ժ NO2004.17

Complexity Digest 2004.17 26-April-2004

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
Mirror: http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think
the next century will be the century of complexity." Stephen Hawking

Panel Discussion:

  How Can Science Education Help to Improve Science in Taiwan?

01-May-2004, National Taiwan Science Education Center, Taipei, Taiwan

(see http://www.comdig2.de/conf/ntsec04)


01. Social Presence And Children: Praise, Intrinsic Motivation, And Learning
With Computers, J. Communication
01.01. Trade Flows: A Facet Of Regionalism Or Globalisation?, Cambridge J.
01.02. Near Rationality and Competitive Equilibria in Networked Systems, arXiv
01.03. The Productivity Of Failures, Nature
01.04. Variation In Behaviour Promotes Cooperation In The Prisoner's Dilemma
Game, Nature
02. The Truth About Lying, Nature
03. Get Mellow, Fellow: Male Baboons Cooperate After Cultural Prodding, Science
04. Come Together: The Mystery of Collective Intelligence, WIE Magazine
04.01. Empathy May Not Be Uniquely Human Quality, NewScientist
05. 'Virgin Birth' Mammal Rewrites Rules Of Biology, NewScientist.com
05.01. Mice Created Without Fathers, BBC News Online
06. Food Hoarding: Future Value In Optimal Foraging Decisions, Ecol. Modelling
06.01. Songbirds Check Compass Against Sunset to Stay on Course, Science
06.02. Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from
Twilight Cues, Science
07. Even Redwoods Can't Grow Forever, Science Now
08. Beyond Nature and Nurture, Science
08.01. RNAi Takes Evo-Devo World by Storm, Science
08.02. The Coevolution Theory Of Autumn Colours, Alphagalileo & Proc. Biol. Sc.
08.03. Variable Female Preferences Drive Complex Male Displays, Nature
09. Early Life Thrived In Lava Flows, BBC News
10. Neural Basis of Solving Problems with Insight, plosbiology
10.01. Molecular Basis For Mozart Effect Revealed, NewScientist
11. Unpublished Data Reverses Risk-Benefit Of Drugs, NewScientist
12. Testosterone Gets You Thinking, Alphagalileo
12.01. Brain Areas Identified That 'Decode' Emotions Of Others, ScienceDaily
13. Global Warming and the Next Ice Age, Science
13.01. A Slowing Cog in the North Atlantic Ocean's Climate Machine, Science
13.02. The Effects of Iron Fertilization on Carbon Sequestration in the
Southern Ocean, Science
13.03. Ironing Out Algal Issues in the Southern Ocean, Science
14. Devilish Dust Packs a Charge, Science Now
15. A Simple Model Of Propulsive Oscillating Foils, Ocean Engineering
15.01. Wrappers Smarten Up To Protect Food, NewScientist
16. Enzyme "Ink" Shows Potential for Nanomanufacturing, NSF
16.01. Getting Molecules To Do The Work, Business Week
16.02. Coupling Qubits by Waves on the Electron Sea, Science
17. A Compromised Voting System, NYTimes
18. Security Companies: Shadow Soldiers in Iraq, NYTimes
18.01. Privatizing Warfare, NYTimes
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
19.01. The Real Nuclear Danger, NYTimes
19.02. Trying To Push Terror Off The Grid, Seattle Post-Intelligencer
19.03. World Powers Try To Squeeze Terrorist Financing, AFP/channelnewsasia.com
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements


01. Social Presence And Children: Praise, Intrinsic Motivation, And Learning
With Computers , J. Communication

Abstract: The computers are social actors (CASA) paradigm asserts that human
computer users interact socially with computers, and the paradigm has provided
extensive evidence that this is the case for adults. This experiment examined
whether or not children have similar reactions to computers by comparing
children's predictable responses to praise from a teacher to their responses to
praise from a computer. Results provide evidence that children do have social
responses to computers and that such social responses can lead to increases in
learning (recall and recognition) in young children.

* Social Presence And Children: Praise, Intrinsic Motivation, And Learning With
Computers, C. C. Bracken c.bracken@csuohio.edu , M. Lombard , 2004/03/01,
Journal of Communication
* Contributed by Atin Das


01.01. Trade Flows: A Facet Of Regionalism Or Globalisation? , Cambridge J.

Abstract: This paper examines the evidence about the extent of globalisation by
focusing on some aspects of international trade flows. The focus is on whether
the increase in trade flows has been predominantly a global or regional
phenomenon. The analysis points to the tentative conclusion that the dominant
tendency is the increase in trade within regional blocs (North America, the EU
and the Asia-Japan blocs) (...). Our results indicate that the degree of
openness converges faster across the countries of a given region rather than at
the global level (...) trade integration is more of a 'regional' phenomenon
than a 'global' one.

