ժ NO2004.22


Complexity Digest 2004.22

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
Mirror: http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think
the next century will be the century of complexity." Stephen Hawking

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Content:

01. Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Conference Webcast
02. When Things Get Complicated, Boston Globe
02.01. Puckish Robots Pull Together, Natue Science update
03. Building In The Sand, Darwinmag.com
03.01. The New "Molecular Economy", Business Week
04. Is the U.S. Brain Gain Faltering?, Science
04.01. A Foot in Each Country, Science
04.02. The Rise Of Caf?Culture, Nature
05. Automata Make Antisense, Nature
06. Citizens, Slaves, And Foreigners: Aristotle On Human Nature, Amer. Pol. Sc.
Rev.
06.01. Minority Voices In The American States: Do Social And Institutional
Context Matter?, British J. Pol. Sc.
07. What Are Elections For? Conferring The Median Mandate, British J. Pol. Sc.
07.01. Who Tests Voting Machines?, NY Times
08. Ecology for a Crowded Planet, Science
08.01. Evolving Eco-system: a Network of Networks, arXiv
08.02. Consumption Pattern, Trade, And Greenhouse Gas Leakage In India, Env. &
Dev. Econ.
08.03. Global Vineyard, Can Technology Take On A Warming Climate?, Science News
09. Characterization Of Dendrites As Nonlinear Computation Devices,
Neurocomputing
09.01. Does A Dendritic Democracy Need A Ruler?, Neurocomputing
09.02. Networks Of Neurons That Emit And Recognize Signatures, Neurocomputing
10. Ageing: Mice And Mitochondria, Nature
11. An Autonomous Molecular Computer For Logical Control Of Gene Expression,
Nature
11.01. Epigenetics In Human Disease And Prospects For Epigenetic Therapy,
Nature
11.02. Moving Towards Individualized Medicine With Pharmacogenomics, Nature
12. Are Humans Seasonally Photoperiodic?, J. Biol. Rhythms
13. Remembrance Of Smells Past: How The Brain Stores Those Meaningful Memories,
ScienceDaily
13.01. Small World Networks Key To Memory, NewScientist
14. Path Integration In Desert Ants: How To Make A Homing Ant Run Away From
Home, Alphagalileo & Proc. Biol. Sc.
14.01. Birds Use Herbs To Protect Their Nests, ScienceDaily
15. Playing Pig, Optimally, Science News
16. The Large-Scale Organization of Chemical Reaction Networks in Astrophysics,
SFI Working Papers
16.01. A Heavenly Example of Scale-free Networks and Self-organized
Criticality, Physica A
17. Soft Computing Data Mining, Information Sciences
17.01. Reductions of Hidden Information Sources, SFI Working Papers
18. Internet  Critical Path Horizon, SFI Working Papers
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
19.01. U.S. Refocusing Military Strategy for War on Terror, Rumsfeld Says, The
Information Warfare Site
19.02. Terror's Next Target, Institute for the Analysis of Global Security
19.03. Americans Are Turning To BBC For News, Cox News Service
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

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01. Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture , Conference Webcast



Bart de Boer. "Computer Modelling as a Tool for Understanding Language
Evolution". Full talk Audio [mp3: 5.2 Mb]. Slides [pdf: 0.7 Mb].

Marek Czachor. "Do We Think in Quantum Ways?". Video Summary [asf: 4.7 Mb].

Olaf Diettrich. "The Boundary Conditions of Cognitive Evolution". Full talk
Audio [mp3: 4.9 Mb].

Tim Ingold. "Beyond Genes and Memes: A Relational Approach to the Evolution of
Language and Culture". Full talk Audio [mp3: 6.3 Mb].

Sverker Johansson. "The Individual and the Species in the Cultural Evolution of
Language". Video Summary [asf: 2.8 Mb].

Luc Steels and Tony Belpaeme. "The Cultural Evolution of Language" and "The
Cultural Origins of Colour Categories". Video Summary [asf: 2.7 Mb].

Franz Wuketits. "Evolutionary Epistemology: The Nonadaptationist Approach".
Full talk Audio [mp3: 4.9 Mb].



Note: Audio files are in downloadable mp3 format for portable mp3 players or
any mp3 software players. QuickTime Users!: Download the audio files and play
locally with another application. Video files are in asf format and can be
played e.g. with windows media player. For the sound codec a (free) plugin
might be required, but the download should be automatic.

* Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, 04/05/26-28, Vrije
Universiteit Brussel, Organized by Nathalie Gontier, Jean Paul Van Bendegem,
and Diederik Aerts
* AUDIO - Complexity Digest Virtual Conference Network
* VIDEO - Complexity Digest Virtual Conference Network
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


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02. When Things Get Complicated , Boston Globe

Complexity theorists want to reproduce these patterns with computer models, in
order to gain a kind of insight that equations or statistics supposedly cannot
match. What's more, they want to see both the forest and the trees, by viewing
big patterns through the local rules of interaction that produce them.
(...) But with computer simulations already a staple in biology and finance,
and gaining currency in many other fields of inquiry and industry, the vision
of a world made for modeling may be catching on.

* When Things Get Complicated, Jascha Hoffman  , 04/05/30, Boston Globe


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02.01. Puckish Robots Pull Together , Natue Science update

Excerpts: "Assembly performed by astronauts would be too expensive and risky,"
says Shen. His group is collaborating with NASA to develop intelligent robotic
systems that can coordinate their own activities, so that they do not have to
be precisely monitored and controlled by humans.

Group intelligence

Several research groups have demonstrated that teams of mobile, communicating
robots can perform complex tasks: for example, they can collaborate to push
objects over a surface. This is reminiscent of the way ants show group
intelligence when carrying out collective tasks such as foraging.




The prototype robots practice docking manoeuvres on an air hockey table.


?Polymorphic Robotics Laboratory




* Puckish Robots Pull Together, Philip Ball  , 04/05/28, Nature Science update


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03. Building In The Sand , Darwinmag.com

Excerpts:


Putting the finishing touches on Stuck Santa during the Ft. Myers Beach
Championships.



