Complexity Digest 2004.43

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01. Business Simulations Spark Rapid Workplace Renovations, Science News
02. The Adaptive Markets Hypothesis: Market Efficiency From An Evolutionary
Perspective, Journal of Portfolio Management 30
03. Systems Biology and New Technologies Enable Predictive and Preventative
Medicine, Science
03.01. All Bio Systems Are Go, Wired
03.02. Systems Biology And The Molecular Circuits Of Cancer, ChemBioChem
03.03. Preliminary Studies On The In Silico Evolution Of Biochemical Networks,
03.04. Computational Design Of Reduced Metabolic Networks, ChemBioChem
04. Mice Do Fine Without 'Junk DNA', Nature News
04.01. Puffed-Up Genome, Science Now
05. Solving Gene Expression, Science
05.01. Gene Order and Dynamic Domains, Science
05.02. Searching for the Genome's Second Code, Science
05.03. A Fast and Furious Hunt for Gene Regulators, Science
06. Obtaining Multiple Separate Food Sources: Behavioural Intelligence In The
Physarum Plasmodium, Alphagalileo & Proc. B
06.01. Interactivity, Dynamic Symbol Processing, And The Emergence Of Content
In Human Communication, The Info. Soc.
07. Palaeontology: Leg Feathers In An Early Cretaceous Bird, Nature
07.01. Early Bird: Fossil Features Hint At Go-Get-'Em Hatchlings, Science News
08. 'Brain' In A Dish Acts As Autopilot, Living Computer, ScienceDaily
08.01. Chips Coming to a Brain Near You, Wired News
08.02. Auras May Be Generated In The Brain, Nature News
09. Can Computers Untangle the Neural Net?, The Scientist
09.01. On The Trail Of An Odor Map - Nobel Winning Work Has A Way To Go, The
10. Malaria: A Complex New Vaccine Shows Promise, Science
10.01. Antibiotics: A Shot In The Arm, Nature
11. 11, New Scientist
11.01. Bridging Light and Matter, Science Now
11.02. Researchers Build Quantum Info Bank By Writing on the Clouds, Science
12. Printers Betray Document Secrets, BBC
13. Planet Formation Is Violent, Slow And Messy, New Scientist
13.01. Messy Findings: Planets Encounter A Violent World, Science News
13.02. Rebel Stars, Science Now
14. Living Planet Report, p2pnet
14.01. Water Scarcity: A Looming Crisis?, BBC News
14.02. Appreciating Ecological Complexity: Habitat Contours As A Conceptual
Landscape Model, Conserv. Biol.
14.03. Aid Agencies' Warning On Climate, BBC News
15. Life-Giving Dead Wood 'At Risk', BBC News
16. From a Physicist and New Nobel Winner, Some Food for Thought, NY Times
16.01. Online Search Universe Is Expanding, The Washington Post
17. Estimates by U.S. See More Rebels With More Funds, NY Times
18. Inside Election Science, NPR TOTN
18.01. Polls, Votes, and All That..., Knowledge@Wharton
18.02. Campaign Column: Make Or Break, BBC
18.03. Electorate Is a Key Unknown, Washington Post
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terroist Networks
19.01. Iraq Called 'Springboard' for Insurgency Figure, Washington Post
19.02. After Terror, a Secret Rewriting of Military Law, NY Times
19.03. Memo Lets CIA Take Detainees Out of Iraq, Washington Post
19.04. Huge Cache of Explosives Vanished From Site in Iraq, NY Times
19.05. What Happened to Missing Iraq Explosives, Guardian
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements


01. Business Simulations Spark Rapid Workplace Renovations , Science News

Excerpts:     Change Makers. Foundry workers fill a mold after revising their
operation to meet standards developed in a simulation exercise. E. Chamberlain

Over the past decade, staff members at nearly 30 firms of various sizes have
negotiated simulated enterprises devised by DiBello, who is affiliated with the
City University of New York, and her coworkers. Participants routinely begin as
vocal skeptics of the approach and end up using the experience as a framework
to revitalize their workplaces. In the three-firm project, the "financial
benefits [of the simulation exercises] were shockingly great for each company,"
DiBello says. "We think we're tapping into basic principles of cognitive
acceleration and learning."

* Business Simulations Spark Rapid Workplace Renovations, Bruce Bower ,
04/10/23, Science News


02. The Adaptive Markets Hypothesis: Market Efficiency From An Evolutionary
Perspective , Journal of Portfolio Management 30

Excerpts: One of the most influential ideas in the past 30 years of the Journal
of Portfolio Management is the Efficient Markets Hypothesis, the idea that
market prices incorporate all information rationally and instantaneously.
However, the emerging discipline of behavioral economics and finance has
challenged this hypothesis, arguing that markets are not rational, but are
driven by fear and greed instead. Recent research in the cognitive
neurosciences suggests that these two perspectives are opposite sides of the
same coin. In this article I propose a new framework that reconciles market
efficiency with behavioral alternatives by applying the principles of
evolution---competition, adaptation, and natural selection---to financial

* The Adaptive Markets Hypothesis: Market Efficiency From An Evolutionary
Perspective, Andrew W. Lo , 04/08/15, Journal of Portfolio Management 30(2004),


03. Systems Biology and New Technologies Enable Predictive and Preventative
Medicine , Science

Excerpts: Systems approaches to disease are grounded in the idea that
disease-perturbed protein and gene regulatory networks differ from their normal
counterparts; we have been pursuing the possibility that these differences may
be reflected by multiparameter measurements of the blood. Such concepts are
transforming current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to medicine and,
together with new technologies, will enable a predictive and preventive
medicine that will lead to personalized medicine.

Biological information is divided into the digital information of the genome
and the environmental cues that arise outside the genome.

* Systems Biology and New Technologies Enable Predictive and Preventative
Medicine, Leroy Hood , James R. Heath , Michael E. Phelps , Biaoyang Lin ,
04/10/22, Science : 640-643


03.01. All Bio Systems Are Go , Wired

Excerpts: The next advances in biology may rely on networked systems research,
but will have little to do with computers (...).

