ժ NO2004.28


Complexity Digest 2004.28

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
Mirror: http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think
the next century will be the century of complexity." Stephen Hawking

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Content:

01. Infection And Immunity, Nature
01.01. Immunology: Another Manifestation Of GOD (Generation Of Diversity),
Nature
01.02. Superbug Genome Excels At Passing On Drug Resistance, Nature
01.03. Cancer Immunotherapy: A Treatment for the Masses, Science
02. Unique Immune System Found in Lampreys, Science Now
02.01. Can Worms Tame the Immune System?, Science
02.02. Vaccination Pattern Affects Immunological Response, arXiv
03. Learning And Knowing Collectively, Ecological Economics
03.01. Bacterial Linguistic Communication and Social Intelligence, Trends in
Microbiology
03.02. Diffusion Of Agricultural Biotechnology And Intellectual Property
Rights: Issues In India, Ecological Economics
04. Actions, Answers, And Uncertainty: A Decision-Making Perspective, Info.
Processing & Management
04.01. A Model Of Knowledge Activation And Insight In Problem Solving,
Complexity
05. How Surprising Is A Simple Pattern? Quantifying "Eureka!", Cognition
05.01. Can Musical Transformations Be Implicitly Learned?, Cognitive Science
05.02. Can Computers Argue?, Alphagalileo
06. Studies Of Prematurely Old Mice Hint That DNA Mutations Underlie Aging,
Science News
06.01. The RNAi Revolution, Nature
07. Computing the Meanings of Words in Reading, Psychological Review
08. Brain Implants 'Read' Monkey Minds, NewScientist
08.01. Monkey Research and Prosthetics Controlled by Thought, NPR TOTN
08.02. Monkey See, Monkey Think About Doing, Science Now
08.03. Cognitive Control Signals for Neural Prosthetics, Science
09. Old Is Young, Study Finds: Longevity Evolved Late For Humans, ScienceDaily
09.01. Elderly Crucial To Evolutionary Success Of Humans, NewScientist
10. Clearing Up Blurry Vision: Scientists Gaze Toward Causes Of Myopia, Science
News
10.01. Lifestyle Causes Myopia, Not Genes, New Scientist
11. Robotic Wheels that Just Keep Rolling, New Scientist.com
12. Evolution Could Speed Net Downloads, NewScientist
12.01. Hide and Seek on Complex Networks, arXiv
13. Scepticism Greets Pitch To Detect Dark Energy In The Lab, Nature
14. Braiding Patterns On An Inclined Plan, Nature
15. Woodpiles for Photons, Science
16. ALEX3: a Simulation Program to Compare Electoral Systems, JASSS
16.01. Has the Time Come for Touchscreen Voting?, NYTimes
17. Schoolchildren To Be RFID-Chipped, Silicon.com
18. Force Spies to Work Together, NY Times
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
19.01. Homeland Security Requests Election Review, Washington Post
19.02. Bin Laden Is Said to Be Organizing for a U.S. Attack, NY Times
19.03. Hi-Tech Rays To Aid Terror Fight, BBC News
19.04. Pentagon Sets Hearings for 595 Detainees, Washington Post
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

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01. Infection And Immunity , Nature

Excerpts: Infectious diseases remain a serious medical burden in both
developing and industrialized countries. The emergence of new diseases such as
HIV/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), (...), and the threat of
deliberately developed man-made infections are cause for concern. When vaccines
or effective treatments are not available, we rely on the immune system to
clear the host of infectious agents and disease. A better understanding of the
tactics used by pathogens and of the immune system's defensive armoury is
needed (...).

* Infection And Immunity, Ursula Weiss  , 04/07/08, DOI: 10.1038/430241a,
Nature 430, 241


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01.01. Immunology: Another Manifestation Of GOD (Generation Of Diversity) ,
Nature

Excerpts: In studies of the evolution of the adaptive immune system, the
lamprey has been an unlikely centre of attention. These studies now provide
evidence of a fascinating variation on how such a system can operate.

(...) lampreys seem to get by without one of the two arms of jawed-vertebrate
immune defence, the so-called adaptive system, which is well developed in the
oldest jawed vertebrates, the sharks.
As Pancer et al. show on
page 174  of this issue 1, however, lampreys apparently have such a system.
It's just rather different.

* Immunology: Another Manifestation Of GOD (Generation Of Diversity), Martin F.
Flajnik  , 04/07/08, DOI: 10.1038/430157a, Nature 430, 157 - 158


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01.02. Superbug Genome Excels At Passing On Drug Resistance , Nature

Excerpts: A bacterium that is spreading through hospitals because of its
resistance to certain antibiotics is well equipped to develop yet more
self-protection, (...).


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) kills about 800 patients a
year in Britain alone, and health officials have been watching its spread with
alarm (...).


A genome sequence for one of its strains, (...), is significantly different
from the six other resistant and non-resistant strains that have been sequenced
(...). And the areas that differ contain the genes that confer resistance to
drugs.

* Superbug Genome Excels At Passing On Drug Resistance, Jim Giles  , 04/07/08,
DOI: 10.1038/430126a, Nature 430, 126


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01.03. Cancer Immunotherapy: A Treatment for the Masses , Science

Excerpts: Cancer immunotherapy attempts to harness the exquisite power and
specificity of the immune system for the treatment of malignancy. Although
cancer cells are less immunogenic than pathogens, the immune system is clearly
capable of recognizing and eliminating tumor cells. However, tumors frequently
interfere with the development and function of immune responses. Thus, the
challenge for immunotherapy is to use advances in cellular and molecular
immunology to develop strategies that effectively and safely augment antitumor
responses.

* Cancer Immunotherapy: A Treatment for the Masses, Joseph N. Blattman  ,
Philip D. Greenberg
, 04/07/09, Science : 200-20



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02. Unique Immune System Found in Lampreys , Science Now

Excerpts: Ancient species' adaptive defense features immune cells in new roles



Not just a pretty face. Sea lampreys boast an ancestral form of adaptive
immunity.