Through an analogy with sand sculpting, I can better explain the significance
of building successful project management strategies in an entrepreneurial
company. (...)

Project: Similar to evaluating the sand before you begin sculpting, you need to
take a good look at the environment where you will be establishing project
management plan. What are the characteristics of the staff you will be working
with? Who is the most adaptable and will be your major supporter? Like the
sand, without proper evaluation before you start, the work will crumble.

* Building In The Sand, Bill Knight  , 04/05, Darwinmag.com


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03.01. The New "Molecular Economy" , Business Week

Excerpts: A new generation of scientists is inventing the next new world with
its own novel nomenclature. Their terms of art, phrases such as "combinatorial
chemistry," "gene shuffling," "high-throughput screening," and "MEMS" sound
just as arcane to the average person now as computer terminology did in 1971.

But pay attention. In the same way that researchers at PARC and Fairchild
Semiconductor and Bell Labs created technology that established a new economy
based on information, scientists in labs today are inventing a future based on
molecular technologies.
It's Alive: The Coming Convergence of Information, Biology, and Business by
Christopher Meyer and Stan Davis

* The New "Molecular Economy", 04/05/25, Business Week


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04. Is the U.S. Brain Gain Faltering? , Science

Excerpts: Academic officials in China, the largest source of foreign applicants
for many U.S. programs, say that anticipated visa problems are only one of
several reasons Chinese students may be thinking twice about coming to the
United States. A growth in postgraduate education in China is giving domestic
students a better chance to complete their educations at home, says Yan
Xuehong, deputy director of student affairs for the postgraduate school at CAS
[Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ed.]. And she says there is also a rising demand
for these graduates.

* Is the U.S. Brain Gain Faltering?, Jeffrey Mervis , 04/05/28, Science :
1278-1282


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04.01. A Foot in Each Country , Science

Excerpts: Chinese scientists have tremendous potential, says Lahn, (...). But
"they lack vision. I thought that the way to change that was not to go in as
the director of some institute, but to demonstrate a new approach by being a
role model." The new center, he says, will "serve as a cultural messenger of
how to do science." (...)

Lahn is part of an apparently burgeoning international phenomenon. Although the
numbers remain small, foreign-born researchers are reaching out to colleagues
back home while remaining anchored in the United States (...).

* A Foot in Each Country, Adrian Cho
, 04/05/28, Science : 1286


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04.02. The Rise Of Caf?Culture , Nature

Excerpts: A night out in a bar is all the more enjoyable if you can digest some
science too. That's the lesson of a growing movement whose character may be
local but whose reach is potentially global (...).

Given that the first Caf?Scientifique was held in 1997, the spread of the
events has been remarkable and should be welcomed. Governments across Europe
have stressed the need to improve dialogue between scientists and the public.
The caf?organizers, (...), have created a network of successful events that
does just that.

* The Rise Of Caf?Culture, 04/05/27, DOI: 10.1038/429327a, Nature 429, 327


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05. Automata Make Antisense , Nature

Excerpts: Information-carrying DNA strands can be used to perform simple
computations, but have so far been little more than toys. Can molecular
computers be more broadly useful ?in medicine, for instance?

(...) such molecular automata might be used to augment so-called antisense
technologies, carrying out a diagnosis in vivo (that is, in a living cell) that
automatically controls drug delivery.
Antisense drugs are oligonucleotides ?short, single-stranded DNA molecules
?that offer the promise of treating diseases caused by the expression of a
harmful gene, for example a cancer-causing gene.

* Automata Make Antisense, Anne Condon, Nature 429, 351 - 352  , 04/05/27, DOI:
10.1038/429351a


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06. Citizens, Slaves, And Foreigners: Aristotle On Human Nature , Amer. Pol.
Sc. Rev.

Abstract: To most readers, Aristotle's many references to nature throughout the
first book of the Politics imply a foundational role for nature outside and
prior to politics. Aristotle, they claim, pairs nature with necessity and,
thus, sets nature as a standard that fixes the boundaries of inclusion and
exclusion in political life. Through readings of Aristotle on the nature of
citizens, slaves, and foreigners in the Politics, this essay argues, in
contrast, that, to Aristotle, nature, especially human nature, is changeable
and shaped by politics. (...) this essay demonstrates (...) Aristotle is
especially keen to guard against any assimilation of nature to necessity.

* Citizens, Slaves, And Foreigners: Aristotle On Human Nature, J. Frank
jfrank@sc.edu , 2004, DOI: 10.1017/S0003055404001029, American Political
Science Review
* Contributed by Pritha Das


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06.01. Minority Voices In The American States: Do Social And Institutional
Context Matter? , British J. Pol. Sc.

Abstract: Previous research has shown that institutional factors, particularly
'direct democracy', along with racial context, shape policy outcomes in the
fifty American states. But less is understood about the impact of such factors
on attitudes towards government of racial and ethnic minorities. The passage of
ballot initiatives targeting minority interests might be expected to have a
negative effect on these groups. This study considers the impact of
institutional and social context on attitudes about government responsiveness
(...) there is strong evidence that citizens in states with frequent exposure
to direct democracy are more likely to perceive that government is responsive
to their needs.

* Minority Voices And Citizen Attitudes About Government Responsiveness In The
American States: Do Social And Institutional Context Matter?, R. E. Hero  , C.
J. Tolbert , 2004, DOI: 10.1017/S0007123403000371, British Journal of Political
Science
* Contributed by Pritha Das


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07. What Are Elections For? Conferring The Median Mandate , British J. Pol. Sc.

Abstract: Democracy is often described as a system in which a majority of
electors choose one out of a number of competing parties to form a government
and carry out its programme. Unfortunately, spontaneous majorities rarely form
in support of one party. We generalize from a 'government' to a 'median'
mandate, in which the median elector chooses the pivotal party in parliament,
which then translates his or her preferences into public policy. To check this
we investigate how accurately parliaments and governments represent the
left-right position of the median voter in each of twenty parliamentary
democracies.

