Complexity Digest 2004.35

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
Mirror: http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think
the next century will be the century of complexity." Stephen Hawking



01. Emergence of Prime Numbers as the Result of Evolutionary Strategy, Phys.
Rev. Lett.
02. UN Drive To Boost Free Software, BBC News
02.01. The ABCs of Linux, NPR TOTN
02.02. Microsoft's Linux Ad 'Misleading', BBC News
03. How Mutual Fund Managers Exploit Opportunities to Maximize Fees,
04. The Law of Expanding Immediacy, Darwinmag.com
05. The Pleasure of Punishment, Science Now
05.01. Guilt is Good: A New Approach to Environmental Problems,
05.02. Event Timing Turns Punishment To Reward, Nature
05.03. From Schools To Security, A Reluctance To Fix Blame, The Christian
Science Monitor
05.04. Insect Policing Carries Costs, The Scientist
06. Surprising Start for Snail Asymmetry, Science Now
06.01. Researchers Listen to Yeast Cells, NPR ATC
07. Earth Warned On 'Tipping Points', BBC News
07.01. Impact Of Costal Embankment On The Flash Flood In Bangladesh: A Case
Study, Appl. Geography
08. Neuroscience: While You Were Sleeping, Nature
08.01. Contextual Regularity And Complexity Of Neuronal Activity, Complexity
09. The Hierarchical Backbone of Complex Networks, Phys. Rev. Lett.
09.01. Cascade Control and Defense in Complex Networks, Phys. Rev. Lett.
10. Stem-Cell Gene-Expression Studies Show Little Overlap, Indicate
Greater-Than-Expected Complexity, The Scientist
10.01. Anoikis: Cancer And The Homeless Cell, Nature
10.02. Dedifferentiation: More Than Reversing Fate, The Scientist
11. German Doctors Grow New Jaw Bone In Man's Back Muscle For Transplant,
Canadian Press
11.01. Stem Cell Sculpting - Study notes the power of shape on cell
differentiation, The Scientist
12. Sustainability For Nanotechnology - Making Smaller Safer, The Scientist
12.01. Tools Design DNA-Nanotube Logic, Technology Research News
12.02. The Ups and Downs of Nanobiotech, The Scientist
13. Identifying Factors Of Comfort In Using Hand Tools, Appl. Ergon.
14. New Fuel Cell Powered With Poison, Science Now
14.01. 'Flower Power' Cars Could Be In Your Future, ScienceDaily
15. Dynamic Ice: Surface Physics Technique Reveals Complex Chemical Reactions
On Icy Surfaces, ScienceDaily
16. The Emergence Of Dynamical Complexity: An Exploration Using Elementary
Cellular Automata, Complexity
16.01. Going Into Reverse, Nature
17. Agent-Based Modeling, Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life
17.01. Military Swarm Study 'At The Edge Of Chaos', Mail & Guardian
18. Free Speech Vs. Paid Speech, Christian Science Monitor
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terroist Networks
19.01. Intelligence Agencies Pose Complex Conundrum for Administration,
Washington Post
19.02. Americans Need to Connect the Dots, CommonDreams.org
19.03. Crisis Alert in Critical State, Wired
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements


01. Emergence of Prime Numbers as the Result of Evolutionary Strategy , Phys.
Rev. Lett.

Excerpts: We investigate by means of a simple theoretical model the emergence
of prime numbers as life cycles, as those seen for some species of cicadas. The
cicadas, more precisely the Magicicadas, spend most of their lives below the
ground and then emerge and die in a short period of time. The Magicicadas
display an uncommon behavior: their emergence is synchronized and these periods
are usually prime numbers. In the current work, we develop a spatially extended
model at which preys and predators coexist and can change their evolutionary
dynamics through the occurrence of mutations. We verified that prime numbers as
life cycles emerge as a result of the evolution of the population. Our results
seem to be a first step in order to prove that the development of such strategy
is selectively advantageous, especially for those organisms that are highly
vulnerable to attacks of predators.

* Emergence of Prime Numbers as the Result of Evolutionary Strategy, Paulo R.
A. Campos , Viviane M. de Oliveira , Ronaldo Giro , Douglas S. Galv   ,
04/08/27, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 098107


02. UN Drive To Boost Free Software , BBC News


Open source is seen as a cheap solution in bridging technology gaps

The UN's International Open Source Network (IOSN) helped promote the first
annual Software Freedom Day on 28 August, giving out CDs and booklets about the

Events took place in countries like India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Philippines,
Sri Lanka and Vietnam.

Open source is free and can offer big opportunities for developing countries.

The initiative was organised by free and open source software advocates under
the umbrella of the Software Freedom Day. (...)

IOSN tries to encourage countries to adopt affordable software so that the
digital divide can be overcome.

* UN Drive To Boost Free Software, 04/08/28, BBC News


02.01. The ABCs of Linux , NPR TOTN

Excerpts: If you're tired of paying high prices for software and having your
machine filled with viruses and adware, there is an alternative. In this hour,
we look at the ABC's of Linux, the open source alternative rapidly gaining in

* The ABCs of Linux, 04/08/27, NPR, TOTN


02.02. Microsoft's Linux Ad 'Misleading' , BBC News

Excerpts: The UK watchdog upheld complaints about a magazine advert which
claimed that the open-source operating system Linux was more expensive than

Referring to research, it read: "Linux was found to be over 10 times more
expensive than Windows Server 2003".

The ASA concluded that the comparison was misleading because the operating
systems ran on different hardware.
Microsoft had said the Get the Facts ad campaign was intended to compare
competing file-serving set-ups that met the same needs and were intended for
the same purposes.

* Microsoft's Linux Ad 'Misleading', 04/08/26, BBC News


03. How Mutual Fund Managers Exploit Opportunities to Maximize Fees ,

Excerpts: According to the mutual fund industry's harshest critics, fund
managers cannot properly serve investors when they must also serve their own
bosses ?the management companies' owners, public or private. Fund company
owners make bigger profits when investors are charged high fees; investors get
higher returns when fees are low. Yet industry defenders have long rejected the
critics' charges, arguing, among other things, that the need to compete puts a
natural brake on the impulse to maximize fees. Who's right? New research by
Wharton management professor Nicolaj Siggelkow supports the critics.