CREDIT: GREAT LAKES FISHERY COMMISSION




An entirely new form of immune response has been described in the lamprey, an
eel-like fish from an ancient lineage. This discovery casts a class of immune
cells in a new light and raises the possibility that there is more to the
immune system of higher vertebrates than has been realized. (...)
However, lampreys don't seem to be armed with antibodies and T cell
receptors--the conventional molecular tools that all jawed vertebrates
including humans use to fight off novel pathogens.

* Unique Immune System Found in Lampreys, Henry Nicholls  , 04/07/07, Science
Now


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02.01. Can Worms Tame the Immune System? , Science

Excerpts: Researchers are investigating the use of parasites as remedies for
inflammatory bowel disease and other disorders of hyperimmunity.

(...) dozens of unpaid volunteers have recently been gulping Gatorade laced
with 2500 live eggs from parasitic worms. (...) The hoped-for reward for the
participants was remission of the disruptive and painful symptoms of
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (...) believe that parasitic worms, or
substances derived from them, could provide effective treatments for not only
IBD but also a range of autoimmune disorders.

* Can Worms Tame the Immune System?, Ingrid Wickelgren
, 04/07/09, Science : 170-171.



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02.02. Vaccination Pattern Affects Immunological Response , arXiv

Abstract: The response of the immune system to different vaccination patterns
is studied with a simple model. It is argued that the history and
characteristics of the pattern defines very different secondary immune
responses in the case of infection. The memory function of the immune response
can be set to work in very different modes depending on the pattern followed
during immunizations. It is argued that the history and pattern of
immunizations can be a decisive (and experimentally accessible) factor to
tailor the effectiveness of a specific vaccine.
See Also: Antonio Coutinho's talk "Second Generation Immune Network" Audio
42:11 [mp3: 24Kbps, 6.0 Mb], given at From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A
Tribute to Francisco Varela.

* Vaccination Pattern Affects Immunological Response, P. Etchegoin ,
2004/07/03, DOI: q-bio.OT/0407005, arXiv
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


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03. Learning And Knowing Collectively , Ecological Economics

Abstract: Scholars from multiple epistemic communities using a variety of
models and approaches are working together to understand climate change,
biodiversity loss, and other large-scale phenomena stemming from how people
interact with the environment. No single model is adequate, no single mind can
grasp the multiple models and their numerous implications. Yet collectively,
scientists are putting the parts together and reaching a shared understanding.
How is this happening, how can it be done better, and what are the implications
for ecological economics?

* Learning And Knowing Collectively, R. B. Norgaard norgaard@igc.org ,
2004/06/01, online 2004/05/28, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.03.021, Ecological
Economics
* Contributed by Pritha Das


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03.01. Bacterial Linguistic Communication and Social Intelligence , Trends in
Microbiology

Excerpts: Bacteria have developed intricate communication capabilities (e.g.
quorum-sensing, chemotactic signaling and plasmid exchange) to cooperatively
self-organize into highly structured colonies with elevated environmental
adaptability. We propose that bacteria use their intracellular flexibility,
involving signal transduction networks and genomic plasticity, to collectively
maintain linguistic communication: self and shared interpretations of chemical
cues, exchange of chemical messages (semantic) and dialogues (pragmatic).
Meaning-based communication permits colonial identity, intentional behavior
(e.g. pheromone-based courtship for mating), purposeful alteration of colony
structure (e.g. formation of fruiting bodies), decision-making (e.g. to
sporulate) and the recognition and identification of other colonies ?features
we might begin to associate with a bacterial social intelligence. Such a social
intelligence, should it exist, would require going beyond communication to
encompass unknown additional intracellular processes to generate inheritable
colonial memory and commonly shared genomic context.

* Bacterial Linguistic Communication and Social Intelligence, Eshel Ben Jacob ,
Israela Becker , Yoash Shapira , Herbert Levine , 2004/07/01, DOI:
10.1016/j.tim.2004.06.006, Trends in Microbiology, Article in Press, Corrected
Proof
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


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03.02. Diffusion Of Agricultural Biotechnology And Intellectual Property
Rights: Issues In India , Ecological Economics

Excerpts: Agriculture in developing economies is rural based with a majority of
poor people dependent on it. Hence, any new technology that would result in
improving the crop yield or reducing the cost will be highly useful. (...)
However, when such new technologies are protected by intellectual property the
implications are different. The plant protection system available in India
enables the farmer to save, use, sow, resow, exchange, or share the seeds of
protected variety, (...). Whereas plant protection could boost research in the
area of plant biotechnology by both public and private bodies, it could also
result in higher prices for seeds, (...).

* Diffusion Of Agricultural Biotechnology And Intellectual Property Rights:
Emerging Issues In India, N. Lalitha lalitha@gidr.ac.in , 2004/06/01, online
2004/06/02, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.03.022, Ecological Economics
* Contributed by Pritha Das


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04. Actions, Answers, And Uncertainty: A Decision-Making Perspective , Info.
Processing & Management

Excerpts: We present research on methods for generating answers to freely posed
questions, based upon information drawn from the Web. The methods exploit the
typical redundancy of information on the Web by making multiple queries to
search engines and then combining the search results into an answer. We focus
on the pursuit of techniques for guiding information gathering in support of
answering questions via the learning of probabilistic models that predict the
value of information drawn from the Web. We first review research on
question-answering systems. Then, we present AskMSR, a prototype Web-based
question-answering system. (...)