* What Are Elections For? Conferring The Median Mandate, M. D. Mcdonald  , S.
M. Mendes  , I. Budge , 2004, DOI: 10.1017/S0007123403000322, British Journal
of Political Science
* Contributed by Pritha Das


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07.01. Who Tests Voting Machines? , NY Times

Excerpts: But there is, to begin with, a stunning lack of transparency
surrounding this process. Voters have a right to know how voting machine
testing is done. Testing companies disagree, routinely denying government
officials and the public basic information. Kevin Shelley, the California
secretary of state, could not get two companies testing his state's machines to
answer even basic questions. One of them, Wyle Laboratories, refused to tell us
anything about how it tests, or about its testers' credentials. "We don't
discuss our voting machine work," (...).

* Who Tests Voting Machines?, 04/05/30, NYTimes


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08. Ecology for a Crowded Planet , Science

Excerpts: Studying the few and rapidly shrinking undisturbed ecosystems is
important, but now is the time to focus on an ecology for the future. Because
our planet will be overpopulated for the foreseeable future and natural
resource consumption shows no signs of slowing, human modifications of the
environment will only increase. Thus, a research perspective that incorporates
human activities as integral components of Earth's ecosystems is needed, as is
a focus on a future in which Earth's life support systems are maintained while
human needs are met.

* Ecology for a Crowded Planet, Margaret Palmer , Emily Bernhardt , Elizabeth
Chornesky , Scott Collins , Andrew Dobson , Clifford Duke , Barry Gold , Robert
Jacobson , Sharon Kingsland , Rhonda Kranz , Michael Mappin , M. Luisa Martinez
, Fiorenza Micheli , Jennifer Morse , Michael Pace , Mercedes Pascual , Stephen
Palumbi , O. J. Reichman , Ashley Simons , Alan Townsend , Monica Turner ,
04/05/28, Science : 1251-1252.


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08.01. Evolving Eco-system: a Network of Networks , arXiv

Abstract: Ecology and evolution are inseparable. Motivated by some recent
experiments, we have developed models of evolutionary ecology from the
perspective of dynamic networks. In these models, in addition to the intra-node
dynamics, which corresponds to an individual-based population dynamics of
species, the entire network itself changes slowly with time to capture
evolutionary processes. After a brief summary of our recent published works on
these network models of eco-systems, we extend the most recent version of the
model incorporating predators that wander into neighbouring spatial patches for
food.

* Evolving Eco-system: a Network of Networks, Debashish Chowdhury , Dietrich
Stauffer , 2004-05-27, DOI: q-bio.PE/0405023, arXiv
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


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08.02. Consumption Pattern, Trade, And Greenhouse Gas Leakage In India , Env. &
Dev. Econ.

Abstract: The policy discussions for sharing the global responsibility for
abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by individual countries take
account neither of the pattern of their final consumption nor of the role of
globalization through trade in the leakage of GHGs across national boundaries.
This paper gives the methodology of estimating the total emissions of a GHG
(...). The paper estimates the effect of trade on the net leakage of carbon
dioxide and methane from India. It shows a significant net leakage of carbon
dioxide from India for the observed consumption pattern in the 1990s.

* Consumption Pattern, Trade, And Greenhouse Gas Leakage In India, R. Sengupta
rps0302@mail.jnu.ac.in , G. Bhardwaj , 2004, DOI: 10.1017/S1355770X0300130X,
Environment and Development Economics
* Contributed by Pritha Das


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08.03. Global Vineyard, Can Technology Take On A Warming Climate? , Science
News

Excerpts:


WATER SEARCH. Prototype equipment such as this ground-penetrating radar could
help grape growers quickly and easily monitor the soil moisture in their
vineyards.

M.B. Kowalsky



In precision viticulture, grape growers tailor their agricultural practices to
different parts of the vineyard. First, the farmers create detailed maps of
their vineyard that depict critical parameters such as the quality, depth, clay
content, water content, and pH of soil, as well as the amounts of water,
fertilizers, pesticides, and other chemicals that were used in various sectors
of the site. Then, the growers assess the yield and quality of grapes that they
harvest, using measures such as the number of grape bunches per vine,, (...).

* Global Vineyard, Can Technology Take On A Warming Climate?, Sid Perkins  ,
04/05/29, Science News
* AUDIO - Audible Format


_________________________________________________________________

09. Characterization Of Dendrites As Nonlinear Computation Devices ,
Neurocomputing

Abstract: From the spines to the soma, signal processing in the neuron is
intrinsically nonlinear. In this paper we present first results of a project
whose objective is to identify/characterize dendrites as nonlinear devices in
the hope that the resulting model will be of use in bio-inspired connectionist
architectures. The project starts by applying the method to a computer model of
the Purkinje cell as a guide for the design of real neurophysiological
experiments, as well as an aid for the interpretation of results.

* Characterization Of Dendrites As Nonlinear Computation Devices, L. M. Luis M.
Sarro lsb@dia.uned.es , Jun. 2004, online 2004/03/17, DOI:
10.1016/j.neucom.2004.01.098, Neurocomputing
* Contributed by Atin Das


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09.01. Does A Dendritic Democracy Need A Ruler? , Neurocomputing

Abstract: In hippocampal CA1 cells, distance-dependent synaptic scaling helps
maintain a "dendritic democracy" where distal and proximal synapses on average
contribute equally to the cell's firing. A "dendritic ruler", for example a
concentration gradient, might be necessary for synaptic scaling. Alternatively,
synapses could "self-regulate" by gauging their distance from the soma using
properties of backpropagating spikes. We show in a model CA1 cell that the
delay (...) predict the synapse's location and amplitude at the soma well,
though the amplitude of the spikes do not. This suggests that a dendritic ruler
is not required to scale synapses.

