ժNO2004.38


Complexity Digest 2004.38 20 Sept 2004

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
Mirror: http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think
the next century will be the century of complexity." Stephen Hawking

_________________________________________________________________
Complexity Digest Virtual Conference Network



  Ninth International Conference on Artificial Life (ALife 9), Boston, MA,
04/09/12-15



http://www.comdig2.de/Conf/ALife9/
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Content:

01. Connecting Science And Global Security, AAAS News Release
01.01. Societal Complexity And Diminishing Returns In Security, Int. Security
01.02. Knowledge As Power: Science, Military Dominance, And U.S. Security, Int.
Security
02. Let a Thousand Ideas Flower: China Is a New Hotbed of Research, NY Times
03. Primary State Formation In Mesoamerica, Annual Review of Anthropology
04. Early Brain Growth In Homo Erectus And Implications For Cognitive Ability,
Nature
04.01. The Beginning of Violence, Science Now
04.02. Humans Not Irrational, Just Wary, ScienceDaily
05. The Body Beautiful: Symbolism and Agency in the Social World, Annual Review
of Anthropology
05.01. Anthropological Perspectives on Clothing, Fashion, and Culture, Annual
Review of Anthropology
06. Music And The Global Order, Annual Review of Anthropology
06.01. Musical Training Enhances Automatic Encoding Of Melodic Contour, J.
Cognitive Neurosc.
06.02. From Visualizing To Proving, Teaching Math. & its Appl.
07. Kids Create New Sign Language, BBC News
07.01. New Sign Language, NPR TOTN
07.02. Children Creating Core Properties of Language, Science
07.03. Language Birth And Death, Annual Review of Anthropology
08. How Would You Feel Versus How Do You Think She Would Feel?, J. Cognitive
Neurosc.
08.01. Talk And Interaction Among Children, Annual Review of Anthropology
09. Novel Mating Strategy: Males Pirate And Fertilize Egg Clutches,
ScienceDaily
09.01. Post-Mating Clutch Piracy In An Amphibian, Nature
10. Circadian Rhythms In Microorganisms: New Complexities, Annual Review of
Microbiology
10.01. Transmission Rates And Adaptive Evolution Of Pathogens In Plant
Populations, Alphagalileo & Proc. B
10.02. Adaptive Changes May Provide Insight Into The Genetics Of Complex
Disease, ScienceDaily
10.03. Physical Chemistry: Quantum Mechanics For Plants, Nature
11. Enter Transfer RNA, Nature
11.01. RNA Interference, Nature
11.02. Unlocking The Potential Of The Human Genome With RNA Interference,
Nature
12. A Swell Idea for a Warmer Wetsuit, Science Now
12.01. To Throw Farther, Waste Some Energy, Science Now
13. Extreme Impersonations, Science News
14. Games Blur News And Entertainment, BBC News
14.01. Game Sequel Takes Leaps In AI Technology, Mercury News
14.02. They're Robots? Those Beasts!, NYTimes
15. Test of Missile Defense System Delayed Again, Washington Post
16. Middle Miocene Southern Ocean Cooling and Antarctic Cryosphere Expansion,
Science
16.01. OPEC to Put Formal Lifting of Output on the Table, NY Times
17. Ready or Not (and Maybe Not), Electronic Voting Goes National, NY Times
17.01. Custody of Voting Machine Argued in Montgomery Court, Washington Post
18. Amazon to Take Searches on Web to a New Depth, NY Times
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terroist Networks
19.01. Back to the U.S.S.R., Christian Science Monitor
19.02. A Response to Russia, Washington Post
19.03. Bush Concern At Afghan Drug Boom, BBC News
19.04. Iraq War Illegal, Says Annan, BBC News
19.05. Powell Rebukes Annan On Iraq, Washington Post
19.06. Saudis Take a Small Dose of Democracy, Washington Post
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

_________________________________________________________________

01. Connecting Science And Global Security , AAAS News Release

Excerpt: Ever since September 11, 2001, security issues have topped the
American policy agenda. A critical facet of security policy is the availability
of accurate technical information ?along with means of transferring that
information reliably from the laboratory to policy makers. To facilitate that
type of transfer, the American Association for the Advancement of Science has
created the AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy.(...)

e want to facilitate the process of getting objective science and technology
considerations fully encompassed in the policy process, (...).?[Dr. Norman
Neureiter]

* Sci-Tech Supports the Cause of Security, Peter Gwynne , 04/09/15, AAAS News
Release


_________________________________________________________________

01.01. Societal Complexity And Diminishing Returns In Security , Int. Security

Excerpts: (...) There has been little effort, however, to approach the problems
that complexity poses for security in a comprehensive way, though this is not
to say that work applicable to such a purpose has failed to appear. (...) This
article argues that security is becoming an area of diminishing returns to
complexity for today's advanced societies because of the diminishing returns
from investments in complexity in general, the risks posed by the
interconnections this growing complexity creates, and the rising cost of
security forces. (...) According to one definition, complexity refers to
"asymmetric relationships that reflect organization and restraint" between the
parts of a system.(...)

* Societal Complexity And Diminishing Returns In Security, N. Elhefnawy ,
Summer 2004, International Security
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

01.02. Knowledge As Power: Science, Military Dominance, And U.S. Security ,
Int. Security

Excerpts: Can the United States maintain its global lead in science, the new
key to its recently unparalleled military dominance? U.S scientific prowess has
become the deep foundation of U.S. military hegemony. U.S. weapons systems
currently dominate the conventional battlefield because they incorporate
powerful technologies available only from scientifically dominant U.S. weapons
laboratories. Yet under conditions of globalization, scientific and technical
(S&T) knowledge is now spreading more quickly and more widely, suggesting that
hegemony in this area might be difficult for any one country to maintain. Is
the scientific hegemony that lies beneath U.S. weapons dominance strong and
durable, or only weak and temporary? (...)

