.494
- Study: Red Wine Slows Lung Cancer, White Raises Risk, Mohammed Abbas ,
04/10/27, Reuters
- 'The Wired CD:' Mixing Technology and Digital Music, 04/10/27, NPR TOTN, We
consider a new CD that encourages listeners to trade, remix and sample the
tracks.
- Lipid Gene May Lead to Long Life, 04/10/29, Science Now, People with gene
that reduces bad lipids live longer
- Platypus X-Files, 04/10/26, Science Now
- Holes in the Missile Shield, The national missile defense now being deployed
by the U.S. should be replaced with a more effective system
- Now They're Registered, Now They're Not, Jo Becker  , David Finkel ,
04/10/31, Washington Post, Election Officials Express Dismay at Extent of
Misinformation, Variety of Tricks Targeting Voters
- Life from Repeated Parts, Lauren Ancel Meyers , 04/10/29, Science : 814-815
- How Active Sites Communicate in Thiamine Enzymes, Frank Jordan , 04/10/29,
Science : 818-820
- Polymorphism in Liquids, Jeff L. Yarger  , George H. Wolf , 04/10/29, Science
: 820-821
- Plant Acupuncture: Sticking PINs in the Right Places, Nicholas J. Kaplinsky ,
M. Kathryn Barton , 04/10/29, Science : 822-823.
- Prozac Treatment of Newborn Mice Raises Anxiety, Constance Holden , 04/10/29,
Science : 792
- Measuring the Significance of a Scientist's Touch, David Malakoff , 04/1029,
Science : 801
- Stimulating Nerve Cells With Laser Precision; Researchers Devise Optical
Method To Safely, Effectively Stimulate Neurons, 04/10/26, Vanderbilt News
Release
- Electric Currents Boost Brain Power, Jim Giles , 04/10/26, Nature News
- Gene Doping, 04/10/30, Science News, Inserting genes for extra strength or
speed could give athletes an unbeatable, and perhaps undetectable, advantage in
competitive
- Solar Hydrogen, 04/10/30, Science News, With the vision of a hydrogen economy
looming ever larger in people's minds, scientists have picked up the pace of
their pursuit of materials that use solar energy to split water and make
clean-burning hydrogen fuel.



_________________________________________________________________

20.02. Webcast Announcements



  ALife 9: Ninth International Conference on Artificial Life, Boston, MA,
04/09/12-15

The 4th Intl Workshop on Meta-synthesis and Complex System, Beijing, China,
04/07/22-23


Intl Conf on Complex Networks: Structure, Function and Processes, Kolkata,
India, 04/06/27-30


 From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela
(1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20



ECC8 Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,
  04/06/14-17



Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium,
04/05/26-28


International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21


Life, a Nobel Story, Brussels, Belgium, 04/04/28


Nonlinear Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics Days, Brussels, Belgium,
04/04/26-27


Science Education Forum for Chinese Language Culture, Panel Discussion, Taipei,
Taiwan, 04/05/01


Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology, ,
Lausanne,Switzerland, 04/01/29-30


Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H.,
Internet-First University Press, 1994

World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland   Riding the Next Democratic
Wave, Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic
Forum, 04/01/25
  The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan,
Martin, Schwab, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25  Why Victory Against Terrorism
Demands Shared Values

  CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And
Intelligent Systems, 2004 Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10 EVOLVABILITY &
INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of Communication, Signaling, and
Perception in the Dynamics of Social Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10 The
Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and Practicalities,
Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on
Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany, 03/09/14-17 New Santa Fe Institute
President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role, (Video, Santa Fe, NM,
03/06/04) SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM,
2003/06/01-04 NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio
Report, 03/05/11 13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life
Sciences, Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10 CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos
of Archived Lectures and Live Events Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video
Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998 Edge Videos




_________________________________________________________________

20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements






   Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio de Janeiro,
04/11


ICDM '04: The Fourth IEEE Intl Conf on Data Mining, Brighton, UK, 04/11/01-04


International Congress of Nanotechnology and Nano World Expo,San Francisco, CA,
04/11/07-11

Denaturing Darwin: International Conference on Evolution and Organization
, Amersfoort, The Netherlands, 04/11/12-14



5th International EMBL PhD Students Symposium, , Heidelberg, Germany,
04/12/02-04

   European Conference On Complex Systems, Torino, Italy, 04/12/05-08



An Introduction to Complexity Science, Rockville,巠MD USA, 04/12/06



Improving Health of the Chronically Ill: Insights from Complexity Science,
Rockville,巠MD USA, 04/12/07-08

  The 7th Asia-Pacific Complex Systems Conference,  Queensland, Australia,
04/12/06-10

  17th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,  Queensland,
Australia, 04/12/06-10

Cellular Computing Symposium, U Warwick
(UK), 04/12/09-10

  International Conference On Computational Intelligence (Icci 2004) ,
Istanbul, Turkey, 04/12/15-17


  Kondratieff Waves, Warfare And World Security, NATO Advanced Research
Workshop
, Covilh? Portugal, 05/02/14-17


   2005 Meeting Arbeitskreis
Physik sozio-onomischer Systeme, AKSOE (Socio-Economic-Physics), Physik
seit Einstein,
Berlin, Germany, 05/03/04-09


5th Creativity And Cognition Conference, London.UK, 05/04/12-15


Social Intelligence and Interaction in Animals, Robots and Agents, Hatfield,
UK, 05/04/12-15


2005 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show
Nanotech 2005, Anaheim, California, U.S.A., 05/05/08-12

  2ndShanghai Intl Symposium on Nonlinear Science and Applications, Shanghai,
05/06/03-07


IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium
Pasadena, California, USA, 05/06/08-10

  Powders & Grains 2005, Stuttgart, Germany, 05/06/18-22

   6th Intl Conf Symmetry in Nonlinear Mathematical Physics, Kiev, Ukraine.
05/06/20-26

  Workshop on Complexity and Policy Analysis, Cork, Ireland, 05/06/22-24

  ECAL 2005 - VIIIth European Conference on Artificial Life, Canterbury, Kent,
UK, 05/09/05-09


  Complexity, Science and Society Conf 2005, Liverpool, UK, 05/09/11-14


18th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2005), Salamanca,
Spain, 05/09/19-23







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