ժ NO2004.20

Complexity Digest 2004.20

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think the
next century will be the
century of complexity." Stephen Hawking



01. Natural-Born Dualists, Edge.org
02. Where the Jobs Are, NY Times
02.01. The Power of Why, Darwin Observer
02.02. No More Meetings!, Darwin Observer
03. The Measurement Of Intellectual Influence, Econometrica
04. Universal Ideals And Particular Constraints Of Social Citizenship: The
Chinese Experience, Int.
J. Social Welfare
05. In the Arts, Tech for Tech's Sake Can't Compete With Originality, NY Times
06. Social Protection: Values To Be Defended!, Int. Social Security Rev.
07. The Antisocial Hormone, NewScientist
07.01. Cognitive Inflexibility After Prefrontal Serotonin Depletion, Science
07.02. Periodic Signaling Controlled by an Oscillatory Circuit, Science
08. Advantages Of Having A Lateralized Brain, Alphagalileo & Biol. Lett.
08.01. Words In The Brain: Reading Program Spurs Neural Rewrite In Kids,
Science News
09. Zif and the Survival of Memory, Science
09.01. Locating a New Step in Pain's Pathway, Science
09.02. Memory Consolidation And Forgetting During Sleep: A Neural Network,
Neural Proce. Lett.
10. A Visualisation Concept of Dynamic Signalling Networks, Molecular and
Cellular Endocrinology
11. The Complexity Of Symmetry-Breaking Formulas, Math. & Artificial Intell.
12. Building Character, Wrinkle by Wrinkle, in a 3-D World, NY Times
12.01. Computerized Clothes, NY Times
12.02. Robot to Hubble's Rescue?, NPR ME
13. Human Genetics: An Inflammatory Issue, Nature
13.01. Genomics in the Immune System, Clinical Immunology
14. Essence of Life and Multiformity of its Realization: Expected
Signatures of Life, Advances in
Space Research
15. Domains of Diversity
15.01. Biomechanics: Fast Fish, Nature
16. Colloids as Big Atoms, Science
17. Candidates Face Sprawling and Complex Electoral Map, NY Times
17.01. Voting Technology Update, NPR TOTN
18. A 'Clear ... System Failure', Christian Science Monitor
18.01. Commanders Share Blame in Iraq Prisoner Abuse, NPR ME
18.02. Abuse Of Iraqis 'Well Thought Through', NewScientist
18.03. Harsh C.I.A. Methods Cited in Top Qaeda Interrogations, NY Times
18.04. General Took Guant amo Rules to Iraq for Handling of Prisoners, NYTimes
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
19.01. Terror in the Name of God', c-span
19.02. Judge Allows Peek Into Challenge to Antiterrorism Law, NYTimes
19.03. From '9-11' to the Iraq War - Intl Law in An Age of Complexity, Oxford
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements


01. Natural-Born Dualists , Edge.org

Excerpts: Our dualistic conception isn't an airy intellectual thing; it is
common sense, and rooted
in a phenomenological experience. We do not feel that we are material
things, physical bodies.
(...) Instead, we feel as if we occupy our bodies. We possess them. We own
them. Because of this,
we talk about my brain, or my body, using the same language of possession
that we use when we talk
about my car, or my child. These are things that we possess, that we are
intimately related to ut
not what we are.

* Natural-Born Dualists, Paul Bloom , 04/05/13, Edge.org
* AUDIO - Modem
* VIDEO - Broadband


02. Where the Jobs Are , NY Times

Excerpts: Over the past decade the biggest employment gains came in
occupations that rely on people
skills and emotional intelligence ?like nurse and lawyer ?and among jobs
that require imagination
and creativity: designer, architect and photographer. But not all of the
new jobs require advanced
degrees or exceptional artistic talent; note the rise of employment for
hair stylists and

Trying to preserve existing jobs will prove futile ?trade and technology
will transform the
economy whether we like it not.

* Where the Jobs Are, W. Michael Cox , Richard Alm , Nigel Holmes ,
04/05/13, NYTimes


02.01. The Power of Why , Darwin Observer

Excerpts: One of the most powerful words in the English language is why.
When asked as an
interrogatory, why has the power to change assumptions, preconceptions and
mindsets. It has the
power to initiate change as well as the power to affirm the right course.
It is a word that should
be used frequently but with great care. When used the proper way, it can be
one of the most
effective tools a leader can employ. And it's totally free.

* The Power of Why, , 04/05/12, Darwin Observer


02.02. No More Meetings! , Darwin Observer

Excerpts: Part of the problem with meetings stems from what some think a
meeting can accomplish.
For example, we know from recent research that good communication is the
top skill for executives
to succeed today. However, executives can fall into the trap of thinking
that conducting a meeting
where there is obvious sharing of information supplants the need for other

(...) "Clear documentation and good prioritization foster productive
communication as much as any
meeting does." However, sometimes meetings can he helpful to identify roles
and responsibilities,
getting an organization more in sync.

* No More Meetings!, Chuck Martin , 04/05/12, Darwin Observer


03. The Measurement Of Intellectual Influence , Econometrica

Abstract: This paper examines the problem of measuring intellectual
influence based on data on
citations between scholarly publications. We follow an axiomatic approach
and find that the
properties of invariance to reference intensity, weak homogeneity, weak
consistency, and invariance
to splitting of journals characterize a unique ranking method. This method
is different from those
regularly used in economics and other social sciences.