* Does A Dendritic Democracy Need A Ruler?, D. C. D. Sterratt
david.c.sterratt@ed.ac.uk , A. van Ooyen , Jun. 2004, online 2004/03/05, DOI:
10.1016/j.neucom.2004.01.078, Neurocomputing
* Contributed by Atin Das


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09.02. Networks Of Neurons That Emit And Recognize Signatures , Neurocomputing

Abstract: Recent experiments have revealed the presence of neural fingerprints
in the activity of several neurons of the pyloric central pattern generator of
crustacean. These signatures consist of specific spike timings in the bursting
activity of the neurons. The existence of cellular mechanisms to identify the
origin of individual neural signals, and the study of information processing
based on this identification have been neglected in the context of theoretical
approaches to the nervous system. (...) we present a simple model to study the
ability of a neural network to process information based on the emission and
recognition of neural signatures.

* Networks Of Neurons That Emit And Recognize Signatures, A. Trist
antonio.tristan@ii.uam.es , F. F. de B. Rodr uez francisco.rodriguez@ii.uam.es
, E. Serrano eduardo.serrano@ii.uam.es , P. Varona pablo.varona@ii.uam.es ,
Jun. 2004, online 2004/03/05, DOI: 10.1016/j.neucom.2004.01.020, Neurocomputing
* Contributed by Atin Das


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10. Ageing: Mice And Mitochondria , Nature

Excerpts:
* Ageing: Mice And Mitochondria, George M. Martin , Lawrence A. Loeb ,
04/05/27, DOI: 10.1038/429357a, Nature 429, 357 - 359


_________________________________________________________________

11. An Autonomous Molecular Computer For Logical Control Of Gene Expression ,
Nature

Excerpts:
* An Autonomous Molecular Computer For Logical Control Of Gene Expression,
Yaakov Benenson , Binyamin Gil ,  Uri Ben-Dor ,  Rivka Adar , Ehud Shapiro  ,
04/05/27, DOI: 10.1038/nature02551, Nature 429, 423 - 429


_________________________________________________________________

11.01. Epigenetics In Human Disease And Prospects For Epigenetic Therapy ,
Nature

Excerpts:
* Epigenetics In Human Disease And Prospects For Epigenetic Therapy, Gerda
Egger , Gangning Liang , Ana Aparicio  , Peter A. Jones , 04/05/27, DOI:
10.1038/nature02625, Nature 429, 457 - 463


_________________________________________________________________

11.02. Moving Towards Individualized Medicine With Pharmacogenomics , Nature

Excerpts:
* Moving Towards Individualized Medicine With Pharmacogenomics, William E.
Evans , Mary V. Relling,  , 04/05/27, DOI: 10.1038/nature02626, Nature 429, 464
- 468


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12. Are Humans Seasonally Photoperiodic? , J. Biol. Rhythms

Abstract: Humans exhibit seasonal variation in a wide variety of behavioral and
physiological processes, and numerous investigators have suggested that this
might be because we are sensitive to seasonal variation in day length. The
evidence supporting this hypothesis is inconsistent. A new hypothesis is
offered here-namely, that some humans indeed are seasonally photoresponsive,
but others are not, and that individual variation may be the cause of the
inconsistencies that have plagued the study of responsiveness to photoperiod in
the past. This hypothesis is examined in relation to seasonal changes in the
reproductive activity of humans (...).

* Are Humans Seasonally Photoperiodic?, Bronson F. H. bronson@mail.utexas.edu ,
Jun. 2004, DOI: 10.1177/0748730404264658, Journal of Biological Rhythms
* Contributed by Atin Das


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13. Remembrance Of Smells Past: How The Brain Stores Those Meaningful Memories
, ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Smells trigger memories but can memories trigger smell, and what does
this imply for the way memories are stored? A UCL study of the smell gateway in
the brain has found that the memory of an event is scattered across sensory
parts of the brain (...). "Our study suggests that, rather than clumping
together the sights, sounds and smells of a memory into one bit of the brain,
the memory is distributed across different areas and can be re-awakened through
just one of our sensory channels. This mechanism would allow human beings more
flexibility in retrieving their memories."

* Remembrance Of Smells Past: How The Brain Stores Those Meaningful Memories,
2004/05/27, ScienceDaily & University College London
* Contributed by Atin Das


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13.01. Small World Networks Key To Memory , NewScientist

Excerpts: If you recall this sentence a few seconds from now, you can thank a
simple network of neurons for the experience. That is the conclusions of
researchers who have built a computer model that can reproduce an important
aspect of short-term memory.

The key, they say, is that the neurons form a "small world" network.

(...) neurons in this region might be able to switch between two stable states,
a property called bistability.

When storing a memory, neurons would participate in self-sustaining bursts of
electrical activity.

* Small World Networks Key To Memory, Philip Cohen  , 04/05/26,
NewScientists.com News


_________________________________________________________________

14. Path Integration In Desert Ants: How To Make A Homing Ant Run Away From
Home , Alphagalileo & Proc. Biol. Sc.

Abstract: Imagine you are out in the desert and watch a food-laden ant
stubbornly running in the opposite direction to home. We have caused the ants
to display this paradoxical behaviour by training them to repeat
landmark-guided homeward runs (...). When the ants have arrived at the nest
after their first homeward run, their path integrator is reset to zero state.
If they are then displaced back to the feeder and perform their second (and
later third, fourth, etc.) homeward run based on landmark guidance alone, their
path integrator (...) would generate a vector that pointed away from home.

* Path Integration In Desert Ants, Cataglyphis: How To Make A Homing Ant Run
Away From Home, D. Andel  , R. Wehner , 2004/05/24, Alphagalileo & Proceedings
Biological Sciences
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

14.01. Birds Use Herbs To Protect Their Nests , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Researchers (...) suggest that some birds may select nesting material
with antimicrobial agents to protect their young from harmful bacteria. "If the
fresh herbs and plant materials that parent birds bring into the nest have a
sufficient concentration of antimicrobial compounds, they could protect the
nestlings from harmful bacteria." To find out if plants brought into the nest
might prevent disease (...) tested twelve different volatile plant materials
against feather-degrading bacteria. Results showed that several types of plant
materials and extracts including usnic acid, ascorbic acid, yarrow, and two oak
species inhibited the growth of a number of harmful bacteria.