Instead, (...), techniques used to analyze interconnected systems will provide
a better understanding of the most complex network of all: the human body.

That's the ambition of scientists in systems biology, a burgeoning field which
aims to understand the workings of the nuts and bolts of living organisms
through the interactions of the thousands of pieces of DNA, RNA and proteins
that network together in each cell of our body.

* All Bio Systems Are Go, Rowan Hooper , 04/10/21, Wired


03.02. Systems Biology And The Molecular Circuits Of Cancer , ChemBioChem

Excerpt: Proliferative disorders are a major challenge for human health. The
understanding of the organization of cell-cycle events is of the utmost
importance to devise effective therapeutic strategies for cancer. The awareness
that cells and organisms are complex, modular, hierarchical systems and the
availability of genome-wide gene expression and protein analyses, should make
it feasible to elucidate human diseases in terms of dysfunctions of molecular
systems. Here we review evidence in support of a systems model of the cell
cycle, in which two sequential growth-sensitive thresholds control entry into
S-phase. The putative molecular determinants that set the threshold for entry
into S-phase (...).

* Systems Biology And The Molecular Circuits Of Cancer, L. Alberghina
lilia.alberghina@unimib.it , F. Chiaradonna  , M. Vanoni , 2004/10/04, Online
2004/09/29, DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200400170, ChemBioChem
* Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinyahoo.co.in


03.03. Preliminary Studies On The In Silico Evolution Of Biochemical Networks ,

Excerpts: Due to the variety and importance of roles performed by signalling
networks, understanding their function and evolution is of great interest.
Signalling networks allow organisms to process and react to changes in their
internal and external environment. (...) two to three percent of all genomes
code for proteins involved in signalling networks. The study of signalling
networks is hindered by the complexities of the networks and difficulties in
ascribing function to form. For example, a very complex dense network might
comprise eighty or more densely connected proteins. In the majority of cases
there is very little understanding of how these networks process signals. (...)

* Preliminary Studies On The In Silico Evolution Of Biochemical Networks, A.
Deckard  , H. M Sauro hsauro@kgi.edu , 2004/10/04, Online 2004/09/29, DOI:
10.1002/cbic.200400178, ChemBioChem
* Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinyahoo.co.in


03.04. Computational Design Of Reduced Metabolic Networks , ChemBioChem

Excerpt: Cellular functions are based on thousands of chemical reactions and
transport processes, most of them being catalysed and regulated by specific
proteins. Systematic gene knockouts have provided evidence that this complex
reaction network possesses considerable redundancy, that is, alternative routes
exist along which signals and metabolic fluxes may be directed to accomplish an
identical output behaviour. This property is of particular importance in cases
where parts of the reaction network are transiently or permanently impaired,
for example, due to an infection or genetic alterations. Here we present a
computational concept to determine enzyme-reduced metabolic networks (...).

* Computational Design Of Reduced Metabolic Networks, S. Holzhtter  , H.-G.
Holzhtter hergo@charite.de , 2004/10/04, Online 2004/09/29, DOI:
10.1002/cbic.200400178, ChemBioChem
* Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinyahoo.co.in


04. Mice Do Fine Without 'Junk DNA' , Nature News

Excerpts:     Mice seemed normal even when 3% of their genome had been deleted.
c Getty    Deleting non-coding regions from the genome has no apparent effect.
(...) deleting large sections of non-coding DNA from mice appears not to affect
their development, longevity or reproduction. The team created mice with more
than a million base pairs of non-coding DNA missing - equivalent to about 1% of
their genome. The animals' organs looked perfectly normal. (...) The group has
now created mice missing three million base pairs. (...) "Survival in the
laboratory for a generation or two is not the same as successful competition in
the wild for millions of years," he argues.

* Mice Do Fine Without 'Junk DNA', Roxanne Khamsi , 04/10/20, Nature News


04.01. Puffed-Up Genome , Science Now

Excerpts:     Seeing double. The genome of the tiny puffer fish reveals that
its ancestors duplicated their genome sometime after diverging from the lineage
of humans and other vertebrates. Credit: Oliver Jaillon

A newly published draft sequence of a puffer fish genome suggests that the
vertebrate ancestor shared by bony fishes and humans had just 12 pairs of
chromosomes, but the fishes doubled up after their lineage split from our own.

The spotted green puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis is one of about 20,000
kinds of ray-finned fishes, (...). About 450 million years ago, the ancestor of
ray-finned fishes went on its own evolutionary tangent, splitting off from the
vertebrate lineage that includes lobe-finned fishes, frogs, chickens, and

* Puffed-Up Genome, Rachel Ehrenberg , 04/10/20, Science Now


05. Solving Gene Expression , Science

Excerpts: Words are static images on a page unless you know what they mean, how
their meanings change depending on the context, and what the rules are for
using them. Similarly, a complex regulatory code is buried within the genome,
and researchers will need to decipher it to understand how genes are expressed,
what their functions are, and how normal instructions are altered in

As we begin to understand biological systems through carefully designed
experiments and analyses, the complexity we are seeing now may begin to resolve
into simpler principles.

* Solving Gene Expression, Barbara R. Jasny  , Leslie Roberts , 04/10/22,
Science : 629


05.01. Gene Order and Dynamic Domains , Science

Excerpts: When considering the daunting complexity of eukaryotic genomes, some
comfort can be found in the fact that the human genome may contain only 30,000
to 40,000 genes. Moreover, growing evidence suggests that genomes may be
organized in such a way as to take advantage of space. A gene's location in the
linear DNA sequence and its position in the three-dimensional nucleus can both
be important in its regulation. (...) paragon of simplicity, may still have a
few things to teach us with respect to these facets of nonrandom genomes.

* Gene Order and Dynamic Domains, Steven T. Kosak  , Mark Groudine , 04/10/22,
Science : 644-647


05.02. Searching for the Genome's Second Code , Science

Excerpts: The genome has more than one code for specifying life. The hunt for
the various types of noncoding DNA that control gene expression is heating up.