* The Measurement Of Intellectual Influence, I. P.-Huerta  , O. Volij , May
2004, Econometrica
* Contributed by Pritha Das


04. Universal Ideals And Particular Constraints Of Social Citizenship: The
Chinese Experience ,
Int. J. Social Welfare

Abstract: This study looks at the perceptions of citizens in a modern
Chinese society and explores
whether social rights and responsibilities are unified at both ideal and
practice levels. It finds
that the conception that the Chinese have a weak image of social rights is
no longer true. The
Chinese are generally 'right-deficit' at the practice level. It is also
found that there are wide
gaps between ideal rights and practice rights, and between ideal
responsibilities and practice
responsibilities (...). Cultural, contextual and institutional factors are
identified as moderating
people's behaviour and preferences in regard to social citizenship.

* Universal Ideals And Particular Constraints Of Social Citizenship: The
Chinese Experience Of
Unifying Rights And Responsibilities, C. K. Wong  , K. Y. Wong , Apr. 2004,
International Journal
of Social Welfare
* Contributed by Pritha Das


05. In the Arts, Tech for Tech's Sake Can't Compete With Originality , NY Times

Excerpts: In 1990 I went to a discussion at the Guggenheim Museum on the
potential wonders of
fractal art, then all the rage. The main speaker was no less than Benoit
Mandelbrot, who invented
the theory, which offers mathematical explanations and formulas for
irregular shapes and patterns
in nature, and then generates further such shapes. (...)

Theoretically, they represented the interrelation of large and small forms
that lies at the heart
of fractal geometry. (...) In other words, clever techniques and theories
allied with hack artists
produces hack art, (...).

* In the Arts, Tech for Tech's Sake Can't Compete With Originality, John
Rockwell  , 04/05/14, NY


06. Social Protection: Values To Be Defended! , Int. Social Security Rev.

Abstract: Social protection is a part of human rights. I therefore believe
it is important to react
to the many reproaches levelled at it, which are undermining its
legitimacy. This involves
defending social protection, first and foremost in the name of its mission,
its fundamental
objectives and, consequently, the values upon which it is founded. After
briefly reviewing the
content of these values, I emphasize the fact that they should be promoted
and cultivated at least
as much as the economic values that are dominant in the world today.

* Social Protection: Values To Be Defended!, A. Euz y , Apr. 2004,
International Social Security
* Contributed by Atin Das


07. The Antisocial Hormone , NewScientist

Excerpts: Levels of testosterone in the womb may profoundly affect a
person  social development.
The latest in a series of studies suggests that children exposed to high
levels in the womb are
less developed socially and may also explain why men are four times as
likely as women to suffer
from autism. Although too small to be conclusive, the study's findings fit
with the theory that
autism is an extreme form of the male brain

* The Antisocial Hormone, New Scientist


07.01. Cognitive Inflexibility After Prefrontal Serotonin Depletion , Science

Excerpts: Serotonergic dysregulation within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is
implicated in many
neuropsychiatric disorders, but the precise role of serotonin within the
PFC is poorly understood.
Using a serial discrimination reversal paradigm, we showed that upon
reversal, selective serotonin
depletion of the marmoset PFC produced perseverative responding to the
previously rewarded stimulus
without any significant effects on either retention of a discrimination
learned preoperatively or
acquisition of a novel discrimination postoperatively. These results
highlight the importance of
prefrontal serotonin in behavioral flexibility and are highly relevant to
disorder, schizophrenia, and the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse in which
perseveration is

* Cognitive Inflexibility After Prefrontal Serotonin Depletion, H. F.
Clarke , J. W. Dalley , H. S.
Crofts , T. W. Robbins , A. C. Roberts
, 04/05/07, Science : 878-880


07.02. Periodic Signaling Controlled by an Oscillatory Circuit , Science

Excerpts: Self-regulating systems often use robust oscillatory circuits.
One such system controls
the chemotactic signaling mechanism of Dictyostelium, where pulses of
adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate
(cAMP) are generated with a periodicity of 7 minutes. We have observed
spontaneous oscillations in
activation (...). Computer modeling and simulations of the underlying
circuit faithfully account
for the ability of the cells to spontaneously generate periodic pulses
during specific stages of
development. Similar oscillatory processes may occur in cells of many
different species.

* Periodic Signaling Controlled by an Oscillatory Circuit, Mineko Maeda ,
Sijie Lu , Gad Shaulsky ,
Yuji Miyazaki , Hidekazu Kuwayama , Yoshimasa Tanaka , Adam Kuspa , William
F. Loomis
, 04/05/07, Science : 875-878.