* Trade Flows: A Facet Of Regionalism Or Globalisation?, G. E. Chortareas  , T.
Pelagidis pelagidi@panteion.gr , 2004/03/01, Cambridge Journal of Economics
* Contributed by Pritha Das


01.02. Near Rationality and Competitive Equilibria in Networked Systems , arXiv

Abstract: A growing body of literature in networked systems research relies on
game theory and mechanism design to model and address the potential lack of
cooperation between self-interested users. Most game-theoretic models applied
to system research only describe competitive equilibria in terms of pure Nash
equilibria, that is, a situation where the strategy of each user is
deterministic, and is her best response to the strategies of all the other
users. However, the assumptions necessary for a pure Nash equilibrium to hold
may be too stringent for practical systems. Using three case studies on
computer security, TCP congestion control, and network formation, we outline
the limits of game-theoretic models relying on Nash equilibria, and we argue
that considering competitive equilibria of a more general form may help
reconcile predictions from game-theoretic models with empirically observed

* Near Rationality and Competitive Equilibria in Networked Systems, Nicolas
Christin , Jens Grossklags , John Chuang , 2004-04-20, DOI: cs.GT/0404040,
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


01.03. The Productivity Of Failures , Nature

Excerpt: (...) fairness concerns permeate many other aspects of economic and
social life ?(...), exploitation of common property resources and they are the
basis of many political conflicts. In addition, fairness norms probably played
a decisive role in the evolution of human sociality. What began as research on
involuntary unemployment turned into basic research about the nature of human
altruism (...) and led to the concept of strong reciprocity ?a term invented
by Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis to describe the widespread human propensity
to reward helpers and to punish cheaters.

* The Productivity Of Failures, Ernst Fehr , 04/04/15, DOI: 10.1038/428701a,
Nature 428, 701


01.04. Variation In Behaviour Promotes Cooperation In The Prisoner's Dilemma
Game , Nature

Excerpt: Thus in a single play of the game, each player should defect. In our
game, a fixed maximum number of rounds of the Prisoner's Dilemma game is played
against the same opponent. A standard argument based on working backwards from
the last round shows that defection on all rounds is the only stable outcome.
In contrast, we show that if extrinsic factors maintain variation in behavior,
high levels of co-operation are stable. Our results highlight the importance of
extrinsic variability in determining the outcome of evolutionary games.

* Variation In Behaviour Promotes Cooperation In The Prisoner's Dilemma Game,
John M. McNamara1 , Zoltan Barta  , Alasdair I. Houston , 04/04/15, DOI:
10.1038/nature02432, Nature 428, 745 - 748


02. The Truth About Lying , Nature

Excerpt: The security agencies desperately need new tools to help them identify
terrorists. Can brain fingerprinting help? Farwell says he has been able to
tell FBI agents from civilians by checking for P300s elicited by terms learned
during FBI training. So in theory, a P300 test could pick out a terrorist by
finding records in the brain of something only a terrorist would know ?phrases
from an al-Qaeda training manual, for instance. The trick is finding
information that no innocent person would know.

* The Truth About Lying, Jonathan Knight , 04/04/15, DOI: 10.1038/428692a,
Nature 428, 692 - 694


03. Get Mellow, Fellow: Male Baboons Cooperate After Cultural Prodding ,
Science Now

Excerpt:     Peacemakers. Female olive baboons, such as this mother, may have
transmitted cooperative attitudes to males that entered an African troop.
Adult male baboons are bad dudes. They regularly square off in bloody fights
over access to food and females, whom they will also attack. In this vicious
pecking order, males at the top bully bottom dwellers into a demoralized state
of submission. (...)

So, it startled Stanford University biologists Robert M. Sapolsky and Lisa J.
Share to find a baboon troop in which even top-rung males exhibited remarkably
peaceful behaviors. The big honchos often left weak males alone and refrained
from attacking females, focusing instead on fighting each other.

* Get Mellow, Fellow: Male Baboons Cooperate After Cultural Prodding, Bruce
Bower , 04/04/17, Science News
* AUDIO - [RED]Audio[/RED]


04. Come Together: The Mystery of Collective Intelligence , WIE Magazine

Excerpt: Is it possible for groups to access a level of wisdom far beyond what
is available to individuals? WIE takes an in-depth look at the miraculous
phenomenon of collective consciousness that many feel is the next step in human
evolution. (...) introduces you to pioneers who are discovering that wholes are
far more than the sum of their parts. When individuals unite in a shared
intention, something mysterious comes into beingUwith capacities and
intelligences that far transcend those of the individuals involved.

* Come Together: The Mystery of Collective Intelligence, Craig Hamilton ,
04/04, WIE Magazine


04.01. Empathy May Not Be Uniquely Human Quality , NewScientist

Excerpts: The ability to empathise is often considered uniquely human, the
result of complex reasoning and abstract thought. But it might in fact be an
incredibly simple brain process (...) no reason why monkeys and other animals
cannot empathise too.

(...) The team used a functional MRI scanner to monitor volunteers while their
legs were touched and while they watched videos of other people being touched
and of objects colliding.
(...) secondary somatosensory cortex, thought only to respond to physical
touch, was strongly activated by the sight of others being touched.