(...) it's going to take molecular cryptographers to crack its complex code.
(...) The same genes have turned up in organisms as different as, say, mice and
jellyfish. Instead, new findings from a variety of researchers have made clear
that it's the genome's exquisite control of each gene's activity--and not the
genes per se--that matters most.

* Searching for the Genome's Second Code, Elizabeth Pennisi , 04/10/22, Science
: 632-635


05.03. A Fast and Furious Hunt for Gene Regulators , Science

Excerpts: Genes may be essential, but researchers increasingly recognize the
pivotal role that another element of the genome--regulatory DNA--plays in human
disease, speciation, and evolution. In many labs, the search to find where
these regions are buried is intensifying. (...) others are experimenting with
high-speed methods to detect regulatory regions, such as enhancers, en masse
and determine what each one does.

(...) Compare two or more sequenced genomes to identify those places where DNA
outside genes is highly similar and presumably functional.

* A Fast and Furious Hunt for Gene Regulators, Elizabeth Pennisi , 04/10/22,
Science : 635


06. Obtaining Multiple Separate Food Sources: Behavioural Intelligence In The
Physarum Plasmodium , Alphagalileo & Proc. B

Abstract: In order to evaluate an amoeba's performance in a complex survival
task, we studied the morphology of the Physarum plasmodium transportation
network when presented with multiple separate food sources. The plasmodium
comprises a network of tubular elements through which chemical nutrient,
intracellular signals and the viscous body are transported and circulated. We
report the evidence that the tube network is reformed as well-designed with
short total length and fault tolerance, in response to locations of food
sources. This implies that this unicellular organism has high computational
ability to solve some optimization problem, difficult even for human.

* Obtaining Multiple Separate Food Sources: Behavioural Intelligence In The
Physarum Plasmodium, T. Nakagaki  , R. Kobayashi  , Y. Nishiura  , T. Ueda ,
2004/10/18, Alphagalileo & Proc. B (Biological Sciences)
* Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinyahoo.co.in


06.01. Interactivity, Dynamic Symbol Processing, And The Emergence Of Content
In Human Communication , The Info. Soc.

Excerpt: A major step in resolving conceptual ambiguity surrounding
interactivity involves making a distinction between micro-level psychological
processes and the macro-level societal effects that emerge from them. The
proposition cuts against the epistemological grain of social sciences, such as
psychology and sociology (...). The position advanced here suggests theories
where processes operate at one level and generate effects that emerge at a
higher level. Further, it is argued that the best place to begin looking at the
process of interaction is at the level of the neural circuit, a realm far below
discussions that center at the interpersonal or cultural levels.

* Interactivity, Dynamic Symbol Processing, And The Emergence Of Content In
Human Communication, J. Newhagen , Nov.-Dec. 2004, DOI:
10.1080/01972240490508108, The Information Society
* Contributed by Pritha Das - prithadas01yahoo.com


07. Palaeontology: Leg Feathers In An Early Cretaceous Bird , Nature

Excerpts: Here we describe a fossil of an enantiornithine bird from the Early
Cretaceous period in China that has substantial plumage feathers attached to
its upper leg (tibiotarsus). The discovery could be important in view of the
relative length and aerodynamic features of these leg feathers compared with
those of the small 'four-winged' gliding dinosaur Microraptor and of the
earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx. They may be remnants of earlier long,
aerodynamic leg feathers, in keeping with the hypothesis that birds went
through a four-winged stage during the evolution of flight.

* Palaeontology: Leg Feathers In An Early Cretaceous Bird, Fucheng Zhang ,
Zhonghe Zhou , 04/10/21, DOI: 10.1038/431925a, Nature 431, 925


07.01. Early Bird: Fossil Features Hint At Go-Get-'Em Hatchlings , Science News

Excerpt: A well-preserved, 121-million-year-old fossilized bird embryo has
several features that suggest that the species' young could move about and feed
themselves very soon after they hatched.

* Early Bird: Fossil Features Hint At Go-Get-'Em Hatchlings, Science News ,


08. 'Brain' In A Dish Acts As Autopilot, Living Computer , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: (...) has grown a living "brain" that can fly a simulated plane,
giving scientists a novel way to observe how brain cells function as a network.
(...) holds a glass dish on October 12, 2004, containing a "brain" -- a living
network of 25,000 rat brain cells connected to an array of 60 electrodes that
can interact with a computer to fly a simulated F-22 fighter plane. During this
interaction, scientists can observe how the neurons communicate as a network,
and send and respond to signals from the computer and each other, in an effort
to understand and model the computational power of the brain. (...)

* 'Brain' In A Dish Acts As Autopilot, Living Computer, 2004/10/22,
ScienceDaily & University Of Florida
* Contributed by Atin Das - dasatinyahoo.co.in


08.01. Chips Coming to a Brain Near You , Wired News

Excerpts: (...) creating a silicon chip implant that mimics the hippocampus, an
area of the brain known for creating memories. If successful, the artificial
brain prosthesis could replace its biological counterpart, enabling people who
suffer from memory disorders to regain the ability to store new memories.

And it's no longer a question of "if" but "when." The six teams involved in the
multi-laboratory effort, including USC, the University of Kentucky and Wake
Forest University, have been working together on different components of the
neural prosthetic for nearly a decade.

* Chips Coming to a Brain Near You, Lakshmi Sandhana , 04/10/22, Wired News


08.02. Auras May Be Generated In The Brain , Nature News

Excerpts:     Synaesthesia can cause people to see coloured auras around
friends or loved ones. c Punchstock
Synaesthesia most probably comes from a cross-wiring in the brain. Psychologist
Simon Baron-Cohen of the University of Cambridge, UK, has suggested that it
comes about when the densely connected infant brain does not prune itself
rigorously enough as it grows. Ward suggests that the cross-wired areas in this
case are the retrosplenial cortex, which is associated with emotion, and the V4
area, which has been shown to be involved in colour perception. The two areas
are close together in the brain.

* Auras May Be Generated In The Brain, Emma Marris , 04/10/19, Nature News


09. Can Computers Untangle the Neural Net? , The Scientist

Excerpts: Computational neuroscientists are not to be confused with scientists
who treat the brain as a biological blueprint for computer prototypes (...) For
the computational neuroscientist, the computer is not a goal, but a tool to
create predictive models constrained by biology.