08. Advantages Of Having A Lateralized Brain , Alphagalileo & Biol. Lett.

Abstract: Brain lateralization, the different functional specialisation of
the left and right
cerebral hemispheres, is wide spread in the animal world. However, despite
its implications for
higher order cognitive functions, no empirical evidence has been provided
that it may confer any
advantage to the functioning of the brain. We found in the domestic chick
that brain lateralization
is associated with an enhanced ability to perform two tasks simultaneously,
finding food and being
vigilant for predators. This finding suggests that cerebral lateralization
enhances brain
efficiency in cognitive tasks that demand simultaneous but different use of
both cerebral

* Advantages Of Having A Lateralized Brain, L. J. Rogers  , P. Zucca  , G.
Vallortigara ,
2004/05/10, Alphagalileo & Biology Letters
* Contributed by Atin Das


08.01. Words In The Brain: Reading Program Spurs Neural Rewrite In Kids ,
Science News

Excerpts: A new brain-imaging study indicates that a specially designed
program for second and
third graders deficient in reading boosts their reading skills while
prodding their brains to
respond to written material in the same way that the brains of good readers
do. The same
investigation found that the remedial instruction typically offered to poor
readers in the nation's
schools doesn't improve their skills and fails to ignite activity in brain
areas that have been
linked to effective reading.

* Words In The Brain: Reading Program Spurs Neural Rewrite In Kids, Bruce
Bower  , 04/05/08,
Science News
* AUDIO - Audible Format


09. Zif and the Survival of Memory , Science

Excerpts: (...) strong evidence for reconsolidation of memories is still
lacking. Reconsolidation
is thought to strengthen the "neuronal traces" of memories reactivated by
exposure to the original
context in which they were acquired, ensuring that the memories remain
permanent. Without memory
reconsolidation, it is thought that reactivated memories, which become
labile, may be lost
The evidence for memory reconsolidation to date rests mainly on the fact
that infusion of (...) at
the time of testing for memory retrieval hinders retrieval in a subsequent
test session.

* Zif and the Survival of Memory, Iv  Izquierdo  , Mart  Cammarota ,
04/05/07, Science : 829-830


09.01. Locating a New Step in Pain's Pathway , Science

Excerpts: Previously, pain sensitization, or hyperalgesia, was thought to
be due predominantly to
changes at the inflamed sites themselves, but recent evidence suggests that
alterations in the
spinal cord are even more important. The new findings now confirm that;
they show that the glycine
receptor is the target of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a pain-sensitizing
signaling molecule. "They
identified a specific component that shows how this [pain sensitization]
system works," (...) also
has evidence that PGE2 acts in the spinal cord.

* Locating a New Step in Pain's Pathway, Jean Marx , 04/05/07, Science : 811


09.02. Memory Consolidation And Forgetting During Sleep: A Neural Network ,
Neural Proce. Lett.

Abstract: Experimental research with humans and animals suggests that sleep
- particularly REM
sleep - is, in some way, associated with learning. However, the nature of
the association and the
underlying mechanism remain unclear. (...) use a modified version of a
Hopfield network to model
the possible contribution of sleep to memory consolidation. Sleep is
simulated by removing all
sensory input to the network and by exposing it to a 'noise' (...). The
results show that simulated
sleep does indeed contribute to learning and that the relationship between
the observed effect and
the length of simulated sleep can be represented by a U-shaped curve.

* Memory Consolidation And Forgetting During Sleep: A Neural Network, Walker R.
richard.walker@unina2.it , Russo V. , Apr. 2004, DOI:
10.1023/B:NEPL.0000023445.96334.eb, Neural
Processing Letters
* Contributed by Atin Das


10. A Visualisation Concept of Dynamic Signalling Networks , Molecular and
Cellular Endocrinology

Abstract: Cellular processes and pathways are typically delineated in arrow
diagrams to depict the
relationship between the individual genes or proteins. These
simplifications neglect the complexity
and non-linearity of cellular regulatory networks. In this review, a
three-dimensional (3D)
visualisation model is presented that can be helpful in understanding the
non-linear behaviour and
limited predictability of regulatory networks, as well as their
organisation, stability, attractor
states, and evolution. A better understanding of the current views of
large, complex scale-free
networks can assist in planning and interpretation of high throughput
microarray experiments.

* A Visualisation Concept of Dynamic Signalling Networks, Guido Jenster ,
2004-04-15, DOI:
10.1016/j.mce.2004.01.012, Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 218(1-2):1-6
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


11. The Complexity Of Symmetry-Breaking Formulas , Math. & Artificial Intell.

Abstract: Symmetry-breaking formulas for a constraint-satisfaction problem
are satisfied by exactly
one member (e.g., the lexicographic leader) from each set of "symmetrical
points" in the search
space. Thus, the incorporation of such formulas can accelerate the search
for a solution without
sacrificing satisfiability. We study the computational complexity of
generating lex-leader
formulas. We show, even for abelian symmetry groups, that the number of
essential clauses in the
"natural" lex-leader formula could be exponential.

* The Complexity Of Symmetry-Breaking Formulas, Luks E. M.
luks@cs.uoregon.edu , Roy A.
aroy@cs.bc.edu , May 2004, DOI: 10.1023/B:AMAI.0000018578.92398.10,
Mathematics and Artificial
* Contributed by Pritha Das


12. Building Character, Wrinkle by Wrinkle, in a 3-D World , NY Times

Excerpts: In Hollywood action films are increasingly spun off into video
games, game developers are
facing more pressure to squeeze greater realism into their
computer-generated characters and
The improvements have been in the form of a 3-D graphics technique called
normal mapping. (...),
permits game designers to create finely detailed virtual worlds that can
change as the game is
played without overtaxing the computers and consoles that run them. (The
word "normal" refers to a
vector, or line, that defines which way one face of an object is pointing.)