* Empathy May Not Be Uniquely Human Quality, Helen Phillips , 04/04/24,


05. 'Virgin Birth' Mammal Rewrites Rules Of Biology , NewScientist.com

Excerpt:      Virgin birth

In parthenogenesis, the egg becomes the sole source of genetic material for the
creation of an embryo. (...) In mammals parthenogenesis can begin if an egg is
accidentally or experimentally activated as if it had been fertilised - but
this parthenote never grows past a few days.

This is because of there a biological phenomenon known as imprinting. During
sperm and egg formation in mammals, certain genes necessary for embryo
development are shut down with a series of chemical marks, or imprints, some in
the sperm, other in the egg.

* 'Virgin Birth' Mammal Rewrites Rules Of Biology, Sylvia Pagan Westphal ,
04/04/21, NewScientist.com


05.01. Mice Created Without Fathers , BBC News Online

Excerpt:     The scientists combined two sets of chromosomes from different

Scientists have created two female mice without fertilising the eggs (...).

The eggs had two sets of chromosomes from two female mice, rather than one from
the mother and one from the father as in a normally fertilised embryo.

(...) switched off a key gene in the donor eggs which affected imprinting - a
barrier to parthenogenesis in mammals.

(...) injected the genetic material from immature mouse eggs into mature eggs
with their own set of chromosomes. They then "activated" the combined eggs,
prompting them to start growing as embryos.

* Mice Created Without Fathers, Paul Rincon , 04/04/21, BBC News Online


06. Food Hoarding: Future Value In Optimal Foraging Decisions , Ecol. Modelling

Abstract: Food storage, which permits animals to manage the availability of
food in space and time, adds a complex dimension to foraging decisions, and may
influence the predictions of traditional foraging theory. One key question
about the role of caching behavior in optimal foraging theory is the degree to
which information about future value might influence foraging decisions. To
investigate this question, we use a simple prey selection model that minimizes
the time spent foraging and is modified to include food storage (...). These
results provide a framework for identifying subtle differences in foraging
behavior when future value is accounted for (...).

* Food Hoarding: Future Value In Optimal Foraging Decisions, L. R. Gerber
Leah.Gerber@asu.edu , O. J. Reichman reichman@nceas.ucsb.edu , J. Roughgarden
rough@pangea.stanford.edu , online 2004/01/23, DOI:
10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2003.10.022, Ecological Modelling
* Contributed by Atin Das


06.01. Songbirds Check Compass Against Sunset to Stay on Course , Science

Excerpt: They captured several dozen gray-cheeked thrushes and Swainson's
thrushes near Champaign, Illinois, and glued small radio transmitters to them.
Before releasing the birds, they exposed some to "false" magnetic fields,
rotated 80?to the east, during sunset. (...)
Control birds flew northerly, but those that had been in the altered magnetic
field flew westward for the entire night. The next evening, after sunset, the
experimental birds corrected their course and headed north.

The birds seem to calibrate their compass at sunset, perhaps from the position
of the sun (...).

* Songbirds Check Compass Against Sunset to Stay on Course, Erik Stokstad ,
Science 2004 304: 373


06.02. Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from
Twilight Cues , Science

Excerpt: Night migratory songbirds can use stars, sun, geomagnetic field, and
polarized light for orientation when tested in captivity. We studied the
interaction of magnetic, stellar, and twilight orientation cues in free-flying
songbirds. We exposed Catharus thrushes to eastward-turned magnetic fields
during the twilight period before takeoff and then followed them for up to 1100
kilometers. Instead of heading north, experimental birds flew westward. On
subsequent nights, the same individuals migrated northward again. We suggest
that birds orient with a magnetic compass calibrated daily from twilight cues.
This could explain how birds cross the magnetic equator and deal with

* Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from Twilight
Cues, William W. Cochran , Henrik Mouritsen , Martin Wikelski , Science 2004
304: 405-40


07. Even Redwoods Can't Grow Forever , Science Now

Excerpt: Scientists take to the treetops to see what limits the tallest trees
   Reaching for the sky. But even redwoods can't surpass 130 meters, new
research suggests.

What keeps the tallest trees from growing even taller? A new study in
statuesque redwoods finds that the trees stop growing when their highest leaves
start dying of thirst.

Biologists have long thought that the height limit for trees comes down to a
plumbing problem. Water rises through a simple process: As water evaporates
from leaves, tension within the tree  pipes pulls water from the roots to
replenish what's been lost. But after a certain height, the force of gravity
becomes too much, and this flow peters out.

* Even Redwoods Can't Grow Forever, Megan Mansell Williams , 04/04/22, Science


08. Beyond Nature and Nurture , Science

Excerpt: Behavior is orchestrated by an interplay between inherited and
environmental influences acting on the same substrate, the genome (...). For
behavior, gene expression in the brain is the initial readout of the
interaction between hereditary and environmental information. (...) The
environment ("nurture") also influences gene expression in the brain during the
lifetime of an individual. Environmental effects occur over developmental and
physiological time scales. Gene expression in the brain constitutes the first
measurable indicator of the interaction between the genome and the environment.