The result of such thinking is a field in which dozens of labs work to blend
data and theory into working models of the brain, or at least of small areas of
the brains of everything from leeches to humans.

* Can Computers Untangle the Neural Net?, Karen Heyman , 04/10/25, The
* Contributed by Hugh Trenchard - htrenchardshaw.ca


09.01. On The Trail Of An Odor Map - Nobel Winning Work Has A Way To Go , The

Excerpt: A smell can conjure intimate memories and even change behaviors. Scent
is primal, so closely related to territoriality, predation, food, and sex in
many animals, yet to most humans it seems an accessory, like a dab of perfume.
People devote much more conscious attention to vision and taste, which have
three and five receptor types, respectively. The human genome, however, has 350
intact odorant receptor genes, and other mammals have many times that amount
suggesting that olfaction plays a more profound role.

* On The Trail Of An Odor Map - Nobel Winning Work Has A Way To Go, Cathryn
Delude , 04/10/25, The Scientist


10. Malaria: A Complex New Vaccine Shows Promise , Science

Excerpts: It uses several techniques to boost the immune system's fight against
the malaria parasite. Its designers engineered a hybrid protein that combines a
protein fragment from the parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, with a piece of a
protein from the hepatitis B virus. (...) The hepatitis B protein is included
because it is particularly effective at prompting an immune response. The
vaccine also contains a powerful new adjuvant, developed by GSK Biologicals,
that increases the body's production of antibodies and T cells.

* Malaria: A Complex New Vaccine Shows Promise, Gretchen Vogel , 04/10/22,
Science: 587-589


10.01. Antibiotics: A Shot In The Arm , Nature

Excerpts: But just as we need them most, the antimicrobial drug pipeline is
running dry. Until ten years ago, all major drug companies ran antibacterial
research programmes. Today, these programmes have been drastically pruned, and
many have been cut altogether as companies pursue more lucrative areas, such as
chronic illnesses and mood disorders.

This all makes for a potential healthcare calamity. Although the number of
hospital-acquired infections has been gradually declining in the United States,
a greater proportion of them ?now about 70% ?are resistant to at least one
Editor's Note: This looks like the flu vaccine debacle was only the tip of an

* Antibiotics: A Shot In The Arm, Martin Leeb , 04/10/21, DOI: 10.1038/431892a,
Nature 431, 892 - 893


11. 11 , New Scientist

Experts: Only a current composed of entangled electrons in the superconductor
can achieve this [Meissner, Ed.] effect, Vedral says. The current halts the
photons of the magnetic field after they have travelled only a short distance
through the superconductor. For the normally massless photons it is as if they
have suddenly entered treacle, effectively giving them a mass. Vedral also
claims that a similar mechanism may be behind the mass of all particles. (...)
various forces in the universe, (...), act through "mediator" particles such
as the gluon.

* Quantum Quirk May Give Objects Mass, Michael Brooks , 04/10/24, New Scientist


11.01. Bridging Light and Matter , Science Now

Excerpts: (...) reliably transfer quantum information from matter to light. The
procedure may soon enable scientists to exploit the advantages of both matter
and light in building systems for quantum communications.

Quantum bits stored on particles of light travel well--they can zip for
kilometers down a fiber-optic cable--but they are tricky to store. Quantum bits
stored on matter "keep" for milliseconds or longer, but they're usually
confined to a trap and can't be transmitted from place to place. Now scientists
have found a way to bridge the two.

* Bridging Light and Matter, Charles Seife , 04/10/21, Science Now


11.02. Researchers Build Quantum Info Bank By Writing on the Clouds , Science

Excerpts: (...) describe how they store a quantum bit in a cloud of rubidium
atoms and induce the cloud to inscribe that information, undamaged, upon a
photon. The researchers start with two clouds of rubidium gas. By shooting a
laser through both clouds simultaneously, they force the clouds to emit a
single photon that is quantum-mechanically entangled with both of the clouds
simultaneously. (...) The entanglement links the fates of the photon and the
clouds; tweaking the photon's polarization alters the quantum state of the

* Researchers Build Quantum Info Bank By Writing on the Clouds, Charles Seife ,
04/10/22, Science: 593


12. Printers Betray Document Secrets , BBC

Excerpt:     The source of fake cash can now be spotted
That staple of crime novels - solving a case by identifying the typewriter used
to write a ransom note - is being updated for the modern day.

US scientists have discovered that every desktop printer has a signature style
that it invisibly leaves on all the documents it produces.

They have now found a way to use this to identify individual laser printers.

The work will help track down printers used to make bogus bank notes, fake
passports and other important papers.

* Printers Betray Document Secrets, 04/10/18, BBC News


13. Planet Formation Is Violent, Slow And Messy , New Scientist

Excerpt: The collisions that spawn planets are bigger and take place over
longer periods of time than previously thought, say astronomers who studied
nearly 300 stars with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The new cache of data
gives astronomers fresh hope that Earth-like planets might be common in the

Planets are thought to grow as dust collides and sometimes sticks together in
the discs around young stars. Until now, most theorists suspected the process
was relatively smooth, with dust clumps building up gradually through
successive collisions.

* Planet Formation Is Violent, Slow And Messy, Maggie McKee , 04/10/24, New


13.01. Messy Findings: Planets Encounter A Violent World , Science News

Summary: Some young planets continue to take a beating hundreds of millions of
years after they've formed.

* Messy Findings: Planets Encounter A Violent World, 04/10/23, Science News


13.02. Rebel Stars , Science Now

Excerpts:     Spinning out. Rebel stars are flung out by the galaxy's spiral
arms into streams stretching 1000 or more light-years across the Milky Way.
Credit: S. Kerroudj, B. Famaey, and A. Jorissen

Almost all the stars in the Milky Way's disk were thought to orbit in orderly,
nearly circular paths around the galaxy's core, but now astronomers find that
many of the sun's neighbors have strayed from this course. (...)