* Knowledge As Power: Science, Military Dominance, And U.S. Security, R. L.
Paarlberg , Summer 2004, International Security
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

02. Let a Thousand Ideas Flower: China Is a New Hotbed of Research , NY Times

Excerpt: "The Chinese are going to become sources of innovation,'' said Denis
Fred Simon, a specialist in Chinese science and technology who is provost of
the new graduate-level Levin Institute of the State University of New York.
"They will find themselves enmeshed in global R.& D. more and more.''

The starting point for this research boom is China's growing importance and
sophistication as a market for technology, especially telecommunications and
the Internet, (...).

"People realize that with the expansion of China's market they need to tailor
products to the China market,"(...).

* Let a Thousand Ideas Flower: China Is a New Hotbed of Research, Chris Buckley
  , 04/09/13, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

03. Primary State Formation In Mesoamerica , Annual Review of Anthropology

Abstract: In this review, we examine the earliest states in Mesoamerica and how
they developed. We present a definition of the state and explain why
first-generation or primary states have special significance in anthropology
and archaeology; we also discuss how anthropological archaeologists can detect
the emergence of state organization in the archaeological record. We review the
archaeological data bearing on early state formation in Oaxaca, the Southern
Gulf Coast, the Southeastern Lowlands, and the Basin of Mexico. Although we
acknowledge that more data are needed from all regions, we conclude that Oaxaca
currently provides the most compelling evidence of primary state formation in
Mesoamerica.

* Primary State Formation In Mesoamerica, Charles S. Spencer , Elsa M. Redmond
, Annual Review of Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 173 - 199


_________________________________________________________________

04. Early Brain Growth In Homo Erectus And Implications For Cognitive Ability ,
Nature

Excerpt: An adaptive solution has been reached by giving birth to offspring
with relatively small brains compared with adult brain size. Whereas Macaca
newborns display an endocranial volume equivalent to 70% of adult size1, the
modern human brain represents only 25% of its adult size at birth and continues
to grow at its fast fetal rate during the first year of life. At 1 yr of age
the human brain is 50% of its adult size and at 10 yr 95% of the adult brain
size is achieved.

* Early Brain Growth In Homo Erectus And Implications For Cognitive Ability, H.
Coqueugniot , J.-J. Hublin , F. Veillon , F. Hou  & T. Jacob , 04/09/16, DOI:
10.1038/nature02852, Nature 431, 299 - 302


_________________________________________________________________

04.01. The Beginning of Violence , Science Now

Excerpt:


Sign of foul play. A projectile point (arrow) in a vertebra of an ancient
skeleton hints at an early start to human violence.

Credit: Fanny Bocquentin/Journal Of Human Evolution




Anthropologists and archaeologists have long suspected that social tensions
began to arise after the advent of settled life, when hunter-gatherers formed
close-knit communities and eventually took up farming. Yet evidence for this
hypothesis has been lacking. The best-studied early sedentary peoples, the
Natufians--who occupied parts of present-day Israel beginning about 14,500
years ago--were thought (...) to have been fairly peaceful.


Now a study of one of the richest collections of Natufian skeletons, from
Kebara Cave on Mount Carmel, has turned up fresh evidence of violence among
these early settlers.

* The Beginning of Violence, Michael Balter  , 04/09/15, Science Now


_________________________________________________________________

04.02. Humans Not Irrational, Just Wary , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Psychologists often conclude from research subjects' behavior in
psychological experiments that humans are irrational. New research indicates
that humans are in fact quite rational; they just do not trust what people in
lab coats tell them. (...) by taking doubt into account, psychologists have the
opportunity to strengthen the predictive power of many commonly used models and
potentially better understand human behavior. "It may be that subjects are
responding in a perfectly adaptive way if you see it through their eyes: this
strange experience of walking into a laboratory and meeting someone who tells
them to do something they've never done before," (...).

* Humans Not Irrational, Just Wary, 2004/09/17, ScienceDaily & Vanderbilt
University
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

05. The Body Beautiful: Symbolism and Agency in the Social World , Annual
Review of Anthropology

Excerpt: The prominence of the body in popular culture has prompted intense
academic interest in recent decades. Seeking to overturn a naturalistic
approach to the body as a biological given, this broad literature redefines the
body as a sociocultural and historical phenomenon. Within anthropology, two
primary theoretical orientations toward the body have emerged: the body as
"symbol" and the body as "agent." (...) The review explores also the body
beautiful as a primary site for the construction and performance of gender, and
specifically of femininity, (...).

* The Body Beautiful: Symbolism and Agency in the Social World, Erica Reischer
, Kathryn S. Koo
, Annual Review of Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 297 - 317



_________________________________________________________________

05.01. Anthropological Perspectives on Clothing, Fashion, and Culture , Annual
Review of Anthropology

Excerpts: Clothing research has attracted renewed interest in anthropology over
the past two decades, experiencing a florescence that had been kept within
bounds by reigning theoretical paradigms. (...) The most noticeable trend is a
preoccupation with agency, practice, and performance that considers the dressed
body as both subject in, and object of, dress practice. The turn to consumption
as a site and process of meaning making is evident also in clothing research.
Dress has been analyzed, by and large, as representing something else rather
than something in its own right, (...).

* Anthropological Perspectives on Clothing, Fashion, and Culture, Karen
Tranberg Hansen  , Annual Review of Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 369 - 392


_________________________________________________________________

06. Music And The Global Order , Annual Review of Anthropology

Excerpt: The review explores these processes with reference to an
anthropological and ethnomusicological account of globalization that has
gathered pace over the last decade. It outlines some of the main ethnographic
and historical modes of engagement with persistent neoliberal and other music
industryinspired global myth making (particularly that associated with world
music), and argues for an approach to musical globalization that contextualizes
those genres, styles, and practices that circulate across cultural borders in
specific institutional sites and histories.

* Music And The Global Order, Martin Stokes  , 04/10, Annual Review of
Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 47 - 72


_________________________________________________________________

06.01. Musical Training Enhances Automatic Encoding Of Melodic Contour , J.
Cognitive Neurosc.

Excerpts: In music, melodic information is thought to be encoded in two forms,
a contour code (up/down pattern of pitch changes) and an interval code (pitch
distances between successive notes). A recent study (...) demonstrated that
people with no formal music education process both contour and interval
information in the auditory cortex automatically. However, it is still unclear
whether musical experience enhances both strategies of melodic encoding. We
designed stimuli to examine contour and interval information separately. (...)
The results suggest that musical training enhances the ability to automatically
register abstract changes in the relative pitch structure of melodies.