* Actions, Answers, And Uncertainty: A Decision-Making Perspective On Web-Based
Question Answering, D. Azari azari@cs.washington.edu , E. Horvitz
horvitz@microsoft.com , S. Dumais sdumais@microsoft.com , E. Brill
brill@microsoft.com , Sep. 2004, online 2004/05/25, DOI:
10.1016/j.ipm.2004.04.013, Information Processing & Management
* Contributed by Pritha Das


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04.01. A Model Of Knowledge Activation And Insight In Problem Solving ,
Complexity

Excerpts: This article presents a model of insight that offers predictions on
how and when insights are likely to occur as an individual solves problems.
This model is based on a fundamental trade-off between the conscious cognition
that underlies how people decide among alternatives and the unconscious
cognition that underlies insight. I argue that the attention controls how much
thought (i.e., knowledge activation) goes to conscious cognition, and whatever
activation is left over will go to finding an insight. I validate this model by
replicating the common pattern of insight in problem solving (preparation -
impasse - incubation - verification). (...)

* A Model Of Knowledge Activation And Insight In Problem Solving, M. A. Cronin
, May-Jun. 2004, Online 2004/07/01, DOI: 10.1002/cplx.20031, Complexity
* Contributed by Atin Das


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05. How Surprising Is A Simple Pattern? Quantifying "Eureka!" , Cognition

Excerpts: Simple patterns are compelling. (...) But how surprising is a simple
pattern, really? That is, given a pattern of featural data (...) how unlikely
would the pattern be if they were actually generated at random? In conventional
statistics (...) would be answered by reference to a null distribution such as
the t distribution. This paper gives the analogous answer in the realm of
concept learning, that is, the formation of generalizations from patterns of
featural data. Using a formal but psychologically valid definition of
complexity, I derive and exhibit the distribution of subjective complexity
under the hypothesis of no pattern. (...)

* How Surprising Is A Simple Pattern? Quantifying "Eureka!", J. Feldman
jacob@ruccs.rutgers.edu , Oct. 2004, online 2004/03/11, DOI:
10.1016/j.cognition.2003.09.013, Cognition
* Contributed by Atin Das


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05.01. Can Musical Transformations Be Implicitly Learned? , Cognitive Science

Excerpts: The dominant theory of what people can learn implicitly is that they
learn chunks of adjacent elements in sequences. A type of musical grammar that
goes beyond specifying allowable chunks is provided by serialist or 12-tone
music. The rules constitute operations over variables and could not be
appreciated as such by a system that can only chunk elements together. (...) We
found that people who had no background in atonal music did not learn the
structures, but highly selected participants with an interest in atonal music
could implicitly learn to detect melodies instantiating the structures. (...)

* Can Musical Transformations Be Implicitly Learned?, Z. Dienes
dienes@sussex.ac.uk , C. L.-Higgins , Jul.-Aug. 2004, online 2004/05/18, DOI:
10.1016/j.cogsci.2004.03.003, Cognitive Science
* Contributed by Atin Das


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05.02. Can Computers Argue? , Alphagalileo

Excerpts: The answer is yes, and not only that: they can also evaluate what
will be the most successful strategy for conflict resolution, including
re-formulating their action, or evading confrontation. Argument is used by
computer agents only as the last resort. The effectiveness of
argumentation-based negotiation (ABN) for computer agents operating in
multi-agent systems is assessed in a new paper (...). Agents are autonomous
computer systems increasingly used in a wide range of industrial and commercial
domains, (...). 'Conflicts are inevitable in a multi-agent system, (...) If the
agents are to be able to resolve these problems (...) then ABN provides a
meaningful interaction, (...)'

* Can Computers Argue?, J. Lewis j.k.lewis@ecs.soton.ac.uk , 2004/07/05,
Alphagalileo
* Contributed by Atin Das


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06. Studies Of Prematurely Old Mice Hint That DNA Mutations Underlie Aging ,
Science News

Excerpts:


OLD STORY. Some researchers conjecture that the increasing burden of DNA
mutations in mitochondria, organelles that provide an animal cell with energy,
is a cause of aging.

?Roseman/Custom Medical Stock Photo




With age, this mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) becomes riddled with mutations, both
subtle and severe.

This observation, made in many species, has prompted some researchers to
conjecture that the increasing burden of mutations in mitochondrial DNA is a
cause of aging.


Recently, however, Larsson and his colleagues have genetically engineered mice
to develop mtDNA mutations faster than normal. Compared to typical lab mice,
these rodents suffer age-related conditions, (...), much sooner than typical
mice do, and they die young.

* Studies Of Prematurely Old Mice Hint That DNA Mutations Underlie Aging, John
Travis  , 04/07/10, Science News


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06.01. The RNAi Revolution , Nature

Excerpts: The term RNAi ?short for RNA interference ?crops up again and again
in biology research these days. This is in part because of its power as a
laboratory tool, (...).

Arguably the most important advance in biology in decades has been the
discovery that RNA molecules can regulate the expression of genes. (...)
(...) discovery of RNAi was technically simple: injecting double-stranded RNAs
(dsRNAs) into the worm Caenorhabditis elegans resulted in the silencing of a
gene whose sequence was complementary to that of the dsRNAs

* The RNAi Revolution, Carl D. Novina , Phillip A. Sharp  , 04/07/08, DOI:
10.1038/430161a, Nature 430, 161 - 164


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07. Computing the Meanings of Words in Reading , Psychological Review

Summary: Are words read visually (by means of a direct mapping from orthography
to semantics) or phonologically (by mapping from orthography to phonology to
semantics)? The authors addressed this long-standing debate by examining how a
large-scale computational model based on connectionist principles would solve
the problem and comparing the model's performance to people's. In contrast to
previous models, the present model uses an architecture in which meanings are
jointly determined by the 2 components, with the division of labor between them
affected by the nature of the mappings between codes. The model is consistent
with a variety of behavioral phenomena, including the results of studies of
homophones and pseudo-homophones thought to support other theories, and
illustrates how efficient processing can be achieved using multiple
simultaneous constraints.

* Computing the Meanings of Words in Reading , Michael W. Harm, Mark S.
Seidenberg,  , Psychological Review, 2004, Vol. 111, No. 3, 662?20, 2004
Contributed by  Mark S. Seidenberg


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08. Brain Implants 'Read' Monkey Minds , NewScientist

Excerpts: Brain implants have been used to "read the minds" of monkeys to
predict what they are about to do and even how enthusiastic they are about
doing it.