For decades, astronomers have known that a tiny percentage of stars, dubbed
"superclusters," go against the flow. These clumps of stars appeared young, as
they mainly included short-lived blue stars. (...) But in 1998, investigators
discovered evidence of far older supercluster stars that could not have formed
at the same time

* Rebel Stars, Charles Choi , 04/10/22, Science Now


14. Living Planet Report , p2pnet

Excerpt: Humans currently consume 20% more natural resources than the earth can
produce, says a new report that examines the ecological effect of modern
consumption patterns on natural resources.
  The 'ecological footprint' of a North American is eight times the size of the
average African's, and an average European draws about four times as much of
the earth's resources as the average Asian, states the WWF's 'Living Planet
Report 2004' launched in Brussels yesterday.
See Also: WWF's Living Planet Report 2004

* Living Planet Report, 2004/10/22, p2pnet
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


14.01. Water Scarcity: A Looming Crisis? , BBC News

Excerpt: A third of the world's population lives in water-stressed countries
now. By 2025, this is expected to rise to two-thirds.

* Water Scarcity: A Looming Crisis?, Alex Kirby , 2004/10/19, BBC News
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


14.02. Appreciating Ecological Complexity: Habitat Contours As A Conceptual
Landscape Model , Conserv. Biol.

Excerpts: Organisms respond to their surroundings at multiple spatial scales,
and different organisms respond differently to the same environment. Existing
landscape models (...) can be limited in their ability to explain complex
patterns for different species and across multiple scales. An alternative
approach is to conceptualize landscapes as overlaid species-specific habitat
contour maps. Key characteristics of this approach are that different species
may respond differently to the same environmental conditions and at different
spatial scales.(...) A conceptual model of habitat contours may also help to
communicate ecological complexity to land managers. (...)

* Appreciating Ecological Complexity: Habitat Contours As A Conceptual
Landscape Model, J. Fischer  , D. B. Lindenmayer  , I. Fazey , Oct. 2004,
Online 2004/09/04, DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00263.x, Conservation Biology
* Contributed by Pritha Das - prithadas01yahoo.com


14.03. Aid Agencies' Warning On Climate , BBC News

Excerpts:     The effects of global warming have been "critically overlooked"

The greenhouse effect could wreck attempts to lift the world's poorest people
out of poverty and reverse human progress, campaigners say.

A report by a coalition of environment and aid agencies calls for urgent action
to avert the threat.

The Working Group on Climate Change and Development says industrialised
countries must cut carbon emissions massively by mid-century.

They must also help developing nations adapt to climate change, it argues.

The impacts of climate change will fall disproportionately upon developing
countries and the poor

  Animated guide , Find out why the Gulf Stream might slow and how the
greenhouse effect works

* Aid Agencies' Warning On Climate, Alex Kirby , 04/10/20, BBC News


15. Life-Giving Dead Wood 'At Risk' , BBC News

Excerpt:     Decaying trees mean life (Image: WWF-Canon/Hartmut Jungius)
Many forest species are in deep trouble because of the removal of the dead and
dying trees they need, campaigners say.

WWF, the global environment group, says insects, plants, birds and mammals are
all suffering because of an increasing tendency to remove decaying timber.

It says old and dead trees mean forests are often in much better shape and more
able to resist pests and other perils.

WWF wants landowners to increase the amount of dead wood they leave in their
forests to help to sustain wildlife.

* Life-Giving Dead Wood 'At Risk', 04/10/25, BBC News


16. From a Physicist and New Nobel Winner, Some Food for Thought , NY Times

Excerpts: "The most important product of knowledge is ignorance," (...) most
enticing items that physics had learned enough to be ignorant about in 25
different areas.(...)

What is the dark matter that enfolds the visible galaxies? What is the dark
energy that seems to be accelerating the expansion of the universe? Was there a
time before the Big Bang that started the universe, or is time itself an
"emergent concept" deriving from something more fundamental that we don't know
yet? Can physicists make room-temperature superconductors?

* From a Physicist and New Nobel Winner, Some Food for Thought, Dennis Overbye
, 04/10/19, NYTimes
* AUDIO - Dr. Gross's talk


16.01. Online Search Universe Is Expanding , The Washington Post

Excerpts: But Google Desktop Search wasn't the first of its kind. Nor is Google
the only company trying to make information easier to find. Many other firms
have released new search services in the past year, with names like Blinkx,
Snap, Jux2 and Info.com. Each offers its own innovative wrinkle: Info.com lets
people run queries directly from the address line of their Web browser; Jux2
lets anyone simultaneously search two or three search services and compare
results; Snap allows sorting of results by user "popularity" and "satisfaction"
ratings, (...).

* Online Search Universe Is Expanding, Leslie Walker , 04/10/21, The Washington


17. Estimates by U.S. See More Rebels With More Funds , NY Times

Excerpts: The core Iraqi resistance numbers between 8,000 and 12,000 people,
with many more sympathizers, (...).

"What makes it more difficult is that you're dealing with an insurgency without
a single face," said a senior Army intelligence officer with nearly a year's
experience in Iraq. "It's not just one group of insurgents rallying under one
cause. It's multiple groups with different causes loosely tied together by the
threads of anti-U.S. sentiment, some sort of Iraqi nationalism, Muslim-Arab
unity or greed."

(...) "Insurgents don't show up in satellite imagery very well."

* Estimates by U.S. See More Rebels With More Funds, Eric Schmitt , Thom
Shanker , 04/10/22, NYTimes


18. Inside Election Science , NPR TOTN

Experts: With the presidential election less than two weeks away, we get an
update on the science of elections. From paper trails for touch-screen machines
to optical scans and butterfly ballots, how will technology affect the election
results? And amid charges from both sides that pollsters are manipulating the
data, we take a look at how polls are constructed, and what their results tell
us about Election Day.

* Inside Election Science, Ira Flatow , Michael Alvarez , Annalee Newitz ,
Cliff Zukin , Scott Keeter , 04/10/22, NPR TOTN


18.01. Polls, Votes, and All That... , Knowledge@Wharton

Excerpt: As the U.S. presidential election approaches in early November,
speculation runs high on whether President George W. Bush will win or lose to
John Kerry. In addition to that big question, though, the election presents
several other issues, which we examine in this special report. First,
Knowledge@Wharton looks at the credibility and methodology of polls - a subject
that could have implications for politics, but also for business forecasting,
according to Wharton faculty.