* Building Character, Wrinkle by Wrinkle, in a 3-D World, Michel
Marriott  , 04/05/13, NYTimes


12.01. Computerized Clothes , NY Times

Excerpts: Fashion designers should have realized by now that there's so
much more wearable
computers could do.
There's so much more wearable computers could do. We're thinking of a
woman's all-purpose dress
shoe that would be flat for the sidewalks but could grow a heel as high as
four inches upon entry
to a restaurant or cocktail party. Footwear for men could elevate in
response to the presence of an
extra-tall date, and pants legs respond by automatically lowering the hem.

* Computerized Clothes, NY Times


12.02. Robot to Hubble's Rescue? , NPR ME

Excerpts: NASA may try to launch an unprecedented robotic mission to
service the Hubble space
telescope. Administrator Sean O'Keefe says tests of the idea in recent
months have been
encouraging. NPR's David Kestenbaum reports.

* Robot to Hubble's Rescue?, 04/05/10, NPR ME


13. Human Genetics: An Inflammatory Issue , Nature

Excerpts: People vary naturally in a protein called caspase-12, and hence
in their susceptibility
to harmful inflammation. This discovery highlights the balance between the
protective and
destructive effects of immunity.

Our immune systems are adept at warding off intruders, but often the very
strength of the immune
response can be a problem. (...) One manifestation of this danger is severe
sepsis ?(...) which is
caused by an overreaction of the immune system to microorganisms or their
products. Sepsis is
thought to be mediated largely by messenger molecules called cytokines, (...).

* Human Genetics: An Inflammatory Issue, Kevin J. Tracey , H. Shaw
Warren  , 04/05/06, DOI:
10.1038/429035a, Nature 429, 35 - 37


13.01. Genomics in the Immune System , Clinical Immunology

Abstract: The analysis of gene expression in tissues, cells, and biologic
systems has evolved in
the last decade from the analysis of a selected set of genes to an
efficient high throughput
whole-genome screening approach of potentially all genes expressed in a
tissue or cell sample.
Development of sophisticated methodologies such as microarray technology
allows an open-ended
survey to identify comprehensively the fraction of genes that are
differentially expressed between
samples and define the samples' unique biology. This discovery-based
research provides the
opportunity to characterize either new genes with unknown function or genes
not previously known to
be involved in a biologic process. The latter category may hold surprises
that sometimes urge us to
redirect our thinking. Here, we review the impact of large-scale gene
expression profiling by
DNA-microarray technology on basic and clinical aspects of immunology.

* Genomics in the Immune System, Tineke C. M. T. van der Pouw Kraan , Pia
V. Kasperkovitz ,
Nicolette Verbeet , Cornelis L. Verweij , 2004-05, DOI:
10.1016/j.clim.2004.01.001, Clinical
Immunology 111(2):175-185
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


14. Essence of Life and Multiformity of its Realization: Expected
Signatures of Life , Advances in
Space Research

Abstract: The question on the essence of life as phenomenon is the key one
for astrobiology, since
the answer to this question determines "breadth of our outlook". Taking
Earth's version of life as
the pattern extremely under-estimates our estimation of the probability of
life origin and
respectively expected probability of extraterrestrial life discovery. In
the paper the hypothetical
key attribute of life in general is selected on the base of comparative
analyses and deductive
inference. Simulation conducted on the base of neural network model shows
that the same function
could be realized by means of great variety of structures, which originated
in the course of an
evolutionary process. So multiplicity of evolutionary outcomes essentially
increases the
probability of final result ?realization of an integrated function
providing fitness to
environment. Life as the integrated function can be realized via great
variety of development ways
and structures. A logical consequence of definitions for life as phenomenon
is suggested. Final one
is "Life is specific organization of informational and energetic processes
coupling, enabling
choice-making, and displayed as anomalies of different kinds". Anomalies of
visible form,
mechanical movement, chemical composition and noticeable response are
considered. Presented in the
paper sweeping generalization is not rigorously proven, however it can play
heuristic role in
increasing the level of specificity of searching for extraterrestrial life.

* Essence of Life and Multiformity of its Realization: Expected Signatures
of Life, S. I. Bartsev ,
2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2003.08.032, Advances in Space Research
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


15. Domains of Diversity

Most species live in the tropics and, in particular, within moist forests
(see the figure). Why do
warm, wet places generate diversity? "There are more niches," goes one
argument, "as demonstrated
by their being more species to fill them," goes its circular conclusion.
Warm, wet places are
proposed to be more productive and to support more individuals, which in
turn permit more species
to coexist. Unfortunately, tropical richness increases much faster than
expected with the increase
in individuals.

* Domains of Diversity, Stuart L. Pimm  , James H. Brown , 04/05/07, DOI:
Science, 304: 831-833


15.01. Biomechanics: Fast Fish , Nature

Excerpts: To an underwater observer, mako sharks look a lot like tunas.
(...) the two fishes share
a common body plan, colour pattern and even swimming style. (...) after 400
million years of
separate evolutionary trajectories, these two high-speed predators have
converged on solutions to
the problem of swimming fast that go from skin to skeleton.