* Musical Training Enhances Automatic Encoding Of Melodic Contour And Interval
Structure, T. Fujioka  , L. J. Trainor  , B. Ross  , R. Kakigi  , C. Pantev ,
Jul.-Aug. 2004, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
* Contributed by Pritha Das


_________________________________________________________________

06.02. From Visualizing To Proving , Teaching Math. & its Appl.

Excerpts: The benefits of visualizing mathematics by using technology (...) are
indisputable. On the basis of some examples we would like to show that
visualizing techniques can help students to analyse certain mathematical
problems better and give them strong support in finding formal proofs for
considered problems. We present some tasks taken from school algebra, geometry
and probability; for these problems it is easier for students to pass the
bridge between visual and formal solutions. We conclude that the role of
technology is essential in building up associations between graphs, drawings
and other tools used for the formal proofs.

* From Visualizing To Proving, P. Zarzycki , Sep. 2004, Teaching Mathematics
and its Applications
* Contributed by Pritha Das


_________________________________________________________________

07. Kids Create New Sign Language , BBC News

Excerpt:


Some language rules may be innate



A new sign language created over the last 30 years by deaf children in
Nicaragua has given experts a unique insight into how languages evolve.

The language follows many basic rules common to all tongues, even though the
children were not taught them.

It indicates some language traits are not passed on by culture, but instead
arise due to the innate way human beings process language, experts claim.
(...)

"It shows that children have sophisticated mechanisms of language analysis
which give language many of its distinctive qualities."

* Kids Create New Sign Language, Julianna Kettlewell  , 04/09/16, BBC New


_________________________________________________________________

07.01. New Sign Language , NPR TOTN

Excerpt: We consider a new language invented by deaf children in Nicaragua, and
how scientists are able to see the language evolving.

* New Sign Language , 04/09/17, NPR TOTN


_________________________________________________________________

07.02. Children Creating Core Properties of Language , Science

Excerpts: A new sign language has been created by deaf Nicaraguans over the
past 25 years, providing an opportunity to observe the inception of universal
hallmarks of language. We found that in their initial creation of the language,
children analyzed complex events into basic elements and sequenced these
elements into hierarchically structured expressions according to principles not
observed in gestures accompanying speech in the surrounding language.(...)
Thus, children naturally possess learning abilities capable of giving language
its fundamental structure.

* Children Creating Core Properties of Language, Ann Senghas , Sotaro Kita ,
Asli y ek  , 04/09/17, Science : 1779-1782
* VIDEO - Video


_________________________________________________________________

07.03. Language Birth And Death , Annual Review of Anthropology

Excerpt: Since the late 1980s, language endangerment and death have been
discussed as if the phenomena had no connection at all with language birth.
More recently the phenomena have been associated almost exclusively with the
intense and pervasive economic globalization of same period, a process that
some authors have reduced too easily to the McDonaldization phenomenon.
Moreover, the relation of globalization to different forms of colonization has
been poorly articulated. (...) give some broader perspective on the mechanisms
of language birth and death (...).

* Language Birth And Death, Salikoko S. Mufwene  , Annual Review of
Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 201 - 222


_________________________________________________________________

08. How Would You Feel Versus How Do You Think She Would Feel? , J. Cognitive
Neurosc.

Excerpts: Perspective-taking is a complex cognitive process involved in social
cognition. This (...) study investigated by means of a factorial design the
interaction between the emotional and the perspective factors. Participants
were asked to adopt either their own (first person) perspective or the (third
person) perspective of their mothers in response to situations involving social
emotions or to neutral situations. (...) These results support our prediction
that the frontopolar, the somatosensory cortex, and the right inferior parietal
lobe are crucial in the process of self/ other distinction. In addition, this
study provides important building blocks in our understanding of social emotion
processing and human empathy.

* How Would You Feel Versus How Do You Think She Would Feel? A Neuroimaging
Study Of Perspective Taking With Social Emotions, P. Ruby  , J. Decety ,
Jul.-Aug. 2004, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
* Contributed by Pritha Das


_________________________________________________________________

08.01. Talk And Interaction Among Children , Annual Review of Anthropology

Excerpt: According to recent interpretive approaches to the study of children's
socialization, meaning creation is an active process by which children
playfully transform and actively resist cultural categories, and where language
is viewed as social action that helps shape reality (...). Four ways in which
children's peer talk establishes and maintains peer culture are considered: (a)
how children elaborate games and codes (and ritualize the basis of inclusion in
the peer group) through peer talk, (b) how conflict talk functions to elaborate
peer culture, (c) how identities as peer group phenomena are talked into being
through peer talk, and (d) how adult culture is resisted through peer talk.

* Talk And Interaction Among Children, Amy Kyratzis , Annual Review of
Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 625 - 649


_________________________________________________________________

09. Novel Mating Strategy: Males Pirate And Fertilize Egg Clutches ,
ScienceDaily

Excerpts: (...) The European common frog, Rana temporaria, has long been
thought to have a straightforward breeding strategy - one lucky male grabs the
female and fertilizes her eggs as soon as she releases them into the water.
(...) so many males are vying for fatherhood that they pirate the egg clutches
after they're laid. Grasping them as they would a female, they release sperm in
the floating clutches, often successfully fertilizing the eggs left
unfertilized after the initial encounter. (...) "Because of a population excess
of males, the males found a system to reproduce without the female."

* European Common Frog Found To Use Novel Mating Strategy: Males Pirate And
Fertilize Egg Clutches, 2004/09/16, ScienceDaily & University Of California -
Berkeley
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

09.01. Post-Mating Clutch Piracy In An Amphibian , Nature

Excerpt: 'Pirate' males search for freshly laid clutches, clasp them as they
would do a female and fertilize the eggs that were left unfertilized by the
'parental' male.