* Polls, Votes, and All That..., 04/10/20, Knowledge@Wharton


18.02. Campaign Column: Make Or Break , BBC

Excerpt: It is hard to imagine a political race with greater significance than
this one. As one of my colleagues in the American press said to me recently,
"it's only going to decide the future of the free world."

It is the first election of the post-9/11 United States. It is a referendum on
America's biggest military engagement since Vietnam and America's role in the

But for the two political parties, the result is critical to their survival.

* Campaign Column: Make Or Break, Tom Carver , 04/10/18, BBC


18.03. Electorate Is a Key Unknown , Washington Post

Excerpts: Because Bush lost the popular vote in 2000, his advisers launched an
effort to register millions of new GOP voters, calculating that, by raising the
overall GOP percentage a point or two, they could go a long way toward ensuring
the president's reelection. The Bush team concentrated efforts in heavily
Republican precincts, particularly in fast-growing exurban counties, (...)
announced that the party had achieved its goal of 3 million new registrants.

The GOP efforts, however, produced a counter effort among Democrats, fueled by
strong anti-Bush sentiment.

* Electorate Is a Key Unknown, Dan Balz , 04/10/24, Washington Post


19. Complex Challenges: Global Terroist Networks


19.01. Iraq Called 'Springboard' for Insurgency Figure , Washington Post

Excerpts: Abu Musab Zarqawi, the Jordanian militant who has become a leader in
the Iraq insurgency, is using his role to become a major figure in the broader
Islamic jihad movement, according to senior counterterrorist and intelligence
experts (...).

Although Zarqawi earlier this week pledged his loyalty and that of his
organization to Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda, "he doesn't see himself in a
subordinate role," (...). "He is using Iraq as a springboard, and he now wants
to look beyond Iraq and the region."

* Iraq Called 'Springboard' for Insurgency Figure, Walter Pincus , 04/10/21,
Washington Post


19.02. After Terror, a Secret Rewriting of Military Law , NY Times

Excerpts: The plan was considered so sensitive that senior White House
officials kept its final details hidden from the president's national security
adviser, (...). It was so urgent, some of those involved said, that they hardly
thought of consulting Congress.

(...) use of extraordinary powers would allow the Pentagon to collect crucial
intelligence and mete out swift, unmerciful justice. "We think it guarantees
that we'll have the kind of treatment of these individuals that we believe they
deserve," said Vice President Dick Cheney, who was a driving force behind the

* After Terror, a Secret Rewriting of Military Law, Tim Golden , 04/10/24,


19.03. Memo Lets CIA Take Detainees Out of Iraq , Washington Post

Excerpts: At the request of the CIA, the Justice Department drafted a
confidential memo that authorizes the agency to transfer detainees out of Iraq
for interrogation -- a practice that international legal specialists say
contravenes the Geneva Conventions.

(...) the CIA has used the March draft memo as legal support for secretly
transporting as many as a dozen detainees out of Iraq in the last six months.
The agency has concealed the detainees from the International Committee of the
Red Cross and other authorities, the official said.

* Memo Lets CIA Take Detainees Out of Iraq, Dana Priest , 04/10/24, Washington


19.04. Huge Cache of Explosives Vanished From Site in Iraq , NY Times

Experts:     A 1996 photograph of a bunker where high-density explosives were
stored at Al Qaqaa, an Iraqi military facility south of Baghdad.
The International Atomic Energy Agency publicly warned about the danger of
these explosives before the war, and after the invasion it specifically told
United States officials about the need to keep the explosives secured, European
diplomats said in interviews last week. Administration officials say they
cannot explain why the explosives were not safeguarded, beyond the fact that
the occupation force was overwhelmed by the amount of munitions they found
throughout the country.

* Huge Cache of Explosives Vanished From Site in Iraq, James Glanz , William J.
Broad , David E. Sanger , 04/10/25, NYTimes


19.05. What Happened to Missing Iraq Explosives , Guardian

Excerpts: Q. Aren't there caches of these kinds of explosives throughout the
country? Why all the fuss about this particular site?

A. Al-Qaqaa was considered the pre-eminent site in Iraq for high explosive
stockpiles. When Iraq declared the HMX, RDX and PETN after the 1991 Gulf War,
nuclear agency experts concentrated the high explosives at Al-Qaqaa so they
could be monitored, according to a nuclear agency official. However, U.S.
troops on the ground found high explosives throughout the country.

* What Happened to Missing Iraq Explosives , Christopher Chester , 04/10/27,


20. Links & Snippets


20.01. Other Publications

- Trust, commitment and team working: the paradox of virtual organizations, Alf
Crossman; Liz Lee-Kelley , October 2004, Global Networks: A Journal of
Transnational Affairs  October 2004, vol. 4, no. 4,  pp. 375-390(16, DOI: DOI
(article): 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2004.00099.x
- Locust likely to descend on West Africa again,
Andrew Gray , 18 Oct 2004 16:52:06 GMT
- Synchronization of Kuramoto oscillators in scale-free networks , Y. Moreno
and A. F. Pacheco