Tunas and mackerels, as well as makos (...), appear in the fossil record
about 60 million years
ago. (...) Their common ancestor dates back to the Carboniferous, when the
bony and cartilaginous
fishes diverged.

* Biomechanics: Fast Fish, Adam P. Summers  , 04/05/06, DOI:
10.1038/429031a, Nature 429, 31 - 33


16. Colloids as Big Atoms , Science

Excerpts: Colloid science is important for applications ranging from drugs
to dairy products. Less
well known is that it can also illuminate basic physics questions, because
in certain crucial
respects, colloids behave as "big atoms." (...), the results show that
phenomena at the interface
between a liquid and a vapor can be studied with a colloidal model.

Beginning with his doctoral thesis, Einstein showed that the incessant,
random jiggling of
colloidal particles known as Brownian movement was the visible
manifestation of the
"graininess"--the molecular nature--of the surrounding liquid.

* Colloids as Big Atoms, Wilson Poon , 04/05/07, Science : 830-831


17. Candidates Face Sprawling and Complex Electoral Map , NY Times

Excerpts: President Bush and Senator John Kerry are pouring resources into
more than 20 states in a
struggle to master what both sides describe as one of the largest and most
complex electoral
playing fields in nearly 20 years.

The broad map, including such unusual additions as Arizona, Colorado and
Louisiana (...) is partly
the result of the vast amount of money each candidate has raised (...).
That has allowed Mr. Bush
and Mr. Kerry to spend - and experiment - in states they might otherwise
have been forced to
ignore, (...).

* Candidates Face Sprawling and Complex Electoral Map, Adam Nagourney  ,
04/05/12, NY Times


17.01. Voting Technology Update , NPR TOTN

Excerpts: Election campaigns are heating up -- and so is the debate over
electronic voting. In this
hour, we'll take a look at the latest on the issue. Is it possible to make
a voting system that
can't be hacked.

* Voting Technology Update, Avi Rubin , 04/05/14, NPR TOTN


18. A 'Clear ... System Failure' , Christian Science Monitor

Excerpts: (...) abusing prisoners seemed almost routine, "a fact of army
life the soldiers felt no
need to hide." (...)

(...) Specialist Joe Darby, the man who first brought the photos of
prisoner abuse to the
military's attention in January of 2004, is now so hated in the town in
Maryland where he and other
reservists in one of the military police unit came from, that people there
are saying his life may
be in danger. (...) "He's going to be blackballed. His life is in jeopardy,
because he's a snitch.

* A 'Clear ... System Failure', Tom Regan , 04/05/10, Christian Science Monitor


18.01. Commanders Share Blame in Iraq Prisoner Abuse , NPR ME

Excerpts: The U.S. military says only a small number of guards should be
blamed for the abuse of
prisoners in Iraq. But investigative journalist Seymour Hersh says some of
their commanders can
share the blame. Hersh investigated the chain of command, and published his
findings in Monday's
New Yorker magazine. Hear Hersh and NPR's Steve Inskeep.

* Commanders Share Blame in Iraq Prisoner Abuse, 04/05/10, NPR ME


18.02. Abuse Of Iraqis 'Well Thought Through' , NewScientist

Excerpts: The type of mistreatment Iraqi prisoners have suffered at the
hands of US soldiers is
unlikely to have occurred without the knowledge of higher authorities, say
psychologists (...) -
adding support to allegations that the abuse may have been condoned by

"A lot of people had to be in the know for this to happen. The very fact
people felt confident
enough to take pictures suggests that this was not something which was a
secret," says Ian Robbins,
(...), who has treated both victims of torture and torturers.

* Abuse Of Iraqis 'Well Thought Through', Shaoni Bhattacharya , 04/05/10,


18.03. Harsh C.I.A. Methods Cited in Top Qaeda Interrogations , NY Times

Excerpts: The C.I.A. has used coercive interrogation methods against a
select group of high-level
leaders and operatives of Al Qaeda.
These techniques were authorized by a set of secret rules for the
interrogation of high-level Qaeda
prisoners, none known to be housed in Iraq, that were endorsed by the
Justice Department and the
C.I.A. The rules were among the first adopted by the Bush administration
after the Sept. 11 attacks
for handling detainees and may have helped establish a new understanding
throughout the government
that officials would have greater freedom to deal harshly with detainees.

* Harsh C.I.A. Methods Cited in Top Qaeda Interrogations, James Risen ,
David Johnston , Neil A.
Lewis  , 04/05/13, NYTimes


18.04. General Took Guant amo Rules to Iraq for Handling of Prisoners , NYTimes

Excerpts: Because the administration had designated the Taliban and Al
Qaeda detainees at
Guant amo as "enemy combatants" ?to whom it would accord humane treatment
but not other rights
granted by the Conventions ?military officers in Cuba soon grew concerned
that they were operating
without clear rules.

(...), the methods, begun in early 2002, included depriving detainees of
sleep; leaving them in
cold, air-conditioned rooms; placing them in "stress positions"; and
forcing them to stand or
crouch for long periods, sometimes with their arms extended, until exhausted.