* Birds Use Herbs To Protect Their Nests, 2004/05/28, ScienceDaily & American
Society For Microbiology
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

15. Playing Pig, Optimally , Science News

Excerpts: The simple dice game known as Pig is surprisingly complex when you're
trying to find an optimal strategy for playing it.

The game's object is to be the first player, rolling a die, to reach a total of
100 points.(...)

In general, as shown by the irregular landscape of the roll/hold boundary for
Pig, details of optimal play can be far from intuitive.
Interestingly, if both players play optimally, the starting player wins 53
percent of the time.

* Playing Pig, Optimally, Ivars Peterson  , 04/05/29, Science News
* AUDIO - Audible Format


_________________________________________________________________

16. The Large-Scale Organization of Chemical Reaction Networks in Astrophysics
, SFI Working Papers

Abstract: The large-scale organization of complex networks, both natural and
artificial, has shown the existence of highly heterogeneous patterns of
organization. Such patterns typically involve scale-free degree distributions
and small world, modular architectures. One example is provided by chemical
reaction networks, such as the metabolic pathways. The chemical reactions of
the Earth's atmosphere have also been shown to give rise to a scale-free
network. Here we present novel data analysis on the structure of several
astrophysical networks including the chemistry of the planetary atmospheres and
the interstellar medium. Our work reveals that Earth's atmosphere displays a
hierarchical organization, close to the one observed in cellular webs. Instead,
the other astrophysical reaction networks reveal a much simpler pattern
consistent with an equilibrium state. The implications for large-scale
regulation of the planetary dynamics are outlined.

* The Large-Scale Organization of Chemical Reaction Networks in Astrophysics,
Ricard V. Sol?, Andreea Munteanu , DOI: SFI-WP 04-06-012, SFI Working Papers
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

16.01. A Heavenly Example of Scale-free Networks and Self-organized Criticality
, Physica A

Abstract: The sun provides an explosive, heavenly example of self-organized
criticality. Sudden bursts of intense radiation emanate from rapid
rearrangements of the magnetic field network in the corona. Avalanches are
triggered by loops of flux that reconnect or snap into lower-energy
configurations when they are overly stressed. Our recent analysis of
observational data reveal that the loops (links) and footpoints (nodes), where
they attach on the photosphere, embody a scale-free network. The statistics of
the avalanches and of the network structure are unified through a simple
dynamical model where the avalanches and network co-generate each other into a
complex, critical state. This particular example points toward a general
dynamical mechanism for self-generation of complex networks.

* A Heavenly Example of Scale-free Networks and Self-organized Criticality, M.
Paczuski , D. Hughes , 2004-05-17, DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2004.04.073, Physica A,
Article in Press, Uncorrected Proof
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

17. Soft Computing Data Mining , Information Sciences

Experpt: Soft computing is a consortium of methodologies, (like fuzzy logic,
neural networks, genetic algorithms, rough sets), that works synergistically
and provides, in one form or another, flexible information processing
capabilities for handling real life problems. Its aim is to exploit the
tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty, approximate reasoning and partial truth
in order to achieve tractability, robustness, low solution cost, and close
resemblance with human like decision-making. (...) Soft computing tools,
individually or in integrated manner, are turning out to be strong candidates
for performing data mining tasks efficiently.
See Also: Information Sciences: Special Issue on Soft Computing Data Mining

* Soft Computing Data Mining, Sankar K. Pal , Ashish Ghosh , 2004-06-14, DOI:
10.1016/j.ins.2003.03.012, Information Sciences 163(1-3):1-3
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

17.01. Reductions of Hidden Information Sources , SFI Working Papers

Abstract: In all but special circumstances, measurements of time-dependent
processes reflect internal structures and correlations only indirectly.
Building predictive models of such hidden information sources requires
discovering, in some way, the internal states and mechanisms. Unfortunately,
there are often many possible models that are observationally equivalent. Here
we show that the situation is not as arbitrary as one would think. We show that
generators of hidden stochastic processes can be reduced to a minimal form and
compare this reduced representation to that provided by computational
mechanics he $epsilon$-machine. On the way to developing deeper,
measure-theoretic foundations for the latter, we introduce a new two-step
reduction process. The first step (internal-event reduction) produces the
smallest observationally equivalent $sigma$-algebra and the second
(internal-state reduction) removes $sigma$-algebra components that are
redundant for optimal prediction. For several classes of stochastic dynamical
systems these reductions produce representations that are equivalent to
$epsilon$-machines.

* Reductions of Hidden Information Sources, Nihat Ay , James P. Crutchfield ,
DOI: SFI-WP 04-06-011, SFI Working Papers
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

18. Internet  Critical Path Horizon , SFI Working Papers

Abstract: The internet is known to display a highly heterogeneous structure and
complex fluctuations in its traffic dynamics. Congestion seems to be an
inevitable result of users' behavior coupled with network dynamics and its
effects should be minimized by choosing appropriate routing strategies. But
what are the requirements of routing depth in order to optimize the traffic
flow? In this paper we analyze the behavior of internet traffic with a
topologically realistic spatial structure as described in a previous study
(S-H. Yook et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99 (2002) 13382). The model
involves self-regulation of packet generation and different levels of routing
depth. It is shown that it reproduces the relevant, key, statistical features
of the internet's traffic. Moreover, we also report the existence of a critical
path horizon defining a transition from poorly performing traffic to highly
efficient flow. This transition is actually a direct consequence of the web's
small world architecture exploited by the routing algorithm. Once routing
tables reach the network diameter, the traffic experiences a sudden transition
from poorly performing to highly efficient behavior. It is conjectured that
routing policies might have spontaneously reached such a compromise in a
distributed manner. The internet would thus be operating close to a critical
path horizon.