Departamento de Fsica Terica, Universidad de Zaragoza - Zaragoza 50009,
Spain, and Instituto de Biocomputacin y Fsica de Sistemas Complejos (BIFI)
Universidad de Zaragoza - Zaragoza 50009, Spain , published online 20 October
2004, Europhys. Lett. (2004), DOI: DOI: 10.1209/epl/i2004-10238-x
- Einstein's Warp Effect Measured, 2004/10/21, BBC News
- Dynamical Patterns of Epidemic Outbreaks in Complex Heterogeneous Networks,
Marc Barthelemy , Alain Barrat , Romualdo Pastor-Satorras , Alessandro
Vespignani , 2004/10/13, arXiv, DOI: cond-mat/0410330
- Log-Networks, P. L. Krapvisky , S. Redner , 2004/10/16, arXiv, DOI:
- Mental Tests And Fossils, R. A. Littman rlittman@darkwing.uoregon.edu ,
2004/09/17, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, DOI:
- The Affective Costs Of Overconfidence, A. P. McGraw peter.mcgraw@colorado.edu
, B. A. Mellers  , I. Ritov , Oct. 04, Online 2004/09/30, Journal of Behavioral
Decision Making, DOI: 10.1002/bdm.472
- Replication And Evolution Of Quantum Species, A. K. Pati , Sep. 2004,
Fluctuation and Noise Letters, DOI: 10.1142/S0219477504002014
- Property Rights And Free Speech: Allies Or Enemies?, J. W. Ely Jr. , Jul.
2004, Online 2004/06/04, Social Philosophy and Policy, DOI:
- Agent-Based Web Services Framework And Development Environment, Y. Li  , W.
Shen  , H. Ghenniw , Nov. 2004, Computational Intelligence, DOI:
- Einstein A to Z by Karen C. Fox & Aries Keck, John Wiley & Sons, NJ, Sep.
2004, Price $17.95, Reviewed by A. Das , 2004/10/01, John Wiley & Sons
- Partnership Status And The Human Sex Ratio At Birth, K. Norberg , 2004/10/18,
Alphagalileo & Proc. B (Biological Sciences)
- Movies In Your Pocket, S. Geyersberger amm_info@iis.fraunhofer.de ,
2004/10/20, Alphagalileo & Fraunhofer Institut fr Integrierte Schaltungen
- FDA Approves Temporary Artificial Heart, 2004/10/19, ScienceDaily & U.S. Food
And Drug Administration
- Latin America Shows Rapid Rise In Published Science And Engineering Articles,
2004/10/22, ScienceDaily & National Science Foundation
- Researcher Show How False Memories Are Formed, 2004/10/22, ScienceDaily &
Northwestern University
- North-South Trade In Intellectual Property: Can It Be Fair?, C. Cannady ,
Jul. 2004, Online 2004/08/24, World Trade Review, DOI:
- Modelling Low Income Transitions, L. Cappellari
lorenzo.cappellari@eco.unipmn.it , S. P. Jenkins , Sep.-Oct. 2004, Online
2004/09/28, Journal of Applied Econometrics, DOI: 10.1002/jae.778
- Explaining The Commercialization Of The Internet, J. Dolmas  , G. W. Huffman
, Mar. 2004, Information, Communication & Society, DOI:
- International Differences In Information Privacy Concerns: A Global Survey Of
Consumers, S. Bellman  , E. Johnson  , S. Kobrin  , G. Lohse , Nov.-Dec. 2004,
The Information Society, DOI: 10.1080/01972240490507956
- Spinning Earth twists space, Mark Peplow , 04/10/20,     Einstein predicted
that the Earth would warp space as it rotates. c Punchstock    Laser
measurements confirm Einstein's general theory of relativity. Nature News
- Iraqi Faults U.N. on Lack of Staff to Aid in Voting, Dexter Filkins , Warren
Hoge , 04/10/21, NYTimes, The U.N. has not sent enough election workers to help
monitor elections scheduled for January, Iraq's foreign minister charged.
- Robertson Says Bush Predicted No Iraq Toll, David D. Kirkpatrick , 04/10/21,
NYTimes, The broadcaster Pat Robertson set off a partisan fight by recounting
that President Bush had assured him "we're not going to have any casualties" in
the Iraq invasion.
- Casualties of Faith, Maureen Dowd , 04/10/21, NYTimes, President Bush's
willful blindness in many of his decisions comes from mistakenly assuming that
his desires are God's.
- Pentagon Reportedly Skewed C.I.A.'s View of Qaeda Tie, Douglas Jehl ,
04/10/22, NYTimes, A top Defense Department official misrepresented to Congress
the view of U.S. intelligence agencies about the relationship between Iraq and
Al Qaeda, according to a new report.
- Iran's Nuclear Threat, 04/10/22, NYTimes, America and the European powers
need to make it clear that they are serious and united about imposing stern
sanctions if Iran won't abandon its nuclear fuel enrichment.
- Rethinking Texas's Redistricting, 04/10/22, NYTimes, The lower court
reviewing the Texas redistricting case will have an opportunity to start
drawing a reasonable line for when partisan line-drawing has gone too far.
- Complete Human Genome Sequence Unveiled, Ira Flatow , Dale Sandler , Francis
Collins , Evan Eichler , Eddy Rubin , 04/10/22, NPR TOTN, This week, scientists
unveiled the completed sequence of the human genome. In this hour, it's a
genetics update. Now that we have all the building blocks of a human being,
what do we do with that information? How will understanding the human genome
change human health and disease?
- GENETICS: The Critical Region in Trisomy 21, David L. Nelson  , Richard A.
Gibbs , 04/10/22, Science : 619-621
- Home Phones Face Uncertain Future, 04/10/22, BBC News, The fixed line phone
in the home could soon disappear, a study by mobile firm Nokia shows.
- US Election And Foreign Policy, 04/10/22, BBC News
- China Takes Place On World Stage, Tim Luard , 04/10/21, BBC
- Species Abundance Patterns in Complex Evolutionary Dynamics, Kei Tokita ,
04/10/22, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 178102
- No Direct Evidence of Elections Attack Plot, Dan Eggen  , Barton Gellman ,
04/10/23, The Washington Post, Authorities also say that a key CIA source who
had claimed knowledge of such plans has been discredited, casting doubt on one
of the earliest pieces of evidence pointing to a possible attack.
- How Autumn Leaves Get a Lift, Adrian Cho , 04/10/22, Science Now, A new
analysis explains why falling leaves flutter and move upward in still air
- Satellites Spy Earth's Relativistic Wake, Charles Seife , 04/10/20, Science
Now, New observations nail down a subtle twist of general relativity
- Fossil Sea Spider Goes Digital, Sean Bruich , 04/10/20, Science Now, 3D
imaging helps scientists trace the strange creature's evolutionary history
- Fastest Gun in the Sea, David Grimm , 04/10/19,     Quick draw. The
fish-hunting cone snail fires a harpoon-shaped tooth from its proboscis (inset)
to capture prey. Credit: Joseph Schulz    Fish-hunting cone snail uses unique
mechanism to capture prey. Science Now
- How to Skew Intelligence, 04/10/23, NYTimes
- Scientists Vow To Vote Out Bush, Eugene Russo , 04/10/20, The Scientist,
Still, despite press coverage of vocal opponents, there are Bush supporters
among scientists
- The Science of Changing Leaves, 04/10/23, NPR, For much of America, this
weekend marks the final spectacle of autumn leaves. NPR's Scott Simon talks
with color scout Ed Hepborn in Lisle, Ill., about what causes leaves to change
colors and what is significant about this fall.
- Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education, an
international, peer-reviewed journal that publishes scholarly and original
research linking complexity and related theories to the field of education at
all levels.
- Identities Stolen in Seconds, Timothy L. O'brien , 04/10/24, NYTimes
- Bush, Kerry Take Different Tacks To Cut Dependence on Foreign Oil, Justin
Blum , 04/10/24, Washington Post
- Physiology: Joint approach, Amanda Tromans , 04/10/21, Nature 431, 921, DOI:
- Neural Correlates Of Mental Rehearsal In Dorsal Premotor Cortex, Paul Cisek ,
John F. Kalaska , 04/10/21, Nature 431, 993 - 996, DOI: 10.1038/nature03005
- Metabolic Defects Tied to Mitochondrial Gene, 04/10/22, Science : 592-593
- Green Red-Alert: Plant Fights Invaders With Animal-Like Trick, 04/10/23,
Science News, Mustard plants' immune systems can react to traces of bacteria
with a burst of nitric oxide, much as an animal's immune system does.
- Microbes Make The Switch: Tailored Bacteria Need Caffeine Product To Survive,
04/10/23, Science News, Bacteria that rely on a chemical derived from the
breakdown of caffeine for their survival could help lead to the development of
decaffeinated coffee plants.
- Chimps Show Skill In Termite Fishing, 04/10/23, Science News, Video cameras
set up in a central-African forest have recorded the sophisticated ways in
which local chimpanzees catch termites for eating
- Dancing The Heat Away, 04/10/23, Science News, By laser-zapping nanocapsules
of water, scientists find that the specific molecular motions caused by the
excitation, not just simple heat diffusion, determine how energy and heat flow
through such minuscule structures.
- Bees 'Hold Key To Alcohol Misuse', 04/10/23,     Bees react to alcohol in a
similar way to humans    BBC News