* How Mutual Fund Managers Exploit Opportunities to Maximize Fees, 04/08/25,


04. The Law of Expanding Immediacy , Darwinmag.com

Excerpts: The law of expanding immediacy underlines a great truth of modern
business life: Everybody is in the same situation, facing the same kinds of
pressures for immediate action, demonstrable short-term results and more work
to do than can be done. The more successful businesses and individuals are at
managing in shorter-term increments, the more they reinforce and expand the
need for it everywhere else.

It also means that the situation is unlikely to change. Just as the networking
of everything and everyone has become part of the fabric of business, so too
will its effects. And one of those is the need to manage for shorter

* The Law of Expanding Immediacy, Chuck Martin , 04/08/, Darwinmag


05. The Pleasure of Punishment , Science Now


Pleasure point. The brain's reward centers flash when people punish

There's a reason it feels good to nudge out the kid who cuts in line--it's how
we're wired. New research shows that a reward center in the brain zings when
people punish cheaters, (...).

Humans have a sense of fairness unrivaled in the animal kingdom. (...) To
investigate where this sense of fair play may reside in the brain, behavioral
economist Ernst Fehr of the University of Zurich, Switzerland, and colleagues
scanned the brains of 15 men as they played a game that encouraged cheating.
Editor's Note: Is it a coincidence that many of the research projects on this
topic originate in Switzerland as opposed to, say, Taiwan?

* The Pleasure of Punishment, MARY BECKMAN  , 04/08/27, Science Now


05.01. Guilt is Good: A New Approach to Environmental Problems ,


Fines, fees, pollution credit-swaps ?policymakers have advocated many
different approaches for sustaining the economy, often with mixed success. Now
two Wharton professors - Paul Kleindorfer and Ulku Oktem - have concluded that
re-framing environmental issues in such a way that individuals feel encouraged
to take a personal initiative may be a better approach. They presented their
research at the first UN Global Compact academic conference in Turkey. The
second phase of the conference, titled "Bridging the Gap: Sustainable
Environment," takes place in Philadelphia on Sept. 17 and 18.

* Guilt is Good: A New Approach to Environmental Problems, 04/08/25,


05.02. Event Timing Turns Punishment To Reward , Nature

Excerpts: Can relief from pain be a pleasure? If so, noxious events should
?despite their typically aversive effects ?also have a 'rewarding'
after-effect. Through training fruitflies by using an electric shock paired
with an odour, we show here that the shock can condition either avoidance of
this odour or approach to it. These opposing behaviours depend on the relative
timing of the shock and odour presentations during training, and indicate that
a shock can act as either an aversive reinforcer or an appetitive one.
Editor's Note: These results are reminiscent of old philosophical questions
about the difference between heaven and hell. One philosopher poet claimed the
only difference is that in heaven your are eventually allowed to die.

* Event Timing Turns Punishment To Reward, Hiromu Tanimoto , Martin Heisenberg
, Bertram Gerber , 04/08/26, DOI: 10.1038/430983a, Nature 430, 983


05.03. From Schools To Security, A Reluctance To Fix Blame , The Christian
Science Monitor

Excerpts: he US does not have a long tradition of government officials
resigning as a result of problems that might have occurred on their watch, as
opposed to European countries," (...).

That's due, at least in part, to a growing tendency in American culture in the
1980s and '90s to frame issues in terms of victims - buffeted by larger forces
around them - rather than individual responsibility, he says. "We talk a great
deal about accountability, but we never seem to find the people who are
directly responsible."
Editor's Note: For a European it might be especially interesting to observe the
distinction between eing responsible?and eing culpable? Defense Secretary
Donald H. Rumsfeld has accepted full responsibility for prisoner abuse at the
Abu Ghraib prison but he also was declared not ulpable?which seems to apply
that there will be no personal consequences. It would be interesting to look at
the history of the word ulpable?and its tradition of how it has been used.
Or is it simply a case of rwellian newspeak?

* From Schools To Security, A Reluctance To Fix Blame, Gail Russell Chaddock  ,
04/08/25, The Christian Science Monitor


05.04. Insect Policing Carries Costs , The Scientist

Excerpts: (...) worker policing in social insects has a more complex
evolutionary basis than even their unusual patterns of genetic relatedness
allow. Instead, it is the 'colony efficiency' he cost that reproducing workers
impose on the colony as a whole hat determines how many are tolerated, (...).

"Our study looked for large-scale patterns, but at this scale, there is no
relationship between relatedness and worker reproduction," (...).

"The main conclusion hat relatedness explains little or nothing about who
produces males s certainly interesting if it's true," (...).

* Insect Policing Carries Costs, Nick Atkinson  , 04/08/25, The Scientist


06. Surprising Start for Snail Asymmetry , Science Now


New twist on shell development. (...)

Editor's Note: For most animals, the left half of the body is pretty much a
mirror image of the right half, at least on the outside. One exception to this
bilateral symmetry is found in snails, whose shells spiral to either the right
or the left. A new study overturns a long-held theory about how these
asymmetries develop, and the researchers say their work could help explain
left-right asymmetries in other animals, such as the position and shape of the
heart and liver in humans and other vertebrates.

* Surprising Start for Snail Asymmetry, Dennis Normile  , 04/08/27, Science Now


06.01. Researchers Listen to Yeast Cells , NPR ATC

Excerpts: A team of scientists has found a way to listen in on the strange
sounds produced by a single cell. The recordings, reported in the journal
Science, were made with yeast cells by using a small probe thousands of times
thinner than a hair. (...)

UCLA scientist James Gimzewski positioned a sensitive instrument called an
atomic force microscope over a cell to try to detect its motion. To his
surprise, the microscope picked up regular vibrations.