It is the first time such high level cognitive brain signals have been decoded,
(...).

By decoding the signals from 96 electrodes in a region of the brain just above
the ear ?called the parietal cortex - the researchers were able to predict 67
per cent of the time where in their visual field trained monkeys were planning
to reach.

* Brain Implants 'Read' Monkey Minds, 04/07/08, NewScientist


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08.01. Monkey Research and Prosthetics Controlled by Thought , NPR TOTN

Excerpts: Researchers say that by monitoring monkeys' brains they can "see" the
brain signals for movement -- even when the monkeys are only thinking about
moving. How might that help paralyzed people in the future? We'll find out in
this hour.

* Monkey Research and Prosthetics Controlled by Thought , Richard Andersen  ,
04/07/09, NPR TOTN


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08.02. Monkey See, Monkey Think About Doing , Science Now

Excerpts:


Monitoring intent. Electrodes implanted in the parietal reach region tap into
neurons that determine the direction in which a monkey is planning to reach.

CREDIT: CAMERON SLAYDEN/SCIENCE



Initially, the program had trouble matching the monkeys' intentions to the
icon's position. But as the monkeys practiced thinking about reaching, (...),
so that the computer decoded the correct direction--and the monkeys were
rewarded--more frequently. After 2 months, the computer accurately forecast the
intended direction of the incipient reach as much as 67% of the time when there
were eight potential positions for the icon, versus 12.5% by chance, (...)
"They indicate the thought, 'I want to pick up that glass.'"

* Monkey See, Monkey Think About Doing, Ingrid Wickelgren , 04/07/08, Science
Now


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08.03. Cognitive Control Signals for Neural Prosthetics , Science

Excerpts: Recent development of neural prosthetics for assisting paralyzed
patients has focused on decoding intended hand trajectories from motor cortical
neurons and using this signal to control external devices. In this study,
higher level signals related to the goals of movements were decoded from three
monkeys and used to position cursors on a computer screen without the animals
emitting any behavior. Their performance in this task improved over a period of
weeks. Expected value signals related to fluid preference, the expected
magnitude, or probability of reward were decoded simultaneously with the
intended goal. For neural prosthetic applications, the goal signals can be used
to operate computers, robots, and vehicles, whereas the expected value signals
can be used to continuously monitor a paralyzed patient's preferences and
motivation.

* Cognitive Control Signals for Neural Prosthetics, S. Musallam , B. D. Corneil
, B. Greger , H. Scherberger , R. A. Andersen
, 04/07/09, Science : 258-262.



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09. Old Is Young, Study Finds: Longevity Evolved Late For Humans , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Researchers (...) have discovered a dramatic increase in human
longevity that took place during the early Upper Paleolithic Period, around
30,000 B.C. In their study of more than 750 fossils (...) found a dramatic
increase in longevity among modern humans during that time: the number of
people surviving to an older age more than quadrupled. (...) said this increase
in the number of relatively old people likely had a major impact, giving modern
humans a competitive edge that ensured their evolutionary success. (...) In the
study, they defined "old" to be at least double the age of reproductive
maturation, (...).

* Old Is Young, Study Finds: Longevity Evolved Late For Humans, 2004/07/06,
ScienceDaily & University Of Michigan
* Contributed by Atin Das


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09.01. Elderly Crucial To Evolutionary Success Of Humans , NewScientist

Excerpts: Senior citizens played an important role in the dramatic spread of
human civilisation some 30,000 years ago, a study of the human fossil record
has shown.
Caspari and Lee found a five-fold increase the number of individuals surviving
into old age in the Early Upper Palaeolithic period - around 30,000 years ago.
This coincides with an explosive population growth of modern humans and the
spread of archaeological artefacts that suggest the development of more complex
social organisation.

"In the Upper Paleolithic the proportion just skyrocketed," (...).

* Elderly Crucial To Evolutionary Success Of Humans, Will Knight  , 04/07/04,
New Scientist


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10. Clearing Up Blurry Vision: Scientists Gaze Toward Causes Of Myopia ,
Science News

Excerpts:


ODD EYES. Elongated, myopic eyeball (top) focuses light in front of the retina,
making distant images appear blurry. Normal eye (bottom) focuses light directly
on the retina.

E. Roell



Using a noninvasive technique, Hammond measured the sizes of the eyeballs of
280 sets of fraternal adult twins and 226 sets of identical twins. By
mathematically modeling the differences in the eye sizes, Hammond found that
genes accounted for 89 percent of nearsightedness, farsightedness, and other
refractive vision problems (...).
To investigate what regions of DNA in the general population might have a
connection to myopia, Hammond scanned the entire genome of the fraternal twins
and found four sections linked to the eye problem.

* Clearing Up Blurry Vision: Scientists Gaze Toward Causes Of Myopia, Carrie
Lock  , 04/07/10, Science News


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10.01. Lifestyle Causes Myopia, Not Genes , NewScientist

Excerpts: Contrary to popular belief, people in east Asia are no more
genetically susceptible to short-sightedness than any other population group,
(...).

The epidemics of myopia in countries such as Singapore and Japan are due solely
to changes in lifestyle, they say, and similar levels could soon be seen in
many western countries as lifestyles there continue to change.

"As kids spend more time indoors, on computers or watching telly, we are going
to become just as myopic," says Ian Morgan of the Australian National
University in Canberra.

* Lifestyle Causes Myopia, Not Genes, Rachel Nowak  , 04/07/04, New Scientist


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11. Robotic Wheels that Just Keep Rolling , NewScientist.com

Excerpts: The wheel-shaped robots, which are just 4 centimetres in diameter and
1 centimetre thick, were built by Shinichi Hirai and Yuuta Sugiyama at
Ritsumeikan University in Kusatsu. The robots propel themselves along by
continuously altering their shape. The rim of the wheel is made of an elastic
polymer, while the spokes are made of a smart material known as a shape memory
alloy, which becomes shorter when heated. (...) For now, the Japanese team is
happy to have demonstrated deformability as a new form of robot locomotion.
Their main aim was to show that you do not need rigid bodied crawler robots or
wheeled vehicles to move over rough ground.