20.02. Webcast Announcements

  ALife 9: Ninth International Conference on Artificial Life, Boston, MA,

The 4th Intl Workshop on Meta-synthesis and Complex System, Beijing, China,

Intl Conf on Complex Networks: Structure, Function and Processes, Kolkata,
India, 04/06/27-30

 From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela
(1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20

ECC8 Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,

Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium,

International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21

Life, a Nobel Story, Brussels, Belgium, 04/04/28

Nonlinear Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics Days, Brussels, Belgium,

Science Education Forum for Chinese Language Culture, Panel Discussion, Taipei,
Taiwan, 04/05/01

Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology, ,
Lausanne,Switzerland, 04/01/29-30

Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H.,
Internet-First University Press, 1994

World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland   Riding the Next Democratic
Wave, Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic
Forum, 04/01/25
  The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan,
Martin, Schwab, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25  Why Victory Against Terrorism
Demands Shared Values

  CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And
Intelligent Systems, 2004 Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10 EVOLVABILITY &
INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of Communication, Signaling, and
Perception in the Dynamics of Social Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10 The
Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and Practicalities,
Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on
Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany, 03/09/14-17 New Santa Fe Institute
President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role, (Video, Santa Fe, NM,
03/06/04) SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM,
2003/06/01-04 NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio
Report, 03/05/11 13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life
Sciences, Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10 CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos
of Archived Lectures and Live Events Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video
Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998 Edge Videos


20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

  Social and Organizational Innovation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 04/10/25-27

  6th Intl Conf on Electronic Commerce
ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape,  Delft, The Netherlands,

   Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio de Janeiro,

ICDM '04: The Fourth IEEE Intl Conf on Data Mining, Brighton, UK, 04/11/01-04

International Congress of Nanotechnology and Nano World Expo,San Francisco, CA,

Denaturing Darwin: International Conference on Evolution and Organization
, Amersfoort, The Netherlands, 04/11/12-14

An Introduction to Complexity Science, Rockville,?MD USA, 04/12/06

Improving Health of the Chronically Ill: Insights from Complexity Science,
Rockville,?MD USA, 04/12/07-08

  The 7th Asia-Pacific Complex Systems Conference,  Queensland, Australia,

  17th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,  Queensland,
Australia, 04/12/06-10

Cellular Computing Symposium, U Warwick
(UK), 04/12/09-10

  International Conference On Computational Intelligence (Icci 2004) ,
Istanbul, Turkey, 04/12/15-17

  Kondratieff Waves, Warfare And World Security, NATO Advanced Research
, Covilh? Portugal, 05/02/14-17

   2005 Meeting Arbeitskreis
Physik sozio-ökonomischer Systeme, AKSOE (Socio-Economic-Physics), Physik seit
Berlin, Germany, 05/03/04-09

5th Creativity And Cognition Conference, London.UK, 05/04/12-15

Social Intelligence and Interaction in Animals, Robots and Agents, Hatfield,
UK, 05/04/12-15

  2ndShanghai Intl Symposium on Nonlinear Science and Applications, Shanghai,

IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium
Pasadena, California, USA, 05/06/08-10

  Powders & Grains 2005, Stuttgart, Germany, 05/06/18-22

  Workshop on Complexity and Policy Analysis, Cork, Ireland, 05/06/22-24

  ECAL 2005 - VIIIth European Conference on Artificial Life, Canterbury, Kent,
UK, 05/09/05-09

  Complexity, Science and Society Conf 2005, Liverpool, UK, 05/09/11-14

18th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2005), Salamanca,
Spain, 05/09/19-23

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