* Researchers Listen to Yeast Cells, 04/08/19, NPR ATC


07. Earth Warned On 'Tipping Points' , BBC News


Antarctic ice shelf: One of the Earth's critical locations

The world has barely begun to recognise the danger of setting off rapid and
irreversible changes in some crucial natural systems, a scientist says.

Professor John Schellnhuber says the most important environmental issues for
humans are among the least understood.

(...) the Asian monsoon was one of the "tipping points" that could change very

(...) 12 "hotspots" had been identified so far, areas which acted like massive
regulators of the Earth's environment.

If these critical regions were subjected to stress, they could trigger
large-scale, rapid changes across the entire planet.

* Earth Warned On 'Tipping Points', Alex Kirby  , 04/08/26, BBC News


07.01. Impact Of Costal Embankment On The Flash Flood In Bangladesh: A Case
Study , Appl. Geography

Excerpts: Coastal areas of Bangladesh frequently experience tropical cyclones
and associated tidal bore. In order to prevent cyclonic or storm-surge flooding
and to increase crop production by preventing intrusion of saline ocean water,
many coastal embankment projects were initiated in the 1960s by the Bangladesh
government. After construction of these embankments, particularly their
reconstruction in 1991 has increased the frequency of flash floods in coastal
areas. The objective of this study is to examine to what extent the
reconstruction of embankment is responsible for the increased severity of flash
flooding (...).

* Impact Of Costal Embankment On The Flash Flood In Bangladesh: A Case Study,
N. Yamina Choudhury  , A. Paul  , B. K. Paul bkp@ksu.edu , Jul. 2004, online
2004/05/21, DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2004.04.001, Applied Geography
* Contributed by Pritha Das


08. Neuroscience: While You Were Sleeping , Nature

Excerpts: But despite years of research, the evidence linking REM sleep to
procedural learning is contradictory and confusing1.(...)

So in the past few years, researchers interested in procedural learning have
started to focus on slow-wave sleep ?and in doing so have begun to make
progress. Perhaps the most convincing evidence linking the quieter phase of
sleep to procedural learning comes from Tononi. His team recently published a
paper in Nature that for the first time linked local changes in short-wave
activity to learning a specific task.

* Neuroscience: While You Were Sleeping, Laura Nelson  , 04/08/26, DOI:
10.1038/430962a, Nature 430, 962 - 964


08.01. Contextual Regularity And Complexity Of Neuronal Activity , Complexity

Excerpts: Precursors of the superior information processing capabilities of our
cortex can most probably be traced back to simple invertebrate systems. (...)
we show that insect neurons have the ability to self-regulate the information
capacity of their electrical activity. We characterize the activity of a
distinct population of neurons under progressive levels of structural and
functional constraints: self-formed networks of neuron clusters in vitro (...).
We show common motifs and identify trends of increasing self-regulated
complexity. This important principle may have played a key role in the gradual
transition from simple neuronal motor control to complex information

* Contextual Regularity And Complexity Of Neuronal Activity: From Stand-Alone
Cultures To Task-Performing Animals, A. Ayali  , E. Fuchs  , Y. Zilberstein  ,
A. Robinson  , O. Shefi  , E. Hulata  , I. Baruchi  , E. Ben-Jacob
eshel@tamar.tau.ac.il , Jul.-Aug. 2004, Online 2004/08/24, DOI:
10.1002/cplx.20046, Complexity
* Contributed by Atin Das


09. The Hierarchical Backbone of Complex Networks , Phys. Rev. Lett.

Abstract: Given any complex directed network, a set of acyclic subgraphs can be
extracted that will provide valuable information about its hierarchical
structure. This Letter presents how the interpretation of the network weight
matrix as a transition matrix allows the hierarchical backbone to be identified
and characterized in terms of the concepts of hierarchical degree, which
expresses the total weights of virtual edges established along successive
transitions. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with respect
to simulated random and preferential-attachment networks as well as real data
related to word associations and gene sequencing.

* The Hierarchical Backbone of Complex Networks, Luciano da Fontoura Costa ,
04/08/26, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.098702, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 098702


09.01. Cascade Control and Defense in Complex Networks , Phys. Rev. Lett.

Excerpts: Complex networks with a heterogeneous distribution of loads may
undergo a global cascade of overload failures when highly loaded nodes or edges
are removed due to attacks or failures. Since a small attack or failure has the
potential to trigger a global cascade, a fundamental question regards the
possible strategies of defense to prevent the cascade from propagating through
the entire network. Here we introduce and investigate a costless strategy of
defense based on a selective further removal of nodes and edges, right after
the initial attack or failure. This intentional removal of network elements is
shown to drastically reduce the size of the cascade.
Editor's Note: This is a theoretical approach for building efficient
protections against network failures such as the recent big blackout in the
north eastern U.S.

* Cascade Control and Defense in Complex Networks, Adilson E. Motter  ,
04/08/26, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 098701


10. Stem-Cell Gene-Expression Studies Show Little Overlap, Indicate
Greater-Than-Expected Complexity , The Scientist


FLAP ABOUT OVERLAP: Human embryonic stem cells, pictured here, probably share
some expressed genes with neural and hematopoietic stem cells, but perhaps not
to the extent that was first anticipated, based on studies with mouse cells.

Courtesy of the University of Wisconsin, Madison

(...) to identify expressed genes shared among the stem-cell types as well as
unique to each. "The main idea is to get at the core program that makes these
cells tick, to see how they decide to self-renew and proliferate, or commit to
(...) investigators are now taking a more systems-oriented view that echoes
engineering. "A network of transcription factors emerges that responds to
inputs and can compute them into outputs, which are the decisions that stem
cells make,"(...).