* Internet  Critical Path Horizon, Sergi Valverde , Ricard V. Sol?, DOI:
SFI-WP 04-06-010, SFI Working Papers
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks





_________________________________________________________________

19.01. U.S. Refocusing Military Strategy for War on Terror, Rumsfeld Says , The
Information Warfare Site

Excerpts: The new concepts guiding U.S. responsibilities in the world are based
in partnerships with allies, greater force flexibility, rapid deployment
capabilities and a cross-regional strategy, Rumsfeld said.

"This cause is an international one, important to all civilized societies,"
Rumsfeld said. "Success depends on encouraging friends and allies with whom we
are so interdependent, to not be terrorized by threats, or isolated by fears."
(...)  terrorist needs to succeed only occasionally; but as defenders, we
need to be successful always.?
* U.S. Refocusing Military Strategy for War on Terror, Rumsfeld Says, 04/05/30,
The Information Warfare Site


_________________________________________________________________

19.02. Terror's Next Target , Institute for the Analysis of Global Security

Excerpts: However, after the attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon,
symbols of U.S.' economic and military dominance, terrorist organizations of
global reach like al Qaeda have identified the world  energy system as a major
vulnerability and a certain way to deliver a blow to America's oil dependent
economy as well as global economy at large.(...) terrorists looking for a big
bang might find oil, to quote al Qaeda, the "umbilical cord and lifeline of the
crusader community," the object of the next major assault on the west, (...).

* Terror's Next Target, Gal Luft, Anne Korin , 04/05/30, The Journal of
International Security Affairs, 03/12, Institute for the Analysis of Global
Security,


_________________________________________________________________

19.03. Americans Are Turning To BBC For News , Cox News Service

Excerpts: But with the United States ever more involved in an increasingly
turbulent world, more and more Americans are turning to the British
Broadcasting Corp. for a different take on the news of the day.(...)
mericans were actually turning to BBC World for a global perspective that was
not biased toward any of the countries, that was sort of balanced about what
was going on,?Young said.

In November 2001, according to the Nielsen ratings, 466,000 households in the
United States watched BBC World News on an average evening. Now the number is
930,000.

* Americans Are Turning To BBC For News, , 04/05/30, Cox News Service


_________________________________________________________________

20. Links & Snippets





_________________________________________________________________

20.01. Other Publications



- Epidemiology Through Cellular Automata, Situngkir, Hokky , 2004-03-17,
Cogprints
- Education and Racial Inequality in Post-Apartheid South Africa, Malcolm
Keswell , SFI Working Papers, DOI: SFI-WP 04-02-008
- Effects of Neighbourhood Size and Connectivity on Spatial Continuous
Prisoner's Dilemma, Margarita Ifti , Timothy Killingback , Michael Doebeli ,
2004-05-24, arXiv, DOI: q-bio.PE/0405018
- Study of Pakistan Election System as Intelligent e-Election, Muhammad Nadeem
, Javaid R. Laghari , 2004-05-28, arXiv, DOI: cs.CY/0405105
- Book Review: Smart Mobs. The Next Social Revolution, Brian J. L. Berry ,
2004-07, Technological Forecasting and Social Change 71(6):651-652, DOI:
10.1016/j.techfore.2004.02.002
- Natural Computation and Non-Turing Models of Computation, B.J.Bruce J.
MacLennan , 2004-06-04, Theoretical Computer Science 317(1-3):115-145, DOI:
10.1016/j.tcs.2003.12.008
- Asynchronous Game of Life, Jia Lee , Susumu Adachi , Ferdinand Peper ,
Kenichi Morita , 2004-05-18, Physica D, Article in Press, Corrected Proof, DOI:
10.1016/j.physd.2004.03.007
- On the Derivation of Power-Law Distributions in the Canonical Ensemble,
Rudolf Hanel , Stefan Thurner , SFI Working Papers, DOI: SFI-WP 04-06-013
- Incorporating Ideas From Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, W. Pratt
wpratt@u.washington.edu , M. C. Reddy  , D. W. McDonald  , P. T.-Hornoch  , J.
H. Gennari , Apr. 2004, online 2004/04/20, Journal of Biomedical Informatics,
DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2004.04.001
- Exploring Smoothness And Discontinuities In Human Motor Behaviour With
Fourier Analysis, C. M. Harris , Mar.-Apr. 2004, Mathematical Biosciences, DOI:
10.1016/j.mbs.2003.08.011
- Phase Relationships Between Sleep-Wake Cycle And Underlying Circadian Rhythms
In Morningness-Eveningness, Mongrain V.  , Lavoie S.  , Selmaoui B.  , Paquet
J.  , Dumont M. m-dumont@crhsc.umontreal.ca , Jun. 2004, Journal of Biological
Rhythms, DOI: 10.1177/0748730404264365
- Avian Psychology And Communication, C. Rowe  , J. Skelhorn , 2004/05/24,
Alphagalileo & Proceedings Biological Sciences
- Could Mice Hold The Secret To Longer Life?, K. Stinchcombe
kate.stinchcombe@oxon.blackwellpublishing.com , 2004/05/28, Alphagalileo &
Blackwell Publishing Ltd
- Prevalent Mental Health Problems Three Years After NATO Bombing Of Serbia, G.
Bradley press@biomedcentral.com , 2004/05/27, Alphagalileo & BioMed Central
- Pretending To Be A Bird, S. Komarov textmaster@informnauka.ru , 2004/05/24,
Alphagalileo & Blackwell Publishing Ltd
- Raw Ingredients For Life Detected In Planetary Construction Zones,
2004/05/28, ScienceDaily & NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
- Developing Tools For Reliable 'Gene Chip' Measurements, 2004/05/28,
ScienceDaily & National Institute Of Standards And Technology
- The Globalization Of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion In The International
Political Economy, B. A. Simmons bsimmons@latte.harvard.edu , Z. Elkins , 2004,
American Political Science Review, DOI: 10.1017/S0003055404001078
- Modelling Adoption Of Natural Resources Management Technologies: The Case Of
Fallow Systems, A. N. Honlonkou hmeinto@firstnet.bj , 2004, Environment and
Development Economics, DOI: 10.1017/S1355770X03001128
- Branching Out: Semiconducting Nanotrees Could Boost Electronics, 04/05/22,
Science News, Forests of semiconducting nanotrees could form the basis of
future solar cells, low-energy lighting, and other optical or microelectronic
devices.
- Antidepressant Could Help Reverse Paralysis, Charlotte Grayson  , 04/05/24,
WebMD Medical News
- For The Universe, A Bouncing Baby Planet, Harvey McGavin , 04/05/29, The
Independent
- Disaster Movies Raise The Stakes, James Bregman
, BBC News Online entertainment staff
- Hormone Therapy: Physiological Complexity Belies Therapeutic Simplicity,
Judith L. Turgeon , Donald P. McDonnell , Kathryn A. Martin , Phyllis M. Wise
, 04/05/28, Science : 1269-1273
- Changes in Earth's Reflectance over the Past Two Decades, E. Pall?, P. R.
Goode , P. Monta s-Rodr uez , S. E. Koonin
, 04/05/28, Science : 1299-1301
- Cellular Interactions in the Stem Cell Niche, Andrew E. Wurmser , Theo D.
Palmer , Fred H. Gage