* Post-Mating Clutch Piracy In An Amphibian, David R. Vieites , Sandra
Nieto-Rom  , Marta Barluenga , Antonio Palanca , Miguel Vences  , Axel Meyer
, 04/09/16, DOI: 10.1038/nature02879, Nature 431, 305 - 308


_________________________________________________________________

10. Circadian Rhythms In Microorganisms: New Complexities , Annual Review of
Microbiology

Excerpt: Recent advances in understanding circadian (daily) rhythms in the
genera Neurospora, Gonyaulax, and Synechococcus are reviewed and new
complexities in their circadian systems are described. The previous model,
consisting of a unidirectional flow of information from input to oscillator to
output, has now expanded to include multiple input pathways, multiple
oscillators, multiple outputs; and feedback from oscillator to input and output
to oscillator.(...)
Mathematical models of the Neurospora system are also discussed

* Circadian Rhythms In Microorganisms: New Complexities , Patricia L.
Lakin-Thomas , Stuart Brody  , Annual Review of Microbiology; Volume 58, Page
489 - 519


_________________________________________________________________

10.01. Transmission Rates And Adaptive Evolution Of Pathogens In Plant
Populations , Alphagalileo & Proc. B

Abstract: In order to design successful strategies to control plant diseases,
it is important to understand the effects of agricultural practices on the
evolution and diversity of pathogens. To achieve this we developed and analysed
a mathematical model for evolution of a pathogen exposed to two host plants. We
assumed that an increase in the ability to transmit infection on one host
invokes a fitness cost that decreases the ability to transmit infection of the
other. Our results show that the nature of this relationship has a strong
impact on the evolution of diversity within pathogens and the range of hosts
they can infect.

* Transmission Rates And Adaptive Evolution Of Pathogens In Heterogeneous Plant
Populations, I. Gudelj  , F. Van den Bosch  , C. A. Gilligan , 2004/09/13,
Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

10.02. Adaptive Changes May Provide Insight Into The Genetics Of Complex
Disease , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: One of the most comprehensive studies of the forces that have shaped
patterns of human genetic variation has found strong evidence for the action of
natural selection, which may help explain why certain people are at risk for a
variety of conditions and others are not. (...) For the paper, researchers
studied the molecular evolution of 132 genes by comprehensively resequencing
them in 24 African-Americans and 23 European-Americans. The results showed
strong evidence for natural selection at eight genes in the European-American
population, likely explained by the different environmental conditions people
encountered as they moved into Europe sometime between 25,000 to 50,000 years
ago. (...)

* Adaptive Changes In The Genome May Provide Insight Into The Genetics Of
Complex Disease, 2004/09/14, ScienceDaily & University Of Washington
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

10.03. Physical Chemistry: Quantum Mechanics For Plants , Nature

Excerpt: To what extent do photosynthetic organisms use quantum mechanics to
optimize the capture and distribution of light? Answers are emerging from the
examination of energy transfer at the submolecular scale. (...)

Plants use solar antennae to capture incident photons and transmit the
excitation energy to reaction centres, where it is used to initiate the primary
electron transfer reactions of photosynthesis. These antennae are one of
nature's supreme examples of nanoscale engineering, and are constructed from
specialized light-harvesting complexes (...). Photon collection involves up to
several hundred light-absorbing molecules, (...).

* Physical Chemistry: Quantum Mechanics For Plants, Graham R. Fleming ,
Gregory D. Scholes  , 04/09/16, DOI: 10.1038/431256a, Nature 431, 256 - 257


_________________________________________________________________

11. Enter Transfer RNA , Nature

Excerpt: By the 1950s, scientists generally assumed that converting genetic
information into the substance of life was a matter of translation. A DNA
sequence, made from a combination of four kinds of nucleotides, was translated
into a protein sequence, which was made from a combination of twenty kinds of
amino acids. But how did this translation occur, and what machinery was
involved? (...)

How the answers were found includes an unexpected subplot that involves the
joining of two groups of scientists with very different backgrounds and
interests ?biochemists and molecular biologists.

* Enter Transfer RNA, Mahlon Hoagland  , 04/09/16, DOI: 10.1038/431249a, Nature
431, 249


_________________________________________________________________

11.01. RNA Interference , Nature

Excerpts: The most familiar role for RNA is as a relatively passive
intermediary in the translation of information from genes into proteins. But
other functions for this versatile molecule have been emerging. This Insight
explores the surprising recent discovery that RNA can actively regulate gene
expression.

RNA interference or RNAi is a remarkable process whereby small noncoding RNAs
silence specific genes.(...)
Small RNAs termed microRNAs regulate gene expression in organisms ranging from
nematode to man.
(...), and even shows therapeutic potential.

* RNA Interference, Alex Eccleston , Angela K Eggleston  , 04/09/16, DOI:
10.1038/431337a, Nature 431, 337


_________________________________________________________________

11.02. Unlocking The Potential Of The Human Genome With RNA Interference ,
Nature

Excerpts: In a remarkably short time since its discovery in model organisms,
the RNAi pathway has emerged as a powerful tool for the study of gene function
in mammals. (...) it seems likely that RNAi will find a place (...) in the
treatment of diseases, although it is unclear how long we will have to wait to
witness the first RNAi-based drug. The big question is whether RNAi can
revolutionize the treatment of human disease in the same way that it has
revolutionized basic research into gene function.

* Unlocking The Potential Of The Human Genome With RNA Interference , Gregory
J. Hannon , John J. Rossi  , 04/09/16, DOI: 10.1038/nature02870, Nature 431,
371 - 378


_________________________________________________________________

12. A Swell Idea for a Warmer Wetsuit , Science Now

Excerpt:


Outdated. Tomorrow's wetsuits may adapt to keep divers comfortable in a range
of water temperatures.

CREDIT: DALE SHECKLER




Designed for commandos, a new wetsuit automatically adjusts to keep divers
warmer in cold water.


(...), the new high-tech suit shuts off the flow of water when it gets cold by
swelling (...). The key to the suit is a new material called SmartSkin, (...).
Between two protective layers of fabric lie an outer layer of
neoprene?...)--and an inner layer of urethane foam. The foam is impregnated
with a polymer called a "hydrogel" that can absorb many times its original
volume of water.