* Stem-Cell Gene-Expression Studies Show Little Overlap, Indicate
Greater-Than-Expected Complexity, Ricki Lewis  , 04/08/30, The Scientist,
Volume 18 | Issue 16 | 24 |


10.01. Anoikis: Cancer And The Homeless Cell , Nature

Excerpts: A protein has been identified that enables cells to survive when
dislodged from their substrate, (...). Such a mechanism might give cancer cells
a significant advantage.
Usually, the cells of an organ stay close to home. In fact, their lives depend
on it. Within their own neighbourhood, they communicate to mutual benefit with
the cells around them, while signals from the matrix beneath tell them that
they are on home ground. When they lose contact with the matrix they die, in a
process named 'anoikis' (from the Greek for 'homelessness').

* Anoikis: Cancer And The Homeless Cell , Lance A. Liotta  , Elise Kohn ,
04/08/26, DOI: 10.1038/430973a, Nature 430, 973 - 974


10.02. Dedifferentiation: More Than Reversing Fate , The Scientist


CELLULAR REWIND: An assay screening compounds for the ability to revert
myoblasts into progenitor cells turned up reversine, a 2,6-disubstituted
purine. (From Nat Biotecnol, 22:833-840, 2004.)

Differentiation, the stepwise specialization of cells, (...), capture much of
the stem cell spotlight. But dedifferentiation, the developmental reversal of a
cell before it reinvents itself, is an important process, too. This loss of
specialization is believed to factor heavily into stem-cell culture techniques
and pathological conditions such as cancer.(...)
The classic example of dedifferentiation is limb and tail regeneration in
Urodele amphibians, such as salamanders.(...)
Cells of the stump then lose their specializations, muscle cells shed their
contractile scaffolds and telltale surface markers (...).

* Dedifferentiation: More Than Reversing Fate, Ricki Lewis  , 04/08/30, The
Scientist, Volume 18 | Issue 16 | 20 |


11. German Doctors Grow New Jaw Bone In Man's Back Muscle For Transplant ,
Canadian Press


A patient three weeks after a titanium cage in which his new jaw was grown was
implanted under his right shoulder blade. (AP \Handout\The Lancet)

A German who had his lower jaw cut out because of cancer has enjoyed his first
meal in nine years -a bratwurst sandwich -after surgeons grew a new jaw bone in
his back muscle and transplanted it to his mouth (...).

According to this week's issue of The Lancet medical journal, the German
doctors used a mesh cage, a growth chemical and the patient's own bone marrow,
containing stem cells, to create a new jaw bone that fit exactly into the gap
left by the cancer surgery.

* German Doctors Grow New Jaw Bone In Man's Back Muscle For Transplant, Emma
Ross  , 04/08/27, Canadian Press


11.01. Stem Cell Sculpting - Study notes the power of shape on cell
differentiation , The Scientist

Excerpts: Researchers have tried for years to make stem cells differentiate
into specific cell types. This work usually involves bathing the cells in
molecular signals that affect their fate. Some are finding, though, that
cellular shape may be at least as influential as signal molecules in the
differentiation process. (...) cellular spatial structure affects many
activities, including proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis.
(...) shape and related characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells (bone
marrow cells that become fat, bone, cartilage, or muscle) are the strongest
known factors determining their fate.

* Stem Cell Sculpting - Study notes the power of shape on cell differentiation,
Jack Lucentini  , 04/08/30, The Scientist, Volume 18 | Issue 16 | 22 |


12. Sustainability For Nanotechnology - Making Smaller Safer , The Scientist

Excerpts: When materials and devices are fabricated with tiny dimensions, their
properties and applications expand enormously. Small size, which for
nanotechnology means less than 100 nm, confers on devices and materials
enhanced flexibility and improved performance. We've begun exploiting such
properties in a multitude of emerging areas ranging from computing to
translational medicine. Yet, just as the promise of nanotechnology becomes more
defined, skeptics raise questions about the unforeseen risks this new
technology may present for the environment and our health.

* Sustainability For Nanotechnology - Making Smaller Safer, Vicki L. Colvin  ,
04/08/30, The Scientist, Volume 18 | Issue 16 | 26 |


12.01. Tools Design DNA-Nanotube Logic , Technology Research News

Excerpts: Researchers have recently begun to use DNA to assemble carbon
nanotubes into transistors, the building blocks of computer circuits.

Biological DNA molecules, made from long strings of four types of bases
attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone, hold instructions for making the
proteins that enable life's processes. Artificial DNA molecules can be caused
to self-assemble into various patterns, and can also be coaxed to attach to
objects like carbon nanotubes. Given the right design, DNA molecules can
assemble objects.

* Tools Design DNA-Nanotube Logic, Eric Smalley  , 04/08/25, Technology
Research News


12.02. The Ups and Downs of Nanobiotech , The Scientist


CANCER COOKER? Triton BioSystems is developing an anticancer therapy using
antibody-coated iron nanoparticles. Application of a magnetic field causes the
particles to heat up and literally cook the tumors from the inside out.

Ten years from now, a visit to the doctor could be quite different than it is
today. How different? Imagine tiny particles that "cook " cancers from the
inside out; "smart bomb" drugs that detonate only over their targets; and
finely structured scaffolds that guide tissue regeneration.

But it's not just imagination. In academic labs, small startups, and giant
pharmaceutical companies, researchers in the blossoming field of nanotechnology
have shown that these concepts can work -- at least in lab animals and tissue
culture dishes.

* The Ups and Downs of Nanobiotech, Jeffrey M. Perkel  , 04/08/30, The
Scientist, Volume 18 | Issue 16 | 14 |


13. Identifying Factors Of Comfort In Using Hand Tools , Appl. Ergon.

Excerpts: To design comfortable hand tools, knowledge about comfort/discomfort
in using hand tools is required. We investigated which factors determine
comfort/discomfort (...). Six comfort factors could be distinguished
(functionality, posture and muscles, irritation and pain of hand and fingers,
irritation of hand surface, handle characteristics, aesthetics). These six
factors can be classified into three meaningful groups: functionality, physical
interaction and appearance. The main conclusions were that (1) the same
descriptors were related to comfort and discomfort in using hand tools, (2)
descriptors of functionality are most related to comfort in using hand tools
followed by descriptors of physical interaction (...).