* Robotic Wheels that Just Keep Rolling, Will Knight , 2004/07/05,
NewScientist.com
* Contributed by Nadia Gershenson


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12. Evolution Could Speed Net Downloads , NewScientist

Excerpts: Internet download speeds could be improved dramatically by mimicking
Darwin's evolution to "breed" the best networking strategies, say computer
scientists.

Transferring popular data across the internet repeatedly can be inefficient and
costly, so networking companies have developed ways of temporarily storing, or
"caching", data at different locations to reduce costs and increase download
speeds.

But figuring out where to store data and for how long is a complex problem.

(...) used "genetic algorithms", (...), to develop strategies for internet
servers to use when caching data.

* Evolution Could Speed Net Downloads, Will Knight  , 04/07/04, New Scientist


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12.01. Hide and Seek on Complex Networks , arXiv

Abstract: Signaling pathways and networks determine the ability to communicate
in systems ranging from living cells to human society. We investigate how the
network structure constrains communication in social-, man-made and biological
networks. We find that human networks of governance and collaboration are
predictable on teat-a-teat level, reflecting well defined pathways, but
globally inefficient. In contrast, the Internet tends to have better overall
communication abilities, more alternative pathways, and is therefore more
robust. Between these extremes the molecular network of Saccharomyces cerevisea
is more similar to the simpler social systems, whereas the pattern of
interactions in the more complex Drosophilia melanogaster, resembles the robust
Internet.

* Hide and Seek on Complex Networks, K. Sneppen , A. Trusina , M. Rosvall ,
2004/07/02, DOI: cond-mat/0407055, arXiv
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

13. Scepticism Greets Pitch To Detect Dark Energy In The Lab , Nature

Excerpts: The force ?usually known as dark energy ?seems to oppose gravity,
making galaxies fly apart with increasing speed. Detected eight years ago, it
presents one of the biggest puzzles in cosmology.

But we may not need high-powered telescopes to study it, (...). (...) noise
found in a commonplace electronic device could be the fingerprint of dark
energy. If it is, they predict this noise will fall quiet above a well-defined
frequency.
(...)
(...) parallel plates separated by a vacuum attract one another, a phenomenon
called the Casimir effect.
Editor's Note: See also: Has Dark Energy Been Measured In The Lab?,
Christian Beck, Michael C. Mackey, arXiv, astro-ph/0406504, 04/06/23

* Scepticism Greets Pitch To Detect Dark Energy In The Lab, Philip Ball  ,
04/07/08, DOI: 10.1038/430126b, Nature 430, 126


_________________________________________________________________

14. Braiding Patterns On An Inclined Plan , Nature

Excerpts: A jet of fluid flowing down a partially wetting, inclined plane
usually meanders but ?by maintaining a constant flow rate ?meandering can be
suppressed, leading to the emergence of a beautiful braided structure. Here we
show that this flow pattern can be explained by the interplay between surface
tension, which tends to narrow the jet, and fluid inertia, which drives the jet
to widen. These observations dispel misconceptions about the relationship
between braiding and meandering that have persisted for over 20 years.

* Braiding Patterns On An Inclined Plan, Keith Mertens , Vakhtang Putkaradze ,
Peter Vorobieff  , 04/07/08, DOI: 10.1038/430165a, Nature 430, 165


_________________________________________________________________

15. Woodpiles for Photons , Science

Excerpts: In principle, the combination of lithography, etching, and wafer
bonding could be extended to more complex photonic circuits with desirable
properties. To take full advantage of the 3D properties of photonic crystals,
the number of layers has to be increased. The real question is whether wafer
bonding may offer an economically and technologically feasible fabrication
approach for complex and functional 3D photonic crystals containing waveguides
and microresonators. (...)
This is a major step forward in the direction of desirable complex photonic
circuits as integrated "semiconductors for light."

* Woodpiles for Photons, Reinald Hillebrand  , Ulrich G ele  , 04/07/09,
Science : 187-188


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16. ALEX3: a Simulation Program to Compare Electoral Systems , JASSS

Abstract: The paper describes a program for comparing electoral systems based
on the simulation of the preferences of the voters. The parameters requested
(distribution of first preferences, district magnitude, etc) are set up by the
user. The program produces the resulting Parliament under a number of electoral
systems, an index of representativeness and an index of governability. The
first part of the paper describes the characteristics of the program. In the
second part it is used to compare eleven electoral systems in two virtual but
realistic cases.

* ALEX3: a Simulation Program to Compare Electoral Systems, Marie-Edith Bissey
, Mauro Carini , Guido Ortona , 2004/06/30, JASSS 7 (3)
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

16.01. Has the Time Come for Touchscreen Voting? , NYTimes

Excerpts: "How can we trust these things if the public can't inspect the
software inside?" Open-source voting software (available for inspection by
programmers all over the world) would certainly ensure that the voting-machine
companies haven't rigged an election, which is one of the most common fears.
(...)
The smart states, like Maryland and now California, insist on getting a copy of
the machines' source code as part of their purchase deal.(...)
Unfortunately, not all states added this to their contracts.

* Has the Time Come for Touchscreen Voting?, David Pogue  , 04/07/08, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

17. Schoolchildren To Be RFID-Chipped , Silicon.com

Excerpts: School children in Osaka, Japan will be required to wear or carry
RFID chips to track their movements....

The tags will be read by readers installed in school gates and other key
locations to track the kids' movements.
The chips will be put onto kids' schoolbags, name tags or clothing in one
Wakayama prefecture school. Denmark's Legoland introduced a similar scheme last
month to stop young children going astray.