* A Swell Idea for a Warmer Wetsuit, Adrian Cho  , 04/09/17, Science Now


_________________________________________________________________

12.01. To Throw Farther, Waste Some Energy , Science Now

Excerpt:


Go deep. A bit of wasted energy may help a quarterback's arm achieve the
optimal angle and speed for long passes.

Credit: Corbis


In throwing and other physical activities, the first step forward is often a
step back. For example, to jump straight up, a person first crouches toward the
ground. The body briefly continues to move downward even after the muscles in
the legs and torso begin to pull it upward, and when moving one way and pulling
the other, the body does mechanical work against itself and wastes energy.
Similarly, in throwing, the forearm momentarily moves backward even as the
upper arm pulls it forward, again squandering energy. Biomechanicists have
proposed various explanations for such "countermotion.

* To Throw Farther, Waste Some Energy, Adrian Cho  , 04/09/14, Science Now


_________________________________________________________________

13. Extreme Impersonations , Science News

Excerpt:


Quantum Jostling. Atoms of a confined, ordinary gas don't collide much after
the gas expands. However, when a trapped gas of strongly interacting, fermionic
atoms is released, the atoms themselves effectively grow in size. Sustained
jostling and pressure among those ballooning atoms can cause telltale, lopsided
gas expansion.

E. Roell




Extreme physical conditions have a way of bringing out the strangest behaviors
that nature can muster. (...) They were manipulating tiny clouds of lithium
gas. When the scientists turned off the lasers, peculiar things began to
happen. At first, the microscopic puff of lithium billowed out of the spot
where the lasers had held it. But then, instead of expanding evenly in all
directions, as any normal gas would, the lithium cloud morphed into a pancake.

* Extreme Impersonations, Peter Weiss  , 04/09/18, Science News


_________________________________________________________________

14. Games Blur News And Entertainment , BBC News

Excerpt:


September 12th looks like a shooting game


Some game developers are trying to get players to expand their horizons by
reflecting on news events in computer games. (...)

The game has some straightforward instructions. Players can shoot, or not. If
you decide to shoot, a missile will smash into the targeted area.

You may kill some terrorists but there is a catch - you will almost certainly
kill innocent civilians too. (...)

"After a while, they transform themselves into terrorists. (...), you may kill
terrorists, but you will encourage more and more people to become terrorists."

* Games Blur News And Entertainment, Clark Boyd  , 04/09/16, BBC News


_________________________________________________________________

14.01. Game Sequel Takes Leaps In AI Technology , Mercury News

Excerpt:






For EA programmers, a character appears to possess intelligence if it behaves
intelligently. Behavior is a collection of actions and each action is governed
by a choice. And so the Sims face a web of inter-connected choices. If they
make a friend, they have the option to hug the friend. If the friend accepts
the hug, they have the option to kiss. Each choice leads to other choices. The
Sims make choices and therefore they seem intelligent. (...)
The Sim will function on its own, but the player can interrupt the Sim's
``life.''

* Game Sequel Takes Leaps In AI Technology, Dean Takahashi   , 04/09/13,
Mercury News


_________________________________________________________________

14.02. They're Robots? Those Beasts! , NYTimes

Excerpt: Their field is often referred to as biomimetics, and the researchers
who are developing robotic lobsters, flies, dogs, fish, snakes, geckos and
cockroaches believe that machines inspired by biology will be able to operate
in places where today's generation of robots can't go.

"Animals have adapted to any niche where we'd ever want to operate a robot,"
(...). His RoboLobster, for instance, is being designed to hunt for mines that
float in shallow waters or are buried beneath beaches, a harsh environment
where live lobsters have no trouble maintaining sure footing.

* They're Robots? Those Beasts!, Scott Kirsner  , 04/09/16, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

15. Test of Missile Defense System Delayed Again , Washington Post

Excerpts: The Pentagon's chief weapons evaluator has calculated that the system
may be capable of hitting its targets only about 20 percent of the time. The
Missile Defense Agency (MDA), which is responsible for developing the system,
offers estimates of greater than 80 percent, according to several officials
familiar with the classified figures.

The missile defense system, a top Bush administration priority, is designed to
send interceptors into space to knock down enemy warheads.
The first two interceptors have already been lowered into silos (...).
Editor's Note: The old Star Wars system of the 80s was announced to shoot down
80 percent of the incoming missiles. One could ask if lowering that probability
to 20 percent has any defense value considering the costs and potential
scenarios where the system would be used. So far only North Korea recently has
the nuclear weapons and missile capabilities.

* Test of Missile Defense System Delayed Again, Bradley Graham  , 04/09/14,
Washington Post


_________________________________________________________________

16. Middle Miocene Southern Ocean Cooling and Antarctic Cryosphere Expansion ,
Science

Excerpt: The large, permanent ice sheets that presently occupy Antarctica began
to form around 14 million years ago, when Earth entered a phase of global
cooling. However, the climate processes that produced these changes, as well as
the temporal relation between ice sheet growth and cooling, have remained
obscure. Shevenell et al. (p. 1766) analyzed Mg/Ca ratios (...) from Southern
Hemisphere marine sediments with ages between 15 and 13.2 million years.
Deep-ocean cooling began roughly 60,000 years before ice sheet growth, and both
of these processes happened during a period of atmospheric CO2 increase. These
findings suggest that factors other than radiative forcing, such as ocean heat
transport, were key elements of this climate transition.

This Week in Science
"(...) ocean circulation changes altered meridional heat/vapor transport,
triggering ice growth and global cooling."

* Middle Miocene Southern Ocean Cooling and Antarctic Cryosphere Expansion,
Amelia E. Shevenell , James P. Kennett , David W. Lea
, 04/09/17, Science : 1766-1770.



_________________________________________________________________

16.01. OPEC to Put Formal Lifting of Output on the Table , NY Times

Excerpt: Oil ministers are meeting to consider raising the formal output
ceiling as crude prices remain stubbornly high despite OPEC's persistent
efforts to lower them.