* Identifying Factors Of Comfort In Using Hand Tools, L. F. M. K.-Evers
l.kuijt@arbeid.tno.nl , L. Groenesteijn  , M. P. de Looze  , P. Vink , Sep.
2004, online 2004/06/24, DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2004.04.001, Applied Ergonomics
* Contributed by Pritha Das


14. New Fuel Cell Powered With Poison , Science Now


Interception. Aided by a stream of electron-ferrying polyoxometalates, a
gold-catalyst reactor strains out carbon monoxide that could otherwise wreck a
fuel cell.

Scientists working on automotive fuel cells have come up with a way to turn a
molecular contaminant into a power source. Others say the advance may help open
the door to using renewable energy resources.

Low-temperature fuel cells use platinum catalysts to extract electricity from
hydrogen gas. But if the gas is produced from fossil fuels--the most common
source--it invariably contains carbon monoxide (CO), which poisons the
catalysts. (...)

On the nanoscale, Dumesic explains, normally unreactive gold becomes so active
that it catalyzes reactions swiftly even at low temperatures.

* New Fuel Cell Powered With Poison, ROBERT F. SERVICE  , 04/08/27, Science Now


14.01. 'Flower Power' Cars Could Be In Your Future , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Researchers in England have found a promising method for producing
hydrogen from sunflower oil, a development that could lead to cleaner and more
efficient hydrogen production for powering automobile fuel cells as well as
homes, factories and offices. (...) Fuel cells show much promise for supplying
the energy needs of the future, and their demand is growing with increasing use
of the technology. But one of their drawbacks, experts say, is that the
hydrogen required to run them generally comes from the burning of fossil fuels,
which generate pollutants such as carbon monoxide and greenhouse gases like
carbon dioxide and methane. (...)

* 'Flower Power' Cars Could Be In Your Future, 2004/08/26, ScienceDaily &
American Chemical Society
* Contributed by Atin Das


15. Dynamic Ice: Surface Physics Technique Reveals Complex Chemical Reactions
On Icy Surfaces , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: A technique borrowed from the surface physics community is helping
chemists and atmospheric scientists understand the complex chemical reactions
that occur on low-temperature ice. Known as electron-stimulated desorption
(ESD), the technique uses low-energy electrons to locally probe surfaces,
differentiating their characteristics from those of the bulk material below
them. Using ESD, (...) demonstrated that hydrochloric acid (HCl) quickly
dissociates upon contact with icy surfaces - even at temperatures well below
100 degrees Kelvin, conditions seen naturally only in the outer solar system.
The work could lead to a better understanding of the complex atmospheric
chemistry occurring in stratospheric ice crystals, (...).

* Dynamic Ice: Surface Physics Technique Reveals Complex Chemical Reactions On
Icy Surfaces, 2004/08/27, ScienceDaily & Georgia Institute Of Technology
* Contributed by Atin Das


16. The Emergence Of Dynamical Complexity: An Exploration Using Elementary
Cellular Automata , Complexity

Excerpts: This work concerns the interaction between two classical problems:
the forecasting of the dynamical behaviors of elementary cellular automata
(ECA) from its intrinsic mathematical laws and the conditions that determine
the emergence of complex dynamics. To approach these problems, and inspired by
the theory of reversible logical gates, we decompose the ECA laws in a spectrum
of dyadic Boolean gates. Emergent properties due to interactions are captured
generating another spectrum of logical gates. (...) These results suggest the
existence of signatures capable to indicate the propensity to develop complex
dynamics. Logical gates exclusive-or and equivalence are among these signatures
of complexity. (...)

* The Emergence Of Dynamical Complexity: An Exploration Using Elementary
Cellular Automata, E. Mizraji mizraj@fcien.edu.uy , Jul.-Aug. 2004, Online
2004/08/24, DOI: 10.1002/cplx.20043, Complexity
* Contributed by Atin Das


16.01. Going Into Reverse , Nature

Excerpts: Nothing in life is certain except death, taxes and the second law of
thermodynamics. All three are processes in which useful or accessible forms of
some quantity, such as energy or money, are transformed into useless,
inaccessible forms of the same quantity. That is not to say that these three
processes don't have fringe benefits: taxes pay for roads and schools; the
second law of thermodynamics drives cars, computers and metabolisms; and death,
at the very least, opens up tenured faculty positions.

* Going Into Reverse, Seth Lloyd , 04/08/26, DOI: 10.1038/430971a, Nature 430,


17. Agent-Based Modeling , Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life

Excerpts: The lessons learned from the science of complex adaptive systems have
important implications for students of the behavioral and social sciences. An
especially troubling feature of complex adaptive systems (or CAS) is that the
usual tools of statisticians, econometricians and others may be of only limited
usefulness due to the presence of higher dimensional nonlinearities and complex
interactions between "agents". Agent Based Modeling or ABM provides an
important methodological tool for dealing with these often intractable

* Agent-Based Modeling, Elliott, E.  , Kiel, L. D.  , (Eds., 2004), Society for
Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences, pb., 182 p.


17.01. Military Swarm Study 'At The Edge Of Chaos' , Mail & Guardian

Excerpts: Australian scientists are using the collective intelligence found in
insect swarms to develop the next generation of hi-tech military hardware.

"We would have thousands of these unmanned vehicles communicating with one
another to carry out missions," (...).

"We want to give them an overall goal, as in carrying out surveillance of a
region, but you don't want to tell every one of 1 000 different vehicles
exactly what to do, you want them to figure it out for themselves.

"That's the challenge: give them a goal; then when something changes, have them

* Military Swarm Study 'At The Edge Of Chaos', Neil Sands  , 04/08/23, Mail &


18. Free Speech Vs. Paid Speech , Christian Science Monitor

Excerpts: Two of the most prominent examples are the anti-Bush movie
"Fahrenheit 9/11" by Michael Moore, and the anti-Kerry TV ads put out by the
group Swift Boat Veterans for Truth (SBVT), funded in large part by Texan Bob

Both messages make strong claims, both have been questioned, and it's up to the
rest of us to sort fact from fiction. (...) Viewers paid to see Moore's movie,
while Perry paid to have viewers see his ads. Therein lies the difference
between free speech and purchased speech.