* Beyond Nature and Nurture, Gene E. Robinson , 04/04/16, Science : 397-399


08.01. RNAi Takes Evo-Devo World by Storm , Science

Excerpt: In 1998, geneticists working on the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, one
of the first beasts to have its genome sequenced, struck gold. They discovered
a simple way to find out the functions of many of its 20,000 sequenced genes. A
stampede ensued, with researchers racing to try the procedure, called RNAi, in
their favorite study organisms. (...) new results made possible through RNAi.
 From planaria and jellyfish to beetles and crickets, RNAi is unearthing the
roles of certain genes in development and evolution--information that can also
help illuminate human genes.

* RNAi Takes Evo-Devo World by Storm, Elizabeth Pennisi , 04/04/16, Science :


08.02. The Coevolution Theory Of Autumn Colours , Alphagalileo & Proc. Biol.

Abstract: Why do trees change their colour in autumn? This is a fascinating
question for which we still do not have an evolutionary explanation. We
describe here a possible answer: the coevolution theory. According to this
theory, the bright colours of leaves are a warning signal to parasites that
migrate to the trees in autumn. In this way bright trees reduce their parasite
load and parasites (especially insects) can locate the best hosts for their
eggs. We discuss current and possible future work on autumn colours.

* The Coevolution Theory Of Autumn Colours, M. Archetti  , S. P. Brown ,
2004/04/19, Alphagalileo & Proceedings Biological Sciences
* Contributed by Atin Das


08.03. Variable Female Preferences Drive Complex Male Displays , Nature

Excerpt: Complexity in male sexual displays is widely appreciated but diversity
in female mate choice has received little attention. Males of many species have
sexual displays composed of multiple display traits, and females are thought to
use these different traits in mate choice. Models of multiple display trait
evolution suggest that these traits provide females with different kinds of
information in different stages of the mate choice process, or function as
redundant signals to improve the accuracy of mate assessment.

* Variable Female Preferences Drive Complex Male Displays, Seth W. Coleman ,
Gail L. Patricelli , Gerald Borgia , 04/04/15, DOI: 10.1038/nature02419, Nature
428, 742 - 745


09. Early Life Thrived In Lava Flows , BBC News


The microbes broke down volcanic glass to extract nutrients

Geologists have discovered microscopic burrows where some of Earth's earliest
lifeforms bored their way into volcanic glass 3.5 billion years ago.

The tubes, from rocks in South Africa's Barberton Greenstone Belt, retain
traces of organic carbon left behind by the microorganisms, the authors say.

The microbes etched their way into rocks that formed as lava oozed out across a
sea floor in Archaean times.(...)

In the inner walls of these microtubules, the geologists found traces of
carbon, which the authors claim is organic.

* Early Life Thrived In Lava Flows, 04/04/22, BBC News


10. Neural Basis of Solving Problems with Insight , plosbiology

Excerpt:     Eureka! Just before Archimedes had the stroke of genius that sent
him streaking through the streets of Syracuse babbling about buoyancy, his
right superior temporal gyrus (yellow region above) may have fired up. That
region is the site of insight, according to a new study--at least in people
working on tricky word problems.
Recent findings suggest that people think about solutions, at an unconscious
level, prior to solving insight problems, and that the right cerebral
hemisphere (RH) appears to be preferentially involved. Jung-Beeman et al.
predicted that a particular region of the RH, called the anterior superior
temporal gyrus (aSTG), is likely involved in insight because it seems critical
for tasks that require recognizing broad associative semantic
relationships xactly the type of process that could facilitate
reinterpretation of problems and lead to insight.

* Neural Basis of Solving Problems with Insight, 04/04/13, DOI:
10.1371/journal.pbio.0020111, PLoS Biol 2(4), e111


10.01. Molecular Basis For Mozart Effect Revealed , NewScientist

Excerpt: New research has revealed a molecular basis for the "Mozart effect" -
the observation that a brief stint of Mozart, but not other music, may improve
learning and memory.

Rats that heard a Mozart sonata expressed higher levels of several genes
involved in stimulating and changing the connections between brain cells, the
study showed. The team, including the researcher who first proposed the Mozart
effect, hope the results will help them design music therapy treatments for
people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.

* Molecular Basis For Mozart Effect Revealed, Emily Singer , 04/04/23,


11. Unpublished Data Reverses Risk-Benefit Of Drugs , NewScientist

Excerpt: Unpublished studies on the effects of anti-depressant drugs on
children suggest some are both ineffective and potentially harmful, according
to a new review of research. The unpublished data contradict published results,
fuelling the debate on how pharmaceutical companies reveal trial data.

The new study was conducted by Tim Kendall, deputy director of the Royal
College of Psychiatrists' Research Unit in London, UK, and colleagues. One of
Kendall's roles is to help analyse medical research to draw up the clinical
guidelines on which the UK government bases its drug regulations.