(...) OPEC's actions have had some limited success. Prices have remained well
above the $22 to $28 a barrel target range (...) even as most of the group's
members are producing as much as they can. (...)

Mr. Naimi has in recent months called for oil prices of about $25 a barrel.
Higher prices could hurt OPEC in the long run by curbing demand for crude oil.
Editor's Note: If oil is a limited resource, why would it not be in the
interest of OPEC to maximize their profit by increasing the prices according to
market demand?

* OPEC to Put Formal Lifting of Output on the Table, Jad Mouawad  , 04/09/15,
NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

17. Ready or Not (and Maybe Not), Electronic Voting Goes National , NY Times

Excerpt: In what may turn out to be one of the most scrutinized general
elections in the country's history, nearly one-third of the more than 150
million registered voters in the United States will be asked to cast their
ballots on machines whose accuracy and security against fraud have yet to be
tested on such a grand scale.

Because of the uncertainties, experts say there is potential for post-election
challenges in any precincts where the machines may malfunction, or where the
margin of victory is thin.
Editor's Note: This almost sounds like the elections could be decided by smart
hackers who make sure the machine appear to function normally and who produce
clear victories for the party of their choice.

* Ready or Not (and Maybe Not), Electronic Voting Goes National, Tom Zeller Jr.
, NY Times


_________________________________________________________________

17.01. Custody of Voting Machine Argued in Montgomery Court , Washington Post

Excerpt:


Joe Torre, Maryland's director of procurement and voting systems, shows how to
use a touch-screen voting machine during a new conference. (2003 Photo Don
Wright -- AP)


A volunteer Maryland election worker touched off a frenzied legal effort in
Montgomery County yesterday after he refused to return a touch-screen voting
machine, telling state election officials he intended to let an expert hired by
CBS News examine it.

Stan Boyd, 63, a retired teacher, said he was giving CBS access to the machine
because he believed it might have malfunctioned during a weekend demonstration
with Sen. Barbara A. Mikulski (D-Md.), a view the senator does not share,
according to a spokesman.

* Custody of Voting Machine Argued in Montgomery Court, Eric Rich , Darragh
Johnson  , 04/09/15, Washington Post


_________________________________________________________________

18. Amazon to Take Searches on Web to a New Depth , NY Times

Excerpt: The service will offer users the ability to store and edit bookmarks
on an A9.com central server computer, keep track of each link clicked on
previous visits to a Web page, and even make personal "diary" notes on those
pages for viewing on subsequent visits.

"In a sense, this is a search engine with memory," said Udi Manber, a computer
scientist who was a pioneer in online information retrieval and worked at Yahoo
before moving to Amazon two years ago.

* Amazon to Take Searches on Web to a New Depth, John Markof  , 04/09/15,
NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

19. Complex Challenges: Global Terroist Networks





_________________________________________________________________

19.01. Back to the U.S.S.R. , Christian Science Monitor

Excerpt: How changing the country's electoral process can fortify Russia
against more terrorist attacks is a head-scratching mystery. The only
reasonable explanation for President Putin's plans to deprive voters of their
right to directly elect regional governors and representatives in the national
parliament lies in his pattern of power consolidation.(...)

Putin may argue that centralization will enhance Russian security but the
opposite is the more likely outcome. Authoritarianism breeds inefficiency, as
people wait for decisions from the top (...). But Putin wrongly calculates that
governing Soviet-style will secure Russia's future.

* Back to the U.S.S.R., Steven Lee Myers  , 04/09/15, Christian Science Monitor


_________________________________________________________________

19.02. A Response to Russia , Washington Post

Excerpt: The boldness of Vladimir Putin's assault on Russian democracy in the
past few days ought to have been galvanizing to a U.S. president who has made
the defense of freedom the rhetorical centerpiece of his foreign policy.
Instead, the abrupt announcement by the Russian president that he intended to
combat terrorism by abolishing elections for governors, (...) has been greeted
with confused, contradictory and timid murmurings from the State Department and
the White House. Distressed Russian politicians described Mr. Putin's act as "a
constitutional coup d' at" and "a step toward dictatorship."

* A Response to Russia, 04/09/15, Washington Post


_________________________________________________________________

19.03. Bush Concern At Afghan Drug Boom , BBC News

Excerpt:


Afghanistan produces 75% of the world's opium, says a UN report



Countries certified as "majors" by Washington can attract US sanctions, but the
White House said such penalties were unlikely this year.

The UN released figures earlier this year saying three-quarters of the world's
opium poppy was now grown in Afghanistan.

Hamid Karzai has warned that drug-trafficking and production is helping
terrorism, and the Central Bank governor reportedly said earlier this week it
accounted for a third of the country's economy.

The US report noted the "good faith efforts" by the Afghan government to tackle
the problem.
Editor's Note: It might be interesting to do a comparative quantitative
estimate of the effect on the war on terrorism before and after the wars in
Afghanistan and Iraq.

* Bush Concern At Afghan Drug Boom, 04/09/17, BBC News


_________________________________________________________________

19.04. Iraq War Illegal, Says Annan , BBC News

Excerpt: The United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan has told the BBC the
US-led invasion of Iraq was an illegal act that contravened the UN charter.

He said the decision to take action in Iraq should have been made by the
Security Council, not unilaterally.

The UK government responded by saying the attorney-general made the "legal
basis... clear at the time".(...)
He has said from the beginning the invasion did not conform with the UN charter
- phrasing that was seen as a diplomatic way of saying the war was illegal.

* Iraq War Illegal, Says Annan, BBC News


_________________________________________________________________

19.05. Powell Rebukes Annan On Iraq , Washington Post

Excerpt: Secretary of State Colin L. Powell yesterday expressed strong
disapproval of U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan's description of the U.S.-led
war in Iraq as illegal, saying the comment was "not a very useful statement to
make at this point."
"What does it gain anyone? We should all be gathering around the idea of
helping the Iraqis, not getting into these kinds of side issues," Mr. Powell
said (...).
[Mr Powell] lamented the unwillingness of many in the Muslim and Arab world to
take on Islamic extremists in their midst.
Editor's Note: The wide perception of a rule of law has been mentioned as one
of the important parameters that determine the recruitment rate of terrorist
organizations. Legality of a super-power to attack and occupy a sovereign
nation seems to be a central issue for that perception.