* General Took Guant amo Rules to Iraq for Handling of Prisoners, Tim
Golden , Eric Schmitt  ,
04/05/13, NYTimes


19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks


19.01. Terror in the Name of God' , c-span

Excerpts: Jessica Stern, Author of "Terror in the Name of God," discusses
the Iraqi prisoner abuse
case, Sec. Rumsfeld's visit to the Iraq prison where the prisoner abuses
allegedly took place, and
other related news.

* Terror in the Name of God', Jessica Stern  , 04/05/14, c-span, video 1 hr.


19.02. Judge Allows Peek Into Challenge to Antiterrorism Law , NYTimes

Excerpts: A federal judge in Manhattan widened the public's glimpse into a
lawsuit by the American
Civil Liberties Union challenging some terms of the USA Patriot Act.

* Judge Allows Peek Into Challenge to Antiterrorism Law, Julia Preston  ,
04/05/13, NYTimes


19.03. From '9-11' to the Iraq War - Intl Law in An Age of Complexity , Oxford

Excerpts: This book considers the pattern of events from the attacks on the
US on 9-11 to the Iraq
War 2003. It addresses the legal and political issues relating to the War
Against Terrorism in
general and the War on Iraq in particular. The book introduces the idea of
'complexity theory' as a
framework for understanding the events and issues considered. It concludes
by examining the
possible implications of the War Against Terrorism and the War on Iraq for
world order in the
twenty-first century.

* From '9-11' to the Iraq War - Intl Law in An Age of Complexity, Hart,
Oxford, 2004, ISBN