* Unpublished Data Reverses Risk-Benefit Of Drugs, Maggie McKee , 04/04/23,


12. Testosterone Gets You Thinking , Alphagalileo

Excerpts: People often say that their performance on certain tasks differs
throughout the day, and explanations for these fluctuations in mental abilities
have focussed on factors such as changes in body temperature or diet. New
research by psychologists suggests however that alterations in the hormone
testosterone may be responsible for these mental changes. They asked males and
females to carry out various verbal and spatial tasks between 8am and10am when
testosterone levels are high; and between 3pm and 5pm when testosterone levels
have declined. Saliva samples were collected before and after both sessions to
measure actual levels of the hormone.

* Testosterone Gets You Thinking, A. Croft alicro@bps.org.uk , 2004/04/19,
* Contributed by Atin Das


12.01. Brain Areas Identified That 'Decode' Emotions Of Others , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Queen's psychologists have discovered that our ability to assess how
other people are feeling relies on two specific areas of the brain. The study
helps us understand the neural bases of everyday "theory of mind": our ability
to explain behaviour in terms of mental states like intentions and desires.
"What we're showing is that an important first step [in theory of mind] is
being able to decode other people's mental states (...) not only will this
brain activity happen when people passively react to an emotional stimulus, it
also occurs when they actively search for mental state information," says Dr.

* Brain Areas Identified That 'Decode' Emotions Of Others, 2004/04/16,
ScienceDaily & Queen's University
* Contributed by Atin Das


13. Global Warming and the Next Ice Age , Science

Excerpt: A popular idea in the media, exemplified by the soon-to-be-released
movie The Day After Tomorrow, is that human-induced global warming will cause
another ice age. But where did this idea come from? Several recent magazine
articles report that abrupt climate change was prevalent in the recent
geological history of Earth and that there was some early, albeit
controversial, evidence from the last interglacial--thought to be slightly
warmer than preindustrial times --that abrupt climate change was the norm.

* Global Warming and the Next Ice Age, Andrew J. Weaver  , Claude
Hillaire-Marcel , 04/04/16, Science : 400-402
* VIDEO - The Day After Tomorrow


13.01. A Slowing Cog in the North Atlantic Ocean's Climate Machine , Science

Excerpt: Oceanographers, who have begun to watch the slow churnings of the
ocean much the way meteorologists observe the daily weather in the atmosphere,
believe they have seen a new shift in ocean "climate." The giant vortex of an
ocean current, or gyre, tucked into the northwestern North Atlantic appears to
have slowed.

The weakening of this subpolar gyre in the 1990s may have been just a random
fluctuation in one part of the complex of ocean currents that carries warm
waters into the high North Atlantic.

* A Slowing Cog in the North Atlantic Ocean's Climate Machine, Richard A. Kerr
, 04/04/16, Science : 371-372


13.02. The Effects of Iron Fertilization on Carbon Sequestration in the
Southern Ocean , Science

Excerpt: An unresolved issue in ocean and climate sciences is whether changes
to the surface ocean input of the micronutrient iron can alter the flux of
carbon to the deep ocean. During the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment, we
measured an increase in the flux of particulate carbon from the surface mixed
layer, as well as changes in particle cycling below the iron-fertilized patch.
The flux of carbon was similar in magnitude to that of natural blooms in the
Southern Ocean and thus small relative to global carbon budgets and proposed
geoengineering plans to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide in the deep sea.

* The Effects of Iron Fertilization on Carbon Sequestration in the Southern
Ocean, Ken O. Buesseler, John E. Andrews, Steven M. Pike, and Matthew A.
Charette , 04/04/16, Science : 414-417


13.03. Ironing Out Algal Issues in the Southern Ocean , Science

Excerpt: In a third of oceanic waters, termed high-nitrate low-chlorophyll
(HNLC) regions, plant nutrients are abundant, yet puzzlingly phytoplankton
stocks remain constantly low. It was hypothesized that this HNLC condition
resulted from iron limitation of phytoplankton growth, and thus that observed
reductions in atmospheric CO2 concentrations over geological time scales were
mediated by periods of elevated iron supply to the ocean. In the last decade,
purposeful iron enrichment of >100-km2 patches of HNLC waters have resulted in
massive phytoplankton blooms with concurrent uptake of nutrients and CO2
drawdown .

* Ironing Out Algal Issues in the Southern Ocean, Philip Boyd , Science 2004
304: 396-397


14. Devilish Dust Packs a Charge , Science Now

Excerpt:     Thar she blows. Dust devils generate serious voltage, a new study
  Credit: University Of Michigan
Dust devils have an electric secret. These funnels of whirling dust that haunt
dry parking lots, fields, and deserts can pack an electrical punch of several
thousand volts. And although terrestrial dust devils are just a curiosity,
their martian cousins may drive the lightning and dust storms of our neighbor

Dust devils spin into life when a difference in temperature, like that created
by the edge of a hot asphalt road meeting a cooler patch of sand, sets the air
rising and whirling into a funnel.