* Powell Rebukes Annan On Iraq, David R. Sands  , 04/09/17, The Washington
Times


_________________________________________________________________

19.06. Saudis Take a Small Dose of Democracy , Washington Post

Excerpt: For the first time in 41 years, it is allowing elections, local ones,
that will fill half the seats on 178 municipal councils.

The ruling family's goal, political analysts and diplomats here say, is to
determine whether a more open government might help defuse a rising armed
threat by Muslim militants in the kingdom or merely inspire reform advocates to
push harder against the princes' long hold on power.
(...)

In a country that takes even its name from the ruling family, few institutions
are more foreign than electoral politics.

* Saudis Take a Small Dose of Democracy, Scott Wilson , 04/09/16, Washington
Post


_________________________________________________________________

20. Links & Snippets





_________________________________________________________________

20.01. Other Publications



- Frameworks For Conceptualising Terrorism, P. Alex , Apr.-Jun. 2004, Terrorism
and Political Violence, DOI: 10.1080/09546550490483134
- The Relationship Between New Social Movement Theory And Terrorism Studies:
The Role Of Leadership, Membership, Ideology And Gender, C. Gentry , Apr.-Jun.
2004, Terrorism and Political Violence, DOI: 10.1080/09546550490483422
- Threat Inflation And The Failure Of The Marketplace Of Ideas: The Selling Of
The Iraq War, C. Kaufmann , Summer 2004, International Security
- Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed Or Fail, D. M.
Edelstein , Summer 2004, International Security
- The St. Petersburg Paradox And The Crash Of High-Tech Stocks In 2000, G. J.
Sz ely  , D. S.t.P. Richards , Aug. 2004, The American Statistician, DOI:
10.1198/000313004X1440
- Environmental Energy And Evolutionary Rates In Flowering Plants, T. J Davies
, V. Savolainen  , M. W. Chase  , J. Moat T. G. Barraclough , 2004/09/13,
Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
- The Graphical 'Google' For Engineers, P. Burkwood p.burkwood@aston.ac.uk ,
2004/09/14, Alphagalileo & Aston University
- Tibetan Children Are Five Times More Likely To Survive Infancy If Moms Have
Oxygen-Promoting Genes, 2004/09/17, ScienceDaily National Science Foundation
- Molecule Awakens And Maintains Neural Connections, 2004/09/14, ScienceDaily &
Hughes Medical Institute
- Economy Of Movement, P. Ocampo pocampo@plos.org , 2004/09/14, Alphagalileo &
Public Library Of Science
- Reflections On Democracy: The Beginning Of The End Or The End Of The
Beginning?, A. Sa'adah , Fall 2004, The Journal of Interdisciplinary History
- Evolution Of Open Source Networks In Industry, P. Laat , 2004, 20;4, The
Information Society, DOI: 10.1080/01972240490481027
- Universal Access In Developing Countries: A Particular Focus On Bangladesh,
A. S. A. Bhuiyan , 2004, 20;4, The Information Society, DOI:
10.1080/01972240490480983
- China's Changing Farms Damaging Soil And Water, Rapid urbanisation is
destroying China's agriculture and its ability to feed one-fifth of the world's
people
- China's GM Trees Get Lost In Bureaucracy, China has planted a million
genetically modified trees to tackle desertification and flooding - but no one
knows for sure where they all are
- Flies With Inner Ears?, 04/09/13, BioMedCentral, Drosophila Hmx gene directs
development of mouse inner ear, an organ flies don't possess
- How Cells Move Gas, 04/09/10, BioMedCentral, Study reports high-resolution
structure of protein that shuttles ammonia in bacteria
- Language Revitalization And New Technologies: Cultures Of Electronic
Mediation and the Refiguring of Communities , Patrick Eisenlohr  , Annual
Review of Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 21 - 45
- Hang On To Your Self: Of Bodies, Embodiment, And Selves , Steven Van Wolputte
  , Annual Review of Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 251 - 269
- Early Dispersals Of Homo From Africa , Susan C. Anton , Carl C. Swisher , III
  , Annual Review of Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 271 - 296
- Social Status And Health In Humans And Other Animals , Robert M. Sapolsky  ,
Annual Review of Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 393 - 418
- Origins And Development Of Urbanism: Archaeological Perspectives , George L.
Cowgill

, Annual Review of Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 525 - 549
- The Evolution Of Human Skin And Skin Color , Nina G. Jablonski  , Annual
Review of Anthropology; Volume 33, Page 585 - 623
- Shrinking Time , Physicists make the world's smallest atomic clock
- Bush And Kerry Battle Over Science, Paul Reynolds  , 04/09/15, BBC News. The
US presidential candidates address major scientific questions put to them by
the journal Nature.
- U.S. Intelligence Shows Pessimism on Iraq's Future, Douglas Jehl, A National
Intelligence Estimate prepared for President Bush in late July spells out a
dark assessment of prospects for Iraq.
, 04/09/16, NYTimes
- Failing the Senate Intelligence Test, If President Bush is serious about
intelligence reform, he should shelve Representative Porter Goss's appointment
as director of central intelligence.
- Risks of Antidepressants, 04/09/16, NYTimes, What patients, parents and
doctors most need is guidance as to which antidepressants are safer and more
effective than the others.
- The First Draft of Freedom, Paul Wolfowitz  , 04/09/16, NYTimes. The trial of
Bambang Harymurti, the chief editor of Indonesia's leading newsmagazine, has
implications far beyond the courtroom in Jakarta.
- Are You Undecided? Or Not?, Larry David  , 04/09/16, NYTimes. I'd like to
address this to the Undecideds: I'm on to you. You may be fooling everyone else
with your little "undecided" act, but you're not fooling me.
- The Ecology And Genetics Of Microbial Diversity , Rees Kassen , Paul B.
Rainey
, Annual Review of Microbiology; Volume 58, Page 207 - 231
- Dynamical Mechanism of Anticipating Synchronization in Excitable Systems,
Marzena Ciszak , Francesco Marino , Ra  Toral , Salvador Balle
, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114102 (2004)
- Quantifying Self-Organization with Optimal Predictors, Cosma Rohilla Shalizi
, Kristina Lisa Shalizi , Robert Haslinger  , Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 118701
(2004)
- Entanglement Within The Quantum Trajectory Description Of Open Quantum
Systems, Hyunchul Nha , H. J. Carmichael  , Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 120408 (2004).