20. Links & Snippets


20.01. Other Publications

- Interaction With In-Vehicle Electronic Systems: A Complete Description Of
A Neural Network
Approach, Kamp J-F. jean-francois.kamp@univ-ubs.fr , Poirier F.  , Doignon
P. , Apr. 2004, Neural
Processing Letters, DOI: 10.1023/B:NEPL.0000023422.16224.cf
- The ERP Challenge In China: A Resource-Based Perspective, X. (James) He ,
Apr. 2004, Information
Systems Journal
- Linear And Nonlinear Relationships Between Neuronal Activity, Oxygen
Metabolism, And Hemodynamic
Responses, S. A. Sheth  , M. Nemoto  , M. Guiou  , M. Walker  , N.
Pouratian  , A. W. Toga
toga@loni.ucla.edu , 2004/04/21, Neuron, DOI: 10.1016/S0896-6273(04)00221-1
- Nonlinear Population Codes, Shamir M.  , Sompolinsky H. , Jun. 2004,
Neural Computation, DOI:
- Financial Market Globalization, Symmetry-Breaking, And Endogenous
Inequality Of Nations, K.
Matsuyama , May 2004, Econometrica
- A Tournament-Based Competitive Coevolutionary Algorithm, Kim Y. K.
kimyk@chonnam.ac.kr , Kim J.
Y. ieman@chonnam.ac.kr , Kim Y. yeongho@snu.ac.kr , May 2004, Applied
Intelligence, DOI:
- Sound And Visual Tracking For Humanoid Robot, Okuno H. G. okuno@nue.org ,
Nakadai K.
nakadai@jp.honda-ri.com , Lourens T.  , Kitano H. , May 2004, Applied
Intelligence, DOI:
- The Network Dynamics Hypothesis: How Channel Networks Structure Riverine
Habitats, Benda L.  ,
Poff N. L.  , Miller D.  , Dunne T.  , Reeves G.  , Pess G.  , Pollock M. ,
May 2004, BioScience
- Wide Faces Or Large Canines? The Attractive Versus The Aggressive
Primate, E. M. Weston  ,  A. E.
Friday  , R. A. Johnstone  , F. Schrenk , 2004/05/10, Alphagalileo &
Biology Letters
- Transport Of North Sea Cod Larvae Into The Skagerrak Coastal Populations,
H. Knutsen  , C Andr?
, P. E. Jorde  , M. D. Skogen  , E. Thur zy  , N. C. Stenseth , 2004/05/10,
Alphagalileo &
Proceedings Biological Sciences
- Only Six Kingdoms Of Life, T. C.-Smith , 2004/05/04, Alphagalileo &
Proceedings Biological
- Was Male Domination Deadly For Dinosaurs?, V. Bridge v.bridge@leeds.ac.uk
, 2004/05/10,
- Less Educated People Have Lower Stress, But More Health Effects,
2004/05/10, ScienceDaily & Wake
Forest University Baptist Medical Center
- Money, Price Dispersion And Welfare, B. Peterson bripeter@indiana.edu ,
S. Shi
shouyong@chass.utoronto.ca , Nov. 2004, Economic Theory, DOI:
- The Political Activities Of Social Workers In The Context Of Changing
Roles And Political
Transition In Hong Kong, E. Chui  , M. Gray , Apr. 2004, International
Journal of Social Welfare
- Evolution of Robust Developmental Neural Networks, Alan N. Hampton ,
Chris Adami , 2004-05-06,
arXiv, DOI: nlin.AO/0405011
- Least Dependent Component Analysis Based on Mutual Information, Harald St
bauer , Alexander
Kraskov , Sergey A. Astakhov Peter Grassberger , 2004-05-10, arXiv, DOI:
- Culture and International Usability Testing: The Effects of Culture in
Structured Interviews,
Ravikiran Vatrapu , Manuel A. Perez-Quinones , 2004-05-13, arXiv, DOI:
- Mutation and Selection in a Large Population, J. R. Peck , D. Waxman , A.
Cruikshank ,
2004-04->2004-06, Biosystems 74(1-3):15-27, DOI:
- Three Views on Global Warming , 04/05/13, NPR ME, There's a sharp
difference of opinion among
scientists about the risk of global warming. NPR's Richard Harris speaks
with three prominent
scientists about their views on climate warming.
- Al Qaeda Web , 04/05/13, NPR ME, After the shocking video of the murder
of Nick Berg emerged on
the Internet, some experts are saying it will be possible to track down the
location where it was
posted. NPR's Neda Ulaby reports.
- Solar Wind To Shield Earth During Pole Flip, A stream of solar wind will
come to the planet's
rescue during the next reversal of its magnetic poles, reveals a new study
- Micro-Sculptures Give Metal The Velcro Touch, Carving delicate
projections in a sheet of metal
gives it ultra-strong bonding properties, which could produce tougher
joints in cars and aircraft
- Whales, Seals And Fishermen Rarely Take Same Prey, Marine mammals and
trawlers rarely overlap in
the fish they hunt, reveals a global study, adding a new angle on
international fishing disputes
- Handsome Men Evolved Thanks To Picky Females, Male primates may have
sacrificed their long faces
and aggressive teeth for more placid looks to attract females
- Computer Chip Noise May Betray Code, The noise emitted by computer chips
could help code breakers
decipher encrypted messages, according to preliminary research
- GM Wheat Put On Hold, The biotech giant Monsanto has shelved plans to
sell its herbicide
resistant wheat - opponents of GM say it has bowed to consumer opposition
- An Afghan Gives His Own Account of U.S. Abuse, 04/05/12, Carlotta Gall, A
former Afghan police
colonel said he was subjected to beating, sleep deprivation and sexual
abuse while he was in U.S.
- Rumsfeld Aide and a General Clash on Abuse, Eric Schmitt , 04/05/12, NY
Times, The unusual public
sparring cast a spotlight on the confusing conditions at the prison last
fall when the worst abuses
- U.S. Soldier Paints a Scene of Eager Mayhem at Iraqi Prison, Kate Zernike
, 04/05/14, NYTimes,
Specialist Jeremy C. Sivits's two statements recount acts of gratuitous
violence in graphic but
unemotional language.
- Skyscrapers in Cyberspace: Maps and History Online, Matthew Mirapaul  ,
04/05/14, Maps have
become a popular method of displaying a museum's collection, as seen on the
Web sites of the
Skyscraper Museum and the Theban Mapping Project.
- Feds Stage Disaster Simulation , Federal officials stage a full-scale
exercise to test how well
the federal government would operate in the face of a major disaster or
terrorist attack. Thousands
of federal workers were relocated outside Washington, D.C., Thursday as
part of the simulation.
NPR's Pam Fessler reports.
- Hubble Reveals Details Of 'Red Rectangle', 04/05/13, The Australian/AP
- US risks fury of Shia as Imam Ali's shrine is hit, Justin Huggler  ,
04/05/15, The Independent
- Officials Say Methods At Prison Broke Rules , Edward Epstein  , 04/05/15,
San Francisco Chronicle
- Getting Warmer, However You Measure It, Richard A. Kerr
, Science 7 May 2004: 805-807
- Surprise Hummingbird Fossil Sets Experts Abuzz, Erik Stokstad
, Science 7 May 2004: 810-811
- Toxin Takeout: Frogs Borrow Poison For Skin From Ants, Scientists have
identified formicine ants
as a food source from which poison frogs acquire their chemical weapons.
- Closing In On A Monster: A Black Hole's Dusty Environs Show Themselves,
The first clear picture
of the immediate surroundings of a supermassive black hole confirms that
these gravitational
monsters hide behind thick belts of dust.
- Teen Brains on Trial, Scientific opinions differ about whether evidence
on delayed maturation of
the adolescent brain should be used to argue that teenagers have reduced
culpability for crimes and
thus should be exempt from the death penalty.
- Brain Roots Of Music Depreciation, The brains of tone-deaf people may be
unable to detect subtle
shifts in pitch, which keeps them from learning the basic structure of
musical passages.


20.02. Webcast Announcements

Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H.,
Internet-First University
Press, 1994

World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland   Riding the Next Democratic
Wave, Al-Thani, Khan,
Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25
  The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie,
Annan, Martin, Schwab, World
Economic Forum, 04/01/25  Why Victory Against Terrorism Demands Shared
Values  The Process of
Curricular Review: Redefining a World-Class Education, Benedict Gross,
Thomas Bender, Harvard@home,
04/01/21, Dean of Harvard College Benedict Gross discusses Harvard's first
comprehensive review of
the undergraduate curriculum in almost 3 decades. This program introduces
the process of curricular
review by presenting two segmented lectures. The first, by Dean Gross,
outlines the approach and
considerations in undertaking the current review. The second lecture,
presented by NYU Professor
Thomas Bender, presents a historical perspective on academic
culture.   Cancer Biology , NPR Talk
of the Nation, 04/01/16, How the spread of cancer is like wound healing
gone awry.   Tracking Ebola
, NPR Talk of the Nation, 04/01/16, A new study might help scientists
predict where Ebola may!
strike next.

  CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And
Intelligent Systems, 2004
Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10 EVOLVABILITY & INTERACTION: Evolutionary
Substrates of
Communication, Signaling, and Perception in the Dynamics of Social
Complexity, London, UK,
03/10/08-10 The Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and
Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on
Artificial Life, Dortmund,
Germany, 03/09/14-17 New Santa Fe Institute President About His Vision for
SFI's Future Role,
(Video, Santa Fe, NM, 03/06/04) SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and
Noise, Santa Fe, NM,
2003/06/01-04 NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains,
Video/Audio Report, 03/05/11
13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life Sciences,
Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10
CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and Live Events
Dean LeBaron's Archive
of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998 Edge Videos


20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

  Strategic Thinking in a Complex World, Smithsonian Resident Associates
Program, 04/05/01-22

  International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS2004),
  Boston, MA, USA, 04/05/16-21

Understanding Complex Systems: Networks, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois,

  3rd Intl Conf on
  Systems Thinking in Management (ICSTM 2004) "Transforming
  Organizations to Achieve Sustainable Success",
  Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 04/05/19-21

4th Intl Conf on
Fractals And Dynamic Systems In Geoscience, München, Germany, 04/05/19-22

  Annual Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interaction Agents
  (WEHIA04), Kyoto, Japan, 2004/05/27-29

  International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious
  Diseases, Toulon, France, 04/06/03-05!

  Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,

  An Intl Tribute to Francisco Varela, Paris,04/06/18-20

Intl Conf on Linking Systems Thinking, Innovation,Quality, Entrepreneurship
and Environment
MARIBOR, SLOVENIA, 04/06/24-26

Biannual Meeting Society for Research on Biological Rhythms, Whistler, BC,

NAACSOS 2004, North American Association for Computational Social and
Organizational Science,
Pittsburgh PA, 04/06/27-29

Statphys - Kolkata V An International Conference on Complex Networks:
Structure, Function and
Processes , Kolkata, India, 04/06/27-30

ICAD 2004 10th International Conference on Auditory Display, Sydney,
Australia, 04/07/06-09

3rd Intl School Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics Discrete Dynamical Systems and
Applications , Urbino
(Italy), 04/07/07-09

  `Perspectives on Nonlinear Dynamics 2004 (PNLD-2004), Chen!
nai, India, 04/07/12-15

  From Animals To Animats
  8, 8th Intl Conf On The Simulation Of Adaptive Behavior
  (SAB'04), Los Angeles, USA, 04/07/13-17

  14th Annual International Conference The Society for Chaos Theory in
Psychology & Life Sciences ,
Milwaukee, WI, USA, 04/07/15-18

Facing Complexity, Wellington, NZ, 04/07/15-17

  Interdisciplinary Colloquium, Security Bytes, Security/Life/Terror
, Lancaster, 04/07/17-19

  Gordon Research Conference on "Oscillations & Dynamic Instabilities In
Chemical Systems",
Lewiston, ME, 04/07/18-23

Intl Conf Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems Conference (AAMAS 2004),
New York City,

Intl Workshop on: Trust in Agent Societies , New York City, 04/07/19-20

  World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and
  Informatics, Orlando, Florida, USA, 04/07/18-21

The 4 th International Workshop on Meta-Synthesis and Complex Systems
(MCS'2004) , Beijing, 04/07/22-23

  Summer Simulation MultiConference (SummerSim'04), San Jose
  Hyatt, San Jose, California, 04/07/25-29

  SME 2004 Symposium on Modeling
  and Control of Economic Systems , University in Redlands, CA, 04/07/28-31

  International Mathematica Symposium (IMS 2004), Banff,
  Canada, 04/08/02-06

   Fractals and Natural Hazards at
32nd Intl Geological Congress (IGC), Florence, Italy, 04/08/20-28

ICCC 2004, IEEE International Conference on Computational Cybernetics, ,
Vienna, Austria, 04/08/30-09/01

  2004, 4th International Workshop on Ant Colony
  Optimization and Swarm Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium,

An Inquiry into Systems, Emergence, Levels of Reality,
  and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy,

  Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems
  (ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts, 04/09/12-15

  Neuroeconomics 2004, Charleston, SC, 04/09/16-19

  TNew Economic Windows 2004: Complexity Hints for Economic Policy,
Salerno, Italy, 04/09/16-18

Verhulst 200 on Chaos, Brussels, BELGIUM, 04/09/16-18

  8th Intl Conf on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature
  (PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22

  XVII Brazilian
  Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao -
  Brazil, 04/09/22-24

   TEDMED Conference ,
Charleston SC, 04/10/12-15

  Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois,

  6th Intl Conf on Electronic Commerce
ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape,  Delft, The Netherlands,

   Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio de Janeiro,

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