, 04/05/28, Science : 1253-1255.
- Saturn: The Unfinished Symphony, Richard A. Kerr
, 04/05/28, Science : 1230-1232.
- Stretching the Limits of Evolutionary Biology, Carl Zimmer
, 04/05/28, Science : 1235-1236
- Scant Evidence Cited in Long Detention of Iraqis, Douglas Jehl , Kate
Zernike
  , 04/05/30, NYTimes
- It Was the Porn That Made Them Do It, Frank Rich  , 04/05/30, NYTimes
- News Items for Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE), 04/05
- Parents Key to Child's Success in School , 04/05/31, NPR, ME, The extent to
which parents are involved in their child's school is considered the most
important predictor of the child's educational success. But some parents need a
little enticement. NPR's Claudio Sanchez reports.
- Staying on the Path ?One Atom at a Time, 04/05/27, NSF Press Release,


Surface rendering of a neuron. A Delauney tessellation scheme was use to
discretize the volume. This new approach can be applied to any vertically
single-branched cell.

Credit: Yun-Bo Yi and Ann Marie Sastry, University of Michigan



- Nanoparticles Illuminate Brain Tumors For Days Under MRI, 04/04/26, Oregon
Health & Science University, Press Release,
OHSU study finds tiny crystals also help brain lesion tissue to be viewed under
microscope
- Pharmacogenomics Could Replace 'Trial-And-Error' With Science From The Human
Genome, 04/04/26, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital , Press Release, Nature
article from St. Jude points to challenges ahead and approaches that will be
required to individualize drug therapy based on a patient's genetic make-up
- Researchers Zero In On A Cause Of Aging, 04/05/27, Experiment points to
defect in cells
Alice Dembner, Boston Globe
- Universe Measured: We're 156 Billion Light-years Wide!, By Robert Roy Britt
Senior Science Writer , 04/05/24,


If you've ever wondered how big the universe is, you're not alone.


- Humanity's Strange Face, 04/05/22, Science News, New fossil finds in a
Romanian cave fuel controversy over whether different, closely related species
interbred on the evolutionary path that led to people.
- Young Talent On Display: Tomorrow's Scientists And Engineers Win Recognition,
Rewards, Ben Harder , 04/05/22, Science News, The three top winners of the 2004
Intel International Science and Engineering Fair hail from high schools on
different continents.
- Chemical Knot: Scientists assemble legendary symbol by interlocking
molecules, Alexandra Goho , 04/05/29, Science News,


MOLECULAR ICON. In forming these Borromean rings, zinc ions (silver spheres)
guided the assembly of molecular chains into interlocking circles.

Science

Nature Materials


- Red Sweat: Hippo Skin Oozes Antibiotic Sunscreen, 04/05/29, Science News, The
hippo version of sweat, which is red-orange, contains pigments that can block
microbial growth and some ultraviolet light.
- Cosmic Push: X-Ray Study Confirms Universe's Dark Side, 04/05/29, Science
News, Culling clues from X rays emitted by distant clusters of galaxies,
astronomers report new evidence that some mysterious force overcame gravity's
tug about 6 billion years ago and ever since has been pushing galaxies apart at
an accelerating rate.
- Crawling Through Time: Fish Bones Reveal Past Climate Change, 04/05/29,
Science News, The timing of ancient migrations of snakehead fish from the
Indian subcontinent into Europe, Asia, and Africa tells scientists about
temperature and humidity changes in those locations.
- Worm Life Span Set By Chromosome Tips, For worms, longer chromosome tips mean
longer lives.
- Folate Enrichment Pays Baby Dividends, 04/05/29, Science News, The federally
mandated fortification of grain-based foods with folic acid has led to a 25
percent drop in the rate of potentially life-threatening neural tube birth
defects.
- Live! Venus' Transit On The Web, 04/05/29, Science News, On June 8,
astronomers in Europe plan to Webcast observations of the transit of Venus, the
first time the planet has passed across the face of the sun as seen from Earth
in 122 years.
- Strange Brew Brings Inorganic Chemicals To Life, 04/05/29, Science News, A
mixture of inorganic chemicals spontaneously forms cell-like structures that
behave like tiny chemical reactors.
- Cutting Blood Supply To Kill Off Fat, 04/05/29, Science News, Killing the
blood vessels that sustain fat tissue causes obese mice to lose weight.
- Smart Music System Skips To Chorus, 04/05/28, Helen Pearson, Nature Science
update,


The programme highlights the chorus and other repetitive areas of music.