* Devilish Dust Packs a Charge, Kim Krieger , 04/04/23, Science Now


15. A Simple Model Of Propulsive Oscillating Foils , Ocean Engineering

Abstract: The design of thrusters inspired by the locomotion of fishes is
currently investigated in many research centres for unmanned underwater
vehicles. Fast fishes propel themselves in water through the rhythmic motion of
their tail. Propulsion is achieved by means of the periodic shedding of vortex
structures by the edges of the tail. Assuming that the fish tail can be
modelled by a two-dimensional plate in steady forward motion and oscillating
with a combination of harmonic heaving and pitching movements (...) is
presently used to determine the dynamics of the vortex structures shed by plate

* A Simple Model Of Propulsive Oscillating Foils, L. Guglielmini
blx@diam.unige.it , P. Blondeaux  , G. Vittori , 2004/01/28, DOI:
10.1016/j.oceaneng.2003.08.007, Ocean Engineering
* Contributed by Pritha Das


15.01. Wrappers Smarten Up To Protect Food , NewScientist

Excerpt: (...) label that tracks the temperature a package has been kept at and
for how long. (...) dark ring around a lighter circle. The central ring
contains a chemical which polymerises, changing colour as it does so from clear
to dark.

If the package is kept cool, the reaction is slow, but increasing the
temperature speeds up the polymerisation. Since bacteria on food respond to
temperature in the same way, consumers can see from the colour of the TTI if
the food has been kept too warm for too long.

* Wrappers Smarten Up To Protect Food, Kurt Kleiner , 04/04/25, NewScientist


16. Enzyme "Ink" Shows Potential for Nanomanufacturing , NSF

Excerpt:     Duke University's Ashutosh Chilkoti explains how a nanoscale "pen"
laid down thin trails of enzyme "ink," which then carved out the
400-nanometer-wide channels shown in the background.
  Credit: Duke University photo by Jim Wallace

In their experiments, the engineers used an enzyme called DNase I as an "ink"
in a process called dip-pen nanolithography -- a technique for etching or
writing at the nanoscale level. The dip-pen allowed them to inscribe precise
stripes of DNase I ink on a gold plate, which they had previously coated with a
thick forest of short DNA strands. The stripes of the enzyme were 100
nanometers wide ?(...).

Once the researchers had created the stripes, they then activated the enzyme
with a magnesium-containing solution.

* Enzyme "Ink" Shows Potential for Nanomanufacturing, NSF PR 04-058 , 04/04/22


16.01. Getting Molecules To Do The Work , Business Week

Excerpt: The era of nano-manufacturing is being born in hundreds of labs that
are racing to perfect a technique called self-assembly.

If you just listen casually to a description of what Sandia National
Laboratories has been working on, you would think it had wasted its time
reinventing the wheel: It has developed a robot that can walk and pick up and
deliver loads of cargo. In an age of advanced assembly and landings on Mars,
that hardly sounds impressive -- except that Sandia's robot is a molecule.

* Getting Molecules To Do The Work, Olga Kharif , 04/05/03, Business Week


16.02. Coupling Qubits by Waves on the Electron Sea , Science

Excerpt: If the spin of the measured dot is locked to the spin of another dot,
rather than being fully screened by the itinerant spins of the two-dimensional
electron gas, then the Kondo effect is destroyed or strongly suppressed, and
the corresponding enhancement of the conductance goes away. (...)

The experiment (...) has launched an interesting line of research. On its
applied side, the extended nature of the RKKY [Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida,
Ed.] interaction may allow creation of a "spin bus"--a controllable coupler of
many qubits.

* Coupling Qubits by Waves on the Electron Sea, L. I. Glazman , R. C. Ashoori ,
Science 2004 304: 524-525


17. A Compromised Voting System , NYTimes

Excerpt: Electronic voting is no doubt the wave of the future, but it is being
rolled out with too little thought, and without the necessary safeguards. The
two new California reports, which are online at www.ss.ca.gov, provide strong
evidence that this is the case. The study of electronic voting in the March 2
primary describes a slapdash system that falls far short of the minimum
standards for running an election. (...) reports of teenagers' "rebooting"
machines for poll workers who could not operate them, a clear security breach.

* A Compromised Voting System, 04/04/24, NYTimes


18. Security Companies: Shadow Soldiers in Iraq , NYTimes

Excerpt: Private security companies are performing crucial jobs once entrusted
to military far more in Iraq than in any other conflict in American history;
(...); company executives see clear boundary between their defensive roles as
protectors and offensive operations of military, but as insurgency increases,
companies are becoming more deeply enmeshed in combat, in some cases all but
obliterating distinctions between professional troops and private commandos;
security firms have sent force of roughly 20,000 to Iraq on top of American
military presence of 130,000;

* Security Companies: Shadow Soldiers in Iraq, David Barstow , 04/04/19,


18.01. Privatizing Warfare , NYTimes

Excerpt: It's one thing for the military to outsource food and laundry services
to private firms, (...), but it's quite another to outsource the actual
fighting. That is what the Pentagon is perilously close to doing in Iraq.

The grisly deaths of four American security contractors in Falluja last month
underscored America's troubling reliance on hired guns. (...) private security
firms now form the second-largest contingent ?surpassing the British ?in the
coalition of the willing, although a private guard's services cost as much as
$1,500 a day.