RFID is more commonly found in supermarket and other retailers' supply chains,
however, companies are now seeking more innovative ways to derive value from
the tracking technology.

* Schoolchildren To Be RFID-Chipped, Jo Best  , 04/07/08, Silicon.com


_________________________________________________________________

18. Force Spies to Work Together , NY Times

Excerpts: The military's system of joint command needs to be applied to U.S.
intelligence agencies.

Since Goldwater-Nichols required the armed services to collaborate, we have
seen the successes (...).

This model should be applied to American intelligence. This means moving away
from the current organizational structure, defined primarily along disciplinary
and agency lines. (The C.I.A.'s directorate of intelligence, for example, is
responsible for all-source analysis; the directorate of operations is
responsible for human intelligence collection; the National Security Agency is
responsible for communications intelligence. Turf is sacred.)

* Force Spies to Work Together, Flynt Leverett  , 04/07/09, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks





_________________________________________________________________

19.01. Homeland Security Requests Election Review , Washington Post

Excerpts: Authority over presidential elections is a relatively "murky"
territory, (...).

On the one hand, the states get to say how members of the electoral college
(...) will be chosen. On the other hand, the Constitution gives Congress the
authority to say when they will be chosen.

By federal law, elections are held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in
November. But by the same federal law, states may vary the date.

The one certainty is that presidential term must end on Jan. 20 every four
years.
Editor's Note: Considering how critical the timing is in determining the
outcome of elections, this appears to be another opportunity of abuse of
democratic principles in the spirit of errymandering?electoral districts.

* Homeland Security Requests Election Review, Fred Barbash  , 04/07/12,
Washington Post


_________________________________________________________________

19.02. Bin Laden Is Said to Be Organizing for a U.S. Attack , NY Times

Excerpts: Osama bin Laden and his chief lieutenants, operating from hideouts
suspected to be along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, are directing a Qaeda
effort to launch an attack in the United States sometime this year, senior Bush
administration officials said on Thursday.

"What we know about this most recent information is that it is being directed
from the seniormost levels of the Al Qaeda organization," (...)."We know that
this leadership continues to operate along the border area between Afghanistan
and Pakistan."

* Bin Laden Is Said to Be Organizing for a U.S. Attack, David Johnston , David
Stout , NY Times


_________________________________________________________________

19.03. Hi-Tech Rays To Aid Terror Fight , BBC News

Excerpts:


Terahertz light sits between microwave and infrared on the electro-magnetic
spectrum.



Unlike X-ray, it is perfectly safe to use on people. It can pass through
clothing, paper and plastics to detect metal, ceramic or plastic weapons.

And it can identify explosives by reading their characteristic spectral
"fingerprints".(...)

TeraView is a firm looking at ways of exploiting terahertz light.

It is developing a handheld security "wand" that could be used by airport
security guards to pass over the body of passengers.(...)
"What we are trying to do with terahertz light is create something that is more
automatic (...).

* Hi-Tech Rays To Aid Terror Fight, 04/07/08, BBC


_________________________________________________________________

19.04. Pentagon Sets Hearings for 595 Detainees , Washington Post

Excerpts: Three neutral commissioned military officers -- none involved in the
detainee's capture, detention or interrogation -- will hear each case,
Wolfowitz ordered. The detainees will be allowed to attend all proceedings
except for deliberations, and sessions in which national security could be
compromised, the rules said. (...)

"There will be a rebuttable presumption in favor of the government's evidence,"
meaning that greater deference should be given to the military's claims but the
detainee can try to argue against it.
Editor's Note: Neutrality here is at the digression of the military from the
moment when somebody is declared nemy combatant?to the sentencing by a
military tribunal, there seems to be no space for independent review. Not
having been involved in the detainee's capture, detention or interrogation
hardly qualifies for being independent. One could imagine trivial dependences
like oo few enemy combatants convicted compared to the average.?
A similar statistical argument was used in the prison abuses in Iraq.

* Pentagon Sets Hearings for 595 Detainees , John Mintz  , 04/07/08, Washington
Post