?Masataka Goto



- Chimp Chromosome Creates Puzzles, 04/05/27, Laura Nelson, Nature Science
update,


Thousands of chimp genes could significantly differ from those in humans.


?Alamy.com



- Striking Back, Alison Abbott , 04/05/27, Nature 429, 338 - 339. Stroke has
disabled millions of people, stealing their ability to walk or communicate. Can
future victims be helped by treatments that stimulate the growth of new brain
cells?, DOI: 10.1038/429338a
- Granular Materials: The Brazil Nut Effect ?In Reverse, Troy Shinbrot  ,
04/05/27, Nature 429, 352 - 353, DOI: 10.1038/429352b



_________________________________________________________________

20.02. Webcast Announcements




Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium,
04/05/26-28


International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21


Life, a Nobel Story, Brussels, Belgium, 04/04/28


Nonlinear Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics Days, Brussels, Belgium,
04/04/26-27


Science Education Forum for Chinese Language Culture, , Panel Discussion,
Taipei, Taiwan, 04/05/01


Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology, ,
Lausanne,Switzerland, 04/01/29-30


Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H.,
Internet-First University Press, 1994

World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland   Riding the Next Democratic
Wave, Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic
Forum, 04/01/25
  The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan,
Martin, Schwab, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25  Why Victory Against Terrorism
Demands Shared Values

  CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And
Intelligent Systems, 2004 Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10 EVOLVABILITY &
INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of Communication, Signaling, and
Perception in the Dynamics of Social Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10 The
Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and Practicalities,
Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on
Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany, 03/09/14-17 New Santa Fe Institute
President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role, (Video, Santa Fe, NM,
03/06/04) SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM,
2003/06/01-04 NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio
Report, 03/05/11 13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life
Sciences, Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10 CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos
of Archived Lectures and Live Events Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video
Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998 Edge Videos




_________________________________________________________________

20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements




  13th
  International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious
  Diseases, Toulon, France, 04/06/03-05

  ECC8
  Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,
  04/06/14-17

  An Intl Tribute to Francisco Varela, Paris,04/06/18-20

  7th
Intl Conf on Linking Systems Thinking, Innovation,Quality, Entrepreneurship and
Environment (STIQE),
MARIBOR, SLOVENIA, 04/06/24-26


Biannual Meeting Society for Research on Biological Rhythms, Whistler, BC,
04/06/24-26


NAACSOS 2004, North American Association for Computational Social and
Organizational Science, Pittsburgh PA, 04/06/27-29


Statphys - Kolkata V An International Conference on Complex Networks:
Structure, Function and Processes , Kolkata, India, 04/06/27-30


ICAD 2004 10th International Conference on Auditory Display, Sydney, Australia,
04/07/06-09


3rd Intl School Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics Discrete Dynamical Systems and
Applications , Urbino (Italy), 04/07/07-09

  `Perspectives on Nonlinear Dynamics 2004 (PNLD-2004), Chen!
nai, India, 04/07/12-15

  From Animals To Animats
  8, 8th Intl Conf On The Simulation Of Adaptive Behavior
  (SAB'04), Los Angeles, USA, 04/07/13-17

  14th Annual International Conference The Society for Chaos Theory in
Psychology & Life Sciences , Milwaukee, WI, USA, 04/07/15-18


Facing Complexity, Wellington, NZ, 04/07/15-17


  Interdisciplinary Colloquium, Security Bytes, Security/Life/Terror
, Lancaster, 04/07/17-19

  Gordon Research Conference on "Oscillations & Dynamic Instabilities In
Chemical Systems", Lewiston, ME, 04/07/18-23

  3rd
Intl Conf Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems Conference (AAMAS 2004), New
York City, 04/07/19-23

7th
Intl Workshop on: Trust in Agent Societies , New York City, 04/07/19-20

  8th
  World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and
  Informatics, Orlando, Florida, USA, 04/07/18-21


The 4 th International Workshop on Meta-Synthesis and Complex Systems
(MCS'2004) , Beijing, 04/07/22-23

  2004
  Summer Simulation MultiConference (SummerSim'04), San Jose
  Hyatt, San Jose, California, 04/07/25-29

  SME 2004 Symposium on Modeling
  and Control of Economic Systems , University in Redlands, CA, 04/07/28-31

  6th
  International Mathematica Symposium (IMS 2004), Banff,
  Canada, 04/08/02-06

   Fractals and Natural Hazards at
32nd Intl Geological Congress (IGC), Florence, Italy, 04/08/20-28


ICCC 2004, IEEE International Conference on Computational Cybernetics, ,
Vienna, Austria, 04/08/30-09/01

  ANTS
  2004, 4th International Workshop on Ant Colony
  Optimization and Swarm Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium,
  04/09/05-08

  Dynamic
  Ontology,
An Inquiry into Systems, Emergence, Levels of Reality,
  and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy,
  04/09/08-11

  9th
  Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems
  (ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts, 04/09/12-15

  Neuroeconomics 2004, Charleston, SC, 04/09/16-19

  TNew Economic Windows 2004: Complexity Hints for Economic Policy, Salerno,
Italy, 04/09/16-18

  The
Verhulst 200 on Chaos, Brussels, BELGIUM, 04/09/16-18

  The
  8th Intl Conf on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature
  (PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22

  XVII Brazilian
  Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao -
  Brazil, 04/09/22-24

   TEDMED Conference ,
Charleston SC, 04/10/12-15

  Wolfram
  Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois,
  04/10/21-23

  6th Intl Conf on Electronic Commerce
ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape,  Delft, The Netherlands,
04/10/25-27

   Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio de Janeiro,
04/11

  The 7th Asia-Pacific Complex Systems Conference,  Queensland, Australia,
04/12/06-10

  17th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,  Queensland,
Australia, 04/12/06-10


18th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2005), Salamanca,
Spain, 05/09/19-23



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