* Privatizing Warfare, 04/04/21, NYTimes


19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks


19.01. The Real Nuclear Danger , NYTimes

Excerpt: North Korea is potentially more dangerous than the mess in Iraq. It
probably has at least 1 to 3 nuclear weapons (...).

Yet because President Bush's policy has failed in North Korea, Washington is
determinedly looking the other way. When we next focus on North Korea, after
the election, it could be a nuclear Wal-Mart.
North Korea not only has genuine nuclear weapons programs, but it is also the
model of a rogue state: it gets its U.S. currency by printing it. That's right;
it counterfeits excellent American $100 bills.

* The Real Nuclear Danger, Nicholas D. Kristo , 04/04/21, NYTimes


19.02. Trying To Push Terror Off The Grid , Seattle Post-Intelligencer

Excerpt: Earlier this month an unlucky bird landed on a power line and sent Los
Angeles International Airport into a tailspin.

With power out in the air traffic control towers on one of the busiest travel
days of the year, about 100 L.A.-bound airliners were forced to circle or stay
on the ground elsewhere for up to 90 minutes.

That incident illustrates a troubling vulnerability that could affect security
nationwide, according to security expert David Holtzman. (...)
"Imagine what might happen if somebody had malignant intent," (...).

* Trying To Push Terror Off The Grid, Chris McGann , 04/04/26, Seattle


19.03. World Powers Try To Squeeze Terrorist Financing ,

Excerpt: "We urge more capacity building through technical assistance to shore
up identified gaps in the regimes to fight terrorism finance and money
laundering," it said.

Cash represented one of the widest gaps.

"We recognize the danger posed by terrorist financiers using cash couriers or
transferring cash across borders and undertake to combat this growing threat by
strengthening the control of cross-border cash movements," the industrialized
countries said.

"We pledge our best efforts to keep terrorists from raising, holding,
transferring, or using financial assets to carry out their inhumane acts."