* Free Speech Vs. Paid Speech, Derek Cressman , 04/08/26, Christian Science


19. Complex Challenges: Global Terroist Networks


19.01. Intelligence Agencies Pose Complex Conundrum for Administration ,
Washington Post

Excerpts: (...) intelligence reorganization bill -- one that would essentially
dismantle the CIA -- has suddenly awakened Congress and the Bush administration
to the difficulties of changing the complex interrelationships in the U.S.
intelligence community.

Even the relatively simple notions of "putting one man in charge" by creating
the post of a national intelligence director, giving that person budgetary
authority over the 15 agencies that make up the U.S. intelligence community,
and establishing a national counterterrorism center have raised questions that
Congress and the administration have only begun to deal with.

* Intelligence Agencies Pose Complex Conundrum for Administration, Walter
Pincus  , 04/08/29, Washington Post


19.02. Americans Need to Connect the Dots , CommonDreams.org

Excerpts: The authors of the Boykin report steered clear of the fact that the
general traveled the country telling churches that George W. Bush was appointed
by God to defend America, that he was raising a spiritual army of Christians to
destroy the Muslim terrorists whose commander is Satan, that Muslims hate
America because it is a Christian nation and so many other comments that
crossed well understood lines of acceptable speech while wearing a military
uniform. Instead, they focused their energies towards determining if Boykin
committed administrative violations in the pursuit of defaming Islam and
Muslims before twenty-three congregations.

* Americans Need to Connect the Dots, John Janney  , 04/08/27, CommonDreams.org


19.03. Crisis Alert in Critical State , Wired

Excerpts: On Sept. 11, 2001, the Emergency Alert System in New York City -- the
same one that annoys listeners and viewers with test alerts -- didn't go off.
Nor did the same system warn Southern California residents in time to escape a
deadly wildfire last year.

Not that everyone would have heard the messages in the first place. Even if the
president were to declare a national emergency and take over the nation's
airwaves for an announcement, cumbersome alert systems and the glut of unmanned
radio stations would make it hard to get the word out.

* Crisis Alert in Critical State, Randy Dotinga  , 04/08/24, Wired


20. Links & Snippets


20.01. Other Publications

- Pervasive Service Architecture for a Digital Business Ecosystem, Thomas
Heistracher , Thomas Kurz , Claudius Masuch , Pierfranco Ferronato , Miguel
Vidal , Angelo Corallo , Gerard Briscoe , Paolo Dini , 2004/08/20, arXiv, DOI:
- A Generalized Approach to Complex Networks, Luciano da Fontoura Costa ,
2004/08/03, arXiv, DOI: cond-mat/0408076
- The Topological Relationship Between the Large-scale Attributes and Local
Interaction Patterns of Complex Networks, A. Vazquez , R. Dobrin , D. Sergi ,
J.-P. Eckmann , Z. N. Oltvai , A.-L. Barabasi , 2004/08/19, arXiv, DOI:
- Stability and Diversity in Collective Adaptation, Yuzuru Sato , Eizo Akiyama
, James P. Crutchfield , 2004/08/20, arXiv, DOI: nlin.AO/0408039
- Introduction to Protein Crystallization, Alexander McPherson , 2004/11,
Methods 34(3):254-265, DOI: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2004.03.019
- Software Solutions for Self-organizing Multimedia-Appliances, Michael
Hellenschmidt , Thomas Kirste , 2004/10, Computers & Graphics 28(5):643-655,
DOI: 10.1016/j.cag.2004.06.004
- A Model Of Sex-Based Social Stability, A. Koch andreas@andreas-koch.dk , M.
Tvede , Jul.-Aug. 2004, Online 2004/08/24, Complexity, DOI: 10.1002/cplx.20044
- Embodying Literature, E. J. Esrock esroce@rpi.edu , May-Jun. 2004, Journal of
Consciousness Studies
- Poetry As Right-Hemispheric Language, J. Kane kanej@nsula.edu , May-Jun.
2004, Journal of Consciousness Studies
- Modeling Of Growing Networks With Directional Attachment And Communities, M.
Kimura kimura@cslab.kecl.ntt.co.jp , K. Saito saito@cslab.kecl.ntt.co.jp , N.
Ueda ueda@cslab.kecl.ntt.co.jp , Sep. 2004, Neural Networks, DOI:
- Olfactory-Mediated Parasite Recognition And Avoidance: Linking Genes To
Behavior, M. Kavaliers Kavalier@uwo.ca , E. Choleris  , A. moc  , D. W. Pfaff
, Sep. 2004, online 2004/06/07, Hormones and Behavior, DOI:
- The Nose Knows Who's Who: Chemosensory Individuality And Mate Recognition In
Mice, P. A. Brennan pab23@cus.cam.ac.uk , Sep. 2004, online 2004/06/07,
Hormones and Behavior, DOI: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2004.01.010
- Face Pictures Reduce Behavioural, Autonomic, Endocrine And Neural Indices Of
Stress And Fear In Sheep, K. M. Kendrick  , A. P. da Costa  , A. E. Leigh  , M.
S. Man , 2004/08/23, Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
- Sire Attractiveness Influences Offspring Performance In Guppies, J. P. Evans
, J. L. Kelley,  , A. Bisazza  , E. Finazzo  , A Pilastro , 2004/08/23,
Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
- Evolution Of A Climbing Habit Promotes Diversification In Flowering Plants, E
Gianoli , 2004/08/23, Alphagalileo & Proceedings B (Biological Sciences)
- A Root To Success, T. Evensen tev@forskningsradet.no , 2004/08/24,
- Parents' Attitudes To The Threat Of Terrorism, M. MacLean , 2004/08/24,
- 'Almost Impossible' To Catch Cheating Athletes, 2004/08/27, ScienceDaily &
University Of Alberta
- Political Unity In The Republic, J. Mouracade john.mouracade@okbu.edu ,
2004:25, 2, History of Political Thought
- Distnguishing The Public From The Private: Aristotle's Solution To Plato's
Paradox, R. Zhu zhu@lfc.edu , 2004:25, 2, History of Political Thought
- Representation Of Age Identities In On-Line Discourse, M.-C. Lin
emmameichen@hotmail.com , M. L. Hummert  , J. Harwood , Aug. 2004, online
2004/07/01, Journal of Aging Studies, DOI: 10.1016/j.jaging.2004.03.006
- Neural Network Model To Generate Head Swing In Locomotion Of Caenorhabditis
Elegans, K. Sakata  , R. Shingai shingai@iwate-u.ac.jp , Aug. 2004, Online
2004/06/23, Network: Comput. Neural Syst., DOI: 10.1088/0954-898X/15/3/003
- Brain May Produce its Own Antipsychotic Drug, 2004/08/30, New Scientist
- Most Heart Attacks are Easily Predictable, 2004/08/29, Reuters
- Biggest Bets in the Universe Unveiled, 2004/08/26, PhysicsWeb
- In Cell Cycle, Size Matters, Cathy Holding  , 04/08/25, The Scientist,
Size-sensing mechanism in animal cells could determine cell cycle length to
control growth
- Odd Methods of Predicting the Presidential Race , 04/08/26, NPR D2D, From
economists to university professors, everyone has their own method of
predicting the outcome of the 2004 presidential race. NPR's Eric Weiner
explores some rather non-traditional methods of forecasting the winner.
- Demystifying The Science of Flight , 04/08/27, NPR, TOTN, A 50-year-old myth
dies hard. Why airplanes fly: What you were taught in school might be wrong.
- Neutrino Oscillations as a Probe of Dark Energy, David B. Kaplan , Ann E.
Nelson , Neal Weiner