A detailed mechanism for the environment-induced entanglement is given.
- Sperm Cells "Spring" into Action , 04/09/08, Bio.com, Scientists have
identified a surprising mechanical means by which cells store and release
energy, a tightly wound jack-in-the-box mechanism rather than the chemical
storehouse cells are known to use.
- Raising the Pressure in Iraq, Dexter Filkins  , 04/09/14, NYTimes
- Breath of Life at the Top of the World, Mary Beckman
, 04/09/16,


Tibetan high. Some Tibetan women pass on to their children a lifesaving ability
to carry extra oxygen in their blood.

Credit: Cynthia Beall And Melvyn Goldstein




Babies of Tibetan women with oxygen-rich blood have a survival advantage.
Science Now
- First Impressions Guide Relationships, Kelli Miller  , 04/09/10, WebMD
Medical News, Experts Say It Only Takes Minutes to Decide if a Relationship
Will Last
- Cell Biology: Myosins Meet Microtubules, Margaret A. Titus , 04/09/16, Nature
431, 252 - 253 A central part of the machinery of cell division is the spindle.
The creation and operation of this structure seem to require a component of the
cell's infrastructure not previously associated with it., DOI: 10.1038/431252a
- A Tunable Carbon Nanotube Electromechanical Oscillator, Vera Sazonova , Yuval
Yaish , Hande t el , David Roundy , Tom  A. Arias  , Paul L. Mceuen ,
04/09/16, Nature 431, 284 - 287, DOI: 10.1038/nature02905
- Genetic Evidence Supports Demic Diffusion Of Han Cultur, Bo Wen , Hui Li,
Daru Lu , Xiufeng Song , Feng Zhang , Yungang He , Feng Li , Yang Gao , Xianyun
Mao , Liang Zhang , Ji Qian , Jingze Tan , Jianzhong Jin , Wei Huang , Ranjan
Deka , Bing Su , Ranajit Chakraborty  , Li Jin  , 04/09/16, Nature 431, 302 -
305. (...) the demic diffusion model, which involves mass movement of people
(...), DOI: 10.1038/nature02878
- Lens Does Away With Blurry Snaps, Jo Twist , 04/09/13, BBC News



_________________________________________________________________

20.02. Webcast Announcements




The 4th Intl Workshop on Meta-synthesis and Complex System, Beijing, China,
04/07/22-23


Intl Conf on Complex Networks: Structure, Function and Processes, Kolkata,
India, 04/06/27-30


 From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela
(1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20



ECC8 Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,
  04/06/14-17



Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium,
04/05/26-28


International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21


Life, a Nobel Story, Brussels, Belgium, 04/04/28


Nonlinear Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics Days, Brussels, Belgium,
04/04/26-27


Science Education Forum for Chinese Language Culture, Panel Discussion, Taipei,
Taiwan, 04/05/01


Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology, ,
Lausanne,Switzerland, 04/01/29-30


Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H.,
Internet-First University Press, 1994

World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland   Riding the Next Democratic
Wave, Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic
Forum, 04/01/25
  The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan,
Martin, Schwab, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25  Why Victory Against Terrorism
Demands Shared Values

  CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And
Intelligent Systems, 2004 Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10 EVOLVABILITY &
INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of Communication, Signaling, and
Perception in the Dynamics of Social Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10 The
Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and Practicalities,
Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on
Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany, 03/09/14-17 New Santa Fe Institute
President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role, (Video, Santa Fe, NM,
03/06/04) SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM,
2003/06/01-04 NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio
Report, 03/05/11 13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life
Sciences, Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10 CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos
of Archived Lectures and Live Events Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video
Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998 Edge Videos




_________________________________________________________________

20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements













Gabriele Leidloff, Ugly Casting 1.4 , Berlin, Germany, 04/08/19-10/08


  XVII Brazilian
  Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao -
  Brazil, 04/09/22-24

   2nd Annual Emerging Technologies Conference at MIT, Cambridge, MA,
04/09/29-30

  3rd Natll Conf on Systems Science ,
Trento (Italy), 04/10/07-09

   TEDMED Conference ,
Charleston SC, 04/10/12-15

  Intl Workshop On Bifurcations In Nonsmooth And Hybrid Dynamical Systems  ,
Milano (Italy), 04/10/21-22

  Wolfram
  Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois,
  04/10/21-23

  6th Intl Conf on Electronic Commerce
ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape,  Delft, The Netherlands,
04/10/25-27

   Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio de Janeiro,
04/11


ICDM '04: The Fourth IEEE Intl Conf on Data Mining, Brighton, UK, 04/11/01-04

Denaturing Darwin: International Conference on Evolution and Organization
, Amersfoort, The Netherlands, 04/11/12-14


  The 7th Asia-Pacific Complex Systems Conference,  Queensland, Australia,
04/12/06-10

  17th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,  Queensland,
Australia, 04/12/06-10

Cellular Computing Symposium, U Warwick
(UK), 04/12/09-10

  International Conference On Computational Intelligence (Icci 2004) ,
Istanbul, Turkey, 04/12/15-17


  Kondratieff Waves, Warfare And World Security, NATO Advanced Research
Workshop
, Covilh? Portugal, 05/02/14-17



5th Creativity And Cognition Conference, London.UK, 05/04/12-15

  Powders & Grains 2005, Stuttgart, Germany, 05/06/18-22

  Workshop on Complexity and Policy Analysis, Cork, Ireland, 05/06/22-24

  ECAL 2005 - VIIIth European Conference on Artificial Life, Canterbury, Kent,
UK, 05/09/05-09


  Complexity, Science and Society Conf 2005, Liverpool, UK, 05/09/11-14