_________________________________________________________________

20. Links & Snippets





_________________________________________________________________

20.01. Other Publications



- The Advantage Of Complexity In Two 2 ?2 Games, J. E.-Warnick
jim.engle-warnick@mcgill.ca , May-Jun. 2004, Online 2004/07/01, Complexity,
DOI: 10.1002/cplx.20038
- Communication And Coordination, J. H. Miller miller@santafe.edu , S. Moser ,
May-Jun. 2004, Online 2004/07/01, Complexity, DOI: 10.1002/cplx.20034
- On The Other Hand Am I Rational? Hemispheric Activation And The Framing
Effect, T. McElroy mcelrogt@wfu.edu , J. J. Seta , Aug. 2004, online
2004/05/20, Brain and Cognition, DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2004.04.002
- A Hemispheric Asymmetry For The Unconscious Perception Of Emotion, S. D.
Smith stephen.d.smith@vanderbilt.edu , M. B. B.-Fleming , Aug. 2004, online
2004/04/13, Brain and Cognition, DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2004.02.064
- A Little Logic Goes A Long Way: Basing Experiment On Semantic Theory In The
Cognitive Science Of Conditional Reasoning, K. Stenning k.stenning@ed.ac.uk ,
M. van Lambalgen , Jul.-Aug. 2004, online 2004/06/01, Cognitive Science, DOI:
10.1016/j.cogsci.2004.02.002
- Evolution At A Snail's Pace, V. Bridge v.bridge@leeds.ac.uk , 2004/07/02,
Alphagalileo
- 3-D Movement Captured To Conduct Music, V. Bridge v.bridge@leeds.ac.uk ,
2004/07/06, Alphagalileo
- Could Skin Cells Become Brain Cells?, R. Lane richard.lane@lancet.com ,
2004/07/07, Alphagalileo & The Lancet
- Paper-Thin Compound-Eye Camera, J. Ehrlenspiel joh.ehr@zv.fraunhofer.de ,
2004/07/08, Alphagalileo
- Severe Depression Associated With Greater Number Of Nerve Cells In Thalamus
Region Of Brain, 200407/06, ScienceDaily & University Of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center At Dallas
- Research Accelerates Discovery Of Novel Gene Function, 2004/07/09,
ScienceDaily & University Of North Carolina School Of Medicine
- The Environmental-Social Interface Of Sustainable Development: Capabilities,
Social Capital, Institutions, M. Lehtonen makelehtonen@yahoo.com , 2004/06/01,
online 2004/05/18, Ecological Economics, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.03.019
- The Classical Metapopulation Theory And The Real, Natural World: A Critical
Appraisal, M. Baguette baguette@ecol.ucl.ac.be , 2004/06/21, online 2004/07/02,
Basic and Applied Ecology, DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2004.03.001
- Combining Evidence For Web Retrieval Using The Inference Network Model: An
Experimental Study, T. Tsikrika theodora@dcs.qmul.ac.uk , M. Lalmas
mounia@dcs.qmul.ac.uk , Sep. 2004, online 2004/05/25, Information Processing &
Management, DOI: 10.1016/j.ipm.2004.04.008
- The Structure and Logic of Interdisciplinary Research in Agent-Based Social
Simulation, Nuno David , Maria Bruno Marietto , Jaime Simão Sichman ,
Helder Coelho , 2004/06/30, JASSS 7 (3)
- VIR-POX: An Agent-Based Analysis of Smallpox Preparedness and Response
Policy, Benjamin M. Eidelson , Ian Lustick , 2004/06/30, JASSS 7 (3)
- From Classroom Experiments to Computer Code, Arianna Dal Forno , Ugo Merlone
, 2004/06/30, JASSS 7 (3)
- Simulating Organizational Decision-Making Using a Cognitively Realistic Agent
Model, Ron Sun , Isaac Naveh , 2004/06/30, JASSS 7 (3)
- Case-Based Reasoning, Social Dilemmas, and a New Equilibrium Concept, Luis R.
Izquierdo , Nicholas M. Gotts , J. Gary Polhill , 2004/06/30, JASSS 7 (3)
- Discretized Opinion Dynamics of The Deffuant Model on Scale-Free Networks,
Dietrich Stauffer , Adriano Sousa , Christian Schulze , 2004/06/30, JASSS 7 (3)
- Flexible Foraging of Ants under Unsteadily Varying Environment, Tomomi Tao ,
Hiroyuki Nakagawa , Masato Yamasaki , Hiraku Nishimori , 2004/07/05, arXiv,
DOI: q-bio.PE/0407007
- Evolution in Complex Systems, Paul Anderson , Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen ,
L.P.Oliveira , Paolo Sibani , 2004/06/28, arXiv, DOI: cond-mat/0406689
- Shannon Information, LMC Complexity and Renyi Entropies: A Straightforward
Approach, Ricardo Lopez-Ruiz , 2003/12/22, arXiv, DOI: nlin.AO/0312056
- Shift in Longevity Gave Ancient Man a Competitive Edge, 04/07/06, NPR ATC,
Researchers have discovered a dramatic increase in human longevity that took
place around 30,000 B.C. Scientists say the increase in the number of
relatively old people likely had a major impact, giving modern humans a
competitive edge that ensured their evolutionary success. NPR's Jon Hamilton
reports.
- Staffers: Voice of America Independence in Peril, 04/07/08, NPR ME, Almost
half of the employees of the government news service the Voice of America have
petitioned Congress. They are protesting what they say are cuts in the amount
and variety of VOA news programming, and pressure from the Bush administration
to politicize and slant coverage in favor of U.S. policies. NPR's Andrea
Seabrook reports.
- Former Enron Chairman Lay Surrenders to FBI, 04/07/06, NPR ATC, Former Enron
Chairman and CEO Kenneth Lay turns himself into the FBI to face criminal
charges. After a two-and-a-half year investigation into the scandal-ridden
energy company, a grand jury on Wednesday returned a sealed indictment against
Lay. He's charged with securities and wire fraud and misleading investigators.
Hear NPR's Steve Inskeep and NPR's Wade Goodwyn.
- 2nd International Master's programme in "Complexity and its Interdisciplinary
Applications",
- Bush Bashed (Again) for Politicizing Science, Andrew Lawler , Jocelyn Kaiser
, 04/07/09, Science Now. Report alleges that politics have influenced advisory
panel appointments
- When Humans Got Long in the Tooth, Fiona Proffitt , 04/07/07, Science Now,
Hominid teeth hint at a link between longevity and the rise of culture
- Stunning Images From Saturn Probe, Richard Black , 04/07/09, BBC
- Biomechatronic Man, 04/07/13, Lance Ulanoff, PC Magazine
- Experimenting with Women's Rights in Saudi Arabis, 04/07/11, NPR Weekend
Edition, NPR's Julie McCarthy reports on the current state of women's rights in
Saudi Arabia. In the wake of a recent forum dedicated to women's issues, some
tentative steps are being taken to expand women's rights in the kingdom.
- Immune Therapy for Autoimmune Diseases, Lawrence Steinman , 04/07/09, Science
: 212-216
- Wielding Worms at Asthma and Autoimmunity, Ingrid Wickelgren , 04/07/09,
Science : 171.
- Grainy Geyser: Tall Squirts Reveal Sand's Liquid Ways, 04/07/10, Science
News, Dropping a steel ball into fine, loosely packed sand produces towering
jets of grains.
- Just A Tad Is Too Much: Less Is Worse For Tadpoles Exposed To Chemicals,
04/07/10, Science News, The herbicide atrazine is more likely to kill
developing amphibians when it is highly diluted than when it's much more
concentrated in aquatic environments.
- Living Long In The Tooth: Grandparents May Have Rocked Late Stone Age,
04/07/10, Science News, A new analysis of fossil teeth indicates that the
number of people surviving long enough to become grandparents dramatically
increased about 30,000 years ago.
- DNA Coordinates Assembly Of Glassy Nanoscale Structures, John Travis ,
04/07/10, Science News, Chemists use DNA as a scaffold to construct miniature
rings and rods out of silica.