, 04/08/25
- Inducing Disallowed Two-Atom Transitions with Temporally Entangled Photons,
Ashok Muthukrishnan , Girish S. Agarwal , Marlan O. Scully , 04/08/25
- Efficient Conditional Preparation of High-Fidelity Single Photon States for
Fiber-Optic Quantum Networks, Alfred B. U'Ren , Christine Silberhorn , Konrad
Banaszek , Ian A. Walmsley , 04/08/25
- Ghost Imaging with Thermal Light: Comparing Entanglement and Classical
Correlation, A. Gatti , E. Brambilla , M. Bache , L. A. Lugiato , 04/08/26
- Is the Quantum Hall Effect Influenced by the Gravitational Field?, Friedrich
W. Hehl , Yuri N. Obukhov , Bernd Rosenow , 04/08/26
- Criticality in the Relaxation Phase of a Spontaneously Contracting Atria
Isolated from a Frog's Heart, Y. F. Contoyiannis , F. K. Diakonos , C.
Papaefthimiou , G. Theophilidis , 04/08/24
- Commonality of Elastic Relaxation Times in Biofilms, T. Shaw , M. Winston ,
C. J. Rupp , I. Klapper , P. Stoodley , 04/08/24
- Self-Concentration and Large-Scale Coherence in Bacterial Dynamics,
Christopher Dombrowski , Luis Cisneros , Sunita Chatkaew , Raymond E. Goldstein
, John O. Kessler , 04/08/24
- Ecosystem Engineers: From Pattern Formation to Habitat Creation, E. Gilad ,
J. von Hardenberg , A. Provenzale , M. Shachak , E. Meron , 04/08/26
- Running Pulses of Complex Shape in a Reaction-Diffusion Model, E. S. Lobanova
  , F. I. Ataullakhanov , 04/08/26
- Self-Stabilized Fractality of Seacoasts through Damped Erosion, B. Sapoval ,
A. Baldassarri , A. Gabrielli , 04/08/23
- Bananas Could Power Aussie Homes, BBC News. Australian engineers create an
electricity generator fuelled by decomposing bananas, and are planning a full
scale, fruit-fired power station.
- Rumsfeld Denies Abuses Occurred at Interrogations, Eric Schmitt
, The defense secretary incorrectly described the findings of an investigation
by saying there was no evidence that Iraqi prisoners had been abused.
- In Palm Beach, Results of 2000 Still Stir a Fight, Abby Goodnough
, Although Democrats hold a solid majority in Palm Beach County, Fla., it is so
big that even a small shift among its 700,000 voters could make a difference in
- Accord With Risks Ahead , The Najaf deal may bring short-term peace to the
ravaged holy city after three weeks of urban warfare, but the cease-fire terms
could pose a long-term danger to U.S. troops and interests in Iraq.
(By Robin Wright and Thomas E. Ricks, The Washington Post)
- Top Brass Won't Be Charged Over Abuse , Josh White , Thomas E. Ricks
, 04/08/27, Washington Post, Army Reports Find Officers Responsible, but Not
Culpable, in the Abu Ghraib Scandal
- Army's Report Faults General in Prison Abuse, Douglas Jehl , Eric Schmitt  ,
04/08/27, NYTimes, Classified parts of the report say Lt. Gen. Ricardo S.
Sanchez approved the use in Iraq of some severe interrogation practices.
- It May Be Hard to Tell a Rally From a Lot of People in the Park, Randal C.
Archibold  , 04/08/27, NYTimes
- America's Failing Health, Paul Krugman  , 04/08/27, NYTimes
- Sunflower Oil Boost To Car Future, Richard Black  , 04/08/26,