_________________________________________________________________

20.02. Webcast Announcements




ECC8 Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,
  04/06/14-17



Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium,
04/05/26-28


International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21


Life, a Nobel Story, Brussels, Belgium, 04/04/28


Nonlinear Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics Days, Brussels, Belgium,
04/04/26-27


Science Education Forum for Chinese Language Culture, , Panel Discussion,
Taipei, Taiwan, 04/05/01


Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology, ,
Lausanne,Switzerland, 04/01/29-30


Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H.,
Internet-First University Press, 1994

World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland   Riding the Next Democratic
Wave, Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic
Forum, 04/01/25
  The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan,
Martin, Schwab, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25  Why Victory Against Terrorism
Demands Shared Values

  CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And
Intelligent Systems, 2004 Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10 EVOLVABILITY &
INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of Communication, Signaling, and
Perception in the Dynamics of Social Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10 The
Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and Practicalities,
Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on
Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany, 03/09/14-17 New Santa Fe Institute
President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role, (Video, Santa Fe, NM,
03/06/04) SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM,
2003/06/01-04 NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio
Report, 03/05/11 13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life
Sciences, Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10 CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos
of Archived Lectures and Live Events Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video
Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998 Edge Videos




_________________________________________________________________

20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements



  `Perspectives on Nonlinear Dynamics 2004 (PNLD-2004), Chen!
nai, India, 04/07/12-15

  From Animals To Animats
  8, 8th Intl Conf On The Simulation Of Adaptive Behavior
  (SAB'04), Los Angeles, USA, 04/07/13-17

  14th Annual International Conference The Society for Chaos Theory in
Psychology & Life Sciences , Milwaukee, WI, USA, 04/07/15-18


Facing Complexity, Wellington, NZ, 04/07/15-17


  Interdisciplinary Colloquium, Security Bytes, Security/Life/Terror
, Lancaster, 04/07/17-19

  Gordon Research Conference on "Oscillations & Dynamic Instabilities In
Chemical Systems", Lewiston, ME, 04/07/18-23

  3rd
Intl Conf Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems Conference (AAMAS 2004), New
York City, 04/07/19-23

7th
Intl Workshop on: Trust in Agent Societies , New York City, 04/07/19-20

  8th
  World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and
  Informatics, Orlando, Florida, USA, 04/07/18-21


The 4 th International Workshop on Meta-Synthesis and Complex Systems
(MCS'2004) , Beijing, 04/07/22-23

  2004
  Summer Simulation MultiConference (SummerSim'04), San Jose
  Hyatt, San Jose, California, 04/07/25-29

  SME 2004 Symposium on Modeling
  and Control of Economic Systems , University in Redlands, CA, 04/07/28-31

  6th
  International Mathematica Symposium (IMS 2004), Banff,
  Canada, 04/08/02-06

4th
  intl seminar on Collective Intelligence
, U of Ottawa, Canada, 04/08/08-10


Real-Life Complex Adaptive Systems: Modelling And Control, session in Intl Conf
on Computing, Communications and Control Technologies: CCCT'04, Austin, Texas,
04/08/14-17

   Fractals and Natural Hazards at
32nd Intl Geological Congress (IGC), Florence, Italy, 04/08/20-28


Intl Conf on Science of Complex Networks: from Biology
to the Internet and WWW (CNET2004), Aveiro
(Portugal), 04/08/29-09/02




ICCC 2004, IEEE International Conference on Computational Cybernetics, ,
Vienna, Austria, 04/08/30-09/01

  ANTS
  2004, 4th International Workshop on Ant Colony
  Optimization and Swarm Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium,
  04/09/05-08

  Dynamic
  Ontology,
An Inquiry into Systems, Emergence, Levels of Reality,
  and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy,
  04/09/08-11

  9th
  Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems
  (ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts, 04/09/12-15

  Neuroeconomics 2004, Charleston, SC, 04/09/16-19

  TNew Economic Windows 2004: Complexity Hints for Economic Policy, Salerno,
Italy, 04/09/16-18

  The
Verhulst 200 on Chaos, Brussels, BELGIUM, 04/09/16-18

  The
  8th Intl Conf on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature
  (PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22

  The
  Nonlinear Waves in Fluids: Recent Advances and Modern Applications, Udine,
Italy, 04/09/18-22

  XVII Brazilian
  Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao -
  Brazil, 04/09/22-24

  3rd Natll Conf on Systems Science ,
Trento (Italy), 04/10/07-09

   TEDMED Conference ,
Charleston SC, 04/10/12-15

  Intl Workshop On Bifurcations In Nonsmooth And Hybrid Dynamical Systems  ,
Milano (Italy), 04/10/21-22

  Wolfram
  Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois,
  04/10/21-23

  6th Intl Conf on Electronic Commerce
ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape,  Delft, The Netherlands,
04/10/25-27

   Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio de Janeiro,
04/11


ICDM '04: The Fourth IEEE Intl Conf on Data Mining, Brighton, UK, 04/11/01-04

Denaturing Darwin: International Conference on Evolution and Organization
, Amersfoort, The Netherlands, 04/11/12-14


  The 7th Asia-Pacific Complex Systems Conference,  Queensland, Australia,
04/12/06-10

  17th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,  Queensland,
Australia, 04/12/06-10

  Kondratieff Waves, Warfare And World Security, NATO Advanced Research
Workshop
, Covilh? Portugal, 05/02/14-17



  Powders & Grains 2005, Stuttgart, Germany, 05/06/18-22

  Workshop on Complexity and Policy Analysis, Cork, Ireland, 05/06/22-24


18th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2005), Salamanca,
Spain, 05/09/19-23



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