The new process only produces a small amount of carbon dioxide

BBC.UK scientists develop a process for making hydrogen from sunflower oil
which may become an important future source of eco-friendly energy.
- The Role of Military Doctors in Abu Ghraib , 04/08/27, NPR TOTN, An article
in the journal The Lancet charges that doctors at the prison knew of the
mistreatment, yet allowed it to continue. We consider the involvement of
doctors in the Iraqi Abu Ghraib prison abuse scandal.
- Giving the Battery, That Stalwart, a Fuel-Cell Challenge, Ian Austen  ,
04/08/26, NYTimes
- Groups Say GOP Moves to Stifle Vote, Jo Becker  , 04/08/26, Washington Post
- The Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science (2004)
- Holding the Pentagon Accountable: For Abu Ghraib, 04/08/26, NYTimes, The
reports issued this week on the Abu Ghraib prison are an indictment of the way
the Bush administration set the stage for Iraqi prisoners to be brutalized.
- Holding the Pentagon Accountable: For Religious Bigotry, 04/08/26, NYTimes,
Lt. Gen. William Boykin has become a national embarrassment and needs to be
removed from his current job.
- Hiding the Truth in a Cloud of Black Ink, Trent Lott , Ron Wyden  , 04/08/26,
NYTimes, In the war on terror, the culture of excessive classification of
government records is a legacy we can no longer afford.
- Auditor Criticizes Iraq Contract Oversight , Robert O'Harrow Jr  , 04/08/25,
Washington Post
- Viroids, Viruses, and RNA Silencing - The small RNA world just got bigger,
Leslie A. Pray  , The Scientist, Volume 18 | Issue 16 | 23 | 04/08/30
- Materials science: Silicon carbide in contention, ROLAND MADAR
roland.madar@inpg.fr , 04/08/26, Nature 430, 974 - 975. Silicon carbide is a
highly desirable material for high-power electronic devices ?more desirable
even than silicon. And now the problem of producing large, pure wafers of the
carbide could be solved., DOI: 10.1038/430974a


20.02. Webcast Announcements

The 4th Intl Workshop on Meta-synthesis and Complex System, Beijing, China,

Intl Conf on Complex Networks: Structure, Function and Processes, Kolkata,
India, 04/06/27-30

 From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela
(1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20

ECC8 Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,

Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium,

International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21

Life, a Nobel Story, Brussels, Belgium, 04/04/28

Nonlinear Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics Days, Brussels, Belgium,

Science Education Forum for Chinese Language Culture, Panel Discussion, Taipei,
Taiwan, 04/05/01

Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology, ,
Lausanne,Switzerland, 04/01/29-30

Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H.,
Internet-First University Press, 1994

World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland   Riding the Next Democratic
Wave, Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic
Forum, 04/01/25
  The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan,
Martin, Schwab, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25  Why Victory Against Terrorism
Demands Shared Values

  CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And
Intelligent Systems, 2004 Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10 EVOLVABILITY &
INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of Communication, Signaling, and
Perception in the Dynamics of Social Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10 The
Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and Practicalities,
Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on
Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany, 03/09/14-17 New Santa Fe Institute
President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role, (Video, Santa Fe, NM,
03/06/04) SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM,
2003/06/01-04 NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio
Report, 03/05/11 13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life
Sciences, Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10 CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos
of Archived Lectures and Live Events Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video
Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998 Edge Videos


20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

Gabriele Leidloff, Ugly Casting 1.4 , Berlin, Germany, 04/08/19-10/08

Intl Conf on Science of Complex Networks: from Biology
to the Internet and WWW (CNET2004), Aveiro
(Portugal), 04/08/29-09/02

ICCC 2004, IEEE International Conference on Computational Cybernetics,
Vienna, Austria, 04/08/30-09/01

  2004, 4th International Workshop on Ant Colony
  Optimization and Swarm Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium,

An Inquiry into Systems, Emergence, Levels of Reality,
  and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy,

  Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems
  (ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts, 04/09/12-15

  Dynamics Days 2004, XXIV Annual Conf
Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 04/09/13-17

   II. Socrates Workshop on Chaotic Systems,
Maribor, Slovenia, 04/09/13-17

   Inquiries, Indices and Incommensurabilities: Managing Emergence, Complexity
and Organization,
Washington, DC, 04/09/18-19

  Neuroeconomics 2004, Charleston, SC, 04/09/16-19

  New Economic Windows 2004: Complexity Hints for Economic Policy, Salerno,
Italy, 04/09/16-18

Verhulst 200 on Chaos, Brussels, BELGIUM, 04/09/16-18

  8th Intl Conf on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature
  (PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22

  Nonlinear Waves in Fluids: Recent Advances and Modern Applications, Udine,
Italy, 04/09/18-22

  XVII Brazilian
  Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao -
  Brazil, 04/09/22-24

  3rd Natll Conf on Systems Science ,
Trento (Italy), 04/10/07-09

   TEDMED Conference ,
Charleston SC, 04/10/12-15

  Intl Workshop On Bifurcations In Nonsmooth And Hybrid Dynamical Systems  ,
Milano (Italy), 04/10/21-22

  Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois,

  6th Intl Conf on Electronic Commerce
ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape,  Delft, The Netherlands,

   Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio de Janeiro,

ICDM '04: The Fourth IEEE Intl Conf on Data Mining, Brighton, UK, 04/11/01-04

Denaturing Darwin: International Conference on Evolution and Organization
, Amersfoort, The Netherlands, 04/11/12-14

  The 7th Asia-Pacific Complex Systems Conference,  Queensland, Australia,

  17th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,  Queensland,
Australia, 04/12/06-10

Cellular Computing Symposium, U Warwick
(UK), 04/12/09-10

  International Conference On Computational Intelligence (Icci 2004) ,
Istanbul, Turkey, 04/12/15-17

  Kondratieff Waves, Warfare And World Security, NATO Advanced Research
, Covilh? Portugal, 05/02/14-17

5th Creativity And Cognition Conference, London.UK, 05/04/12-15

  Powders & Grains 2005, Stuttgart, Germany, 05/06/18-22

  Workshop on Complexity and Policy Analysis, Cork, Ireland, 05/06/22-24

18th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2005), Salamanca,
Spain, 05/09/19-23

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