* World Powers Try To Squeeze Terrorist Financing, 04/04/25,


20. Links & Snippets


20.01. Other Publications

- The Place Of Time In Cognition, D. A. Weiskopf weiskopfeluna.cas.usf.edu ,
Mar. 2004, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
- That Von Neumann Did Not Believe In A Physical Collapse, L. Becker , Mar.
2004, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
- Chronic Accessibility And Individual Cognitions: Examining The Effects Of
Message Frames In Political Advertisements, F. Shen , 2004/03/01, Journal of
- Chaotic Firing In The Sinusoidally Forced Leaky Integrate-And-Fire Model With
Threshold Fatigue, M. J. Chacron  , A. Longtin  , K. Pakdaman , Online
2004/02/13, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, DOI: 10.1016/j.physd.2003.12.009
- Exploring Genome Architecture Through GOV: a WWW-based Gene Order Visualizer,
K. R. Sakharkar kishore@bii.a-star.edu.sg , V. T. K. Chow , Online 2004/02/05,
- The Birth Of ANZUS: America's Attempt To Create A Defense Linkage Between
Northeast Asia And The Southwest Pacific, H. Umetsu umetsu22@k9.dion.ne.jp ,
Feb. 2004, International Relations of the Asia-Pacific
- How Species Respond To Multiple Extinction Threats, N. J. B. Isaac  , G.
Cowlishaw , 2004/04/19, Alphagalileo & Proceedings Biological Sciences
- Detectability And Content As Opposing Signal Characteristics In Fruits, H. M.
Schaefer  , V. Schmidt , 2004/04/19, Alphagalileo & Biology Letters
- Not Guilty! Evidence Exonerates 328, But Many Still Falsely Imprisoned,
2004/04/22, ScienceDaily & University Of Michigan
- Exposure To Food Increases Brain Metabolism, 2004/04/21, ScienceDaily &
Brookhaven National Laboratory
- Following Complex Motions: Optical Imaging Study Supports Ancient Origin For
MT Visual Center, 2004/04/23, ScienceDaily & Vanderbilt University
- The Varieties Of Capitalism Paradigm: Not Enough Variety?, M. Allen
m.m.allen@bham.co.uk , Jan. 2004, Socio-Economic Review
- New Growth Regimes, But Still Institutional Diversity, R. Boyer
robert.boyer@cepremap.cnrs.fr , Jan. 2004, Socio-Economic Review
- Control Decisions And Personal Beliefs: Their Effect On Solving Mathematical
Problems, C. M. Lerch lerch@dwc.edu , 2004/01/04, The Journal of Mathematical
Behavior, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmathb.2003.12.002
- What Is The Meaning Of "Meaning"? A Case Study From Graphing, W.-M. Roth
mroth@uvic.ca , 2004/01/04, The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, DOI:
- Ultimate Limit to Human Longevity, Byung Mook Weon , 2004-04-22, arXiv, DOI:
- Dr. Edward O. Wilson, Pulitzer Prize Winning Biologist, Pulitzer Prize
Winning Biologist Dr. Edward O. Wilson speaks at the National Press Club in
Washington, D.C. , 04/04/19
- Peer Review Policy, Joe Palca , John Graham , Granger Morgan , David Guston ,
04/04/23, NPR TOTN, New guidelines could change the way the government informs
the public about science. Some worry the new rules may bias what should be
unbiased scientific information. Others see them as a way to make sure that
government policies are rooted in sound research. In this hour, Joe Palca and
guests look at how the government decides what should be considered good
- New Science Museum, Joe Palca , Peter Schultz , 04/04/23, NPR TOTN
- Apparent Hysteresis in a Driven System with Self-Organized Drag, Mikko
Haataja , David J. Srolovitz , Ioannis G. Kevrekidis , 04/04/23, Phys. Rev.
Lett. 92, 160603
- Real-Time Construction of Optimized Predictors from Data Streams, Frank
Kwasniok , Leonard A. Smith , 04/04/23, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 164101
- Mixing by Polymers: Experimental Test of Decay Regime of Mixing, T. Burghelea
, E. Segre , V. Steinberg , 04/04/23, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 164501
- Credit Card Only Works When Spoken To, Celeste Biever , 04/04/21, New
- John Maynard Smith Dies, Jay Withgott , 04/04/20, Science Now, One of
evolutionary biology's leading theorists, John Maynard Smith, died peacefully
yesterday at his home. He was 84.
- Spiders' Sticky Feet, Fiona Proffitt , 04/04, Science Now,     Hairy feet.
Setae on the bottoms of their feet (right) help spiders stick to ceilings.
- Why Male Bowerbirds Decorate As Well As Dance, Virginia Morell, ref_date
04/04/16 , Science : 372
- Evolutionary Biology: Lost And Found, Neil H. Shubin , Randall D. Dahn ,
04/04/15, Nature 428, 703 - 704, Can we ever hope to pin down the genetic
changes that underlie the big steps in evolution? Possibly so, if a study of
the variation in the pelvic fins of sticklebacks is anything to go by., DOI:
- Cancer: Kip Moving, John G. Collard , 04/04/15, Nature 428, 705 - 708, The
p27Kip1 protein inhibits cell proliferation, helping to prevent tumours
developing. We now know that it also affects cell migration, by regulating Rho
proteins. Does this function influence tumour progression?, DOI:
- Network Dynamics: Jamming Is Limited In Scale-Free Systems, ZOLTNUTOROCZKAI
, KEVINUE.UBASSLER , 04/04/15, Nature 428, 716, A large number of complex
networks are scale-free U that is, they follow a power-law degree distribution.
Here we propose that the emergence of many scale-free networks is tied to the
efficiency of transport and flow processing across these structures., DOI:
- Chaotic Electron Diffusion Through Stochastic Webs Enhances Current Flow In
Superlattices, T.Um.Ufromhold , A.Upatan , S.Ubujkiewicz , P.Ub.Uwilkinson ,
D.Ufowler , D.Usherwood , S.Up.Ustapleton , A.Ua.Ukrokhin , L.Ueaves ,
M.Uhenini , N.Us.Usankeshwar , F.Uw.Usheard , 04/04/15, Nature 428, 726 - 730,
Understanding how complex systems respond to change is of fundamental
importance in the natural sciences. There is particular interest in systems
whose classical newtonian motion becomes chaotic as an applied perturbation
grows., DOI: 10.1038/nature02445
- Predictability Of El Nino Over The Past 148 Years, Dakeuchen , Markua.Ucane ,
Alexeyukaplan , Stephenue.Uzebiak , Dajiuhuang , 04/04/15, Nature 428, 733 -
736, Forecasts of El Ni"o climate events are routinely provided and
distributed, but the limits of El Ni"o predictability are still the subject of
debate. Some recent studies suggest that the predictability is largely limited
by the effects of high-frequency atmospheric 'noise (...)., DOI:
- Neural Activity Predicts Individual Differences In Visual Working Memory
Capacity, Edwarduk.Uvogel  , Maroug.Umachizawa , 04/04/15, Nature 428, 748 -
751, DOI: 10.1038/nature02447
- Capacity Limit Of Visual Short-Term Memory In Human Posterior Parietal
Cortex, J.Ujayutodd, Renoumarois , 04/04/15, Nature 428, 751 - 754, DOI:
- Fat Chance: Hormone Boosts Metabolic Rate, Induces Weight Loss In Mice,
AudioFat cells secrete a hormone that tells the brain to boost the body's
metabolic rate. , 04/04/17, Science News
- Materials Factory: RNA Manufactures Palladium Particles, 04/04/17, Science
News, Chemists have evolved RNA fragments in the lab that spontaneously
synthesize highly uniform, hexagonal-shaped nanoparticles of palladium.
- Reinventing the Yo-Yo, Peter Weiss , 04/04/17, Science News,     STOP ACTION.
Multiple loops of string entrap a whirling yo-yo's axle during one stage of an
elaborate string trick.
  Dean MacAdam     No longer simple toys, today's pricey yo-yos sport high-tech
featuresUsuch as ball bearing transaxles and precision string-snagging
mechanismsUthat permit dazzling new styles and complex tricks.
- Nanotubes Take On The Grand Canyon, 04/04/17, Science News, A new technique
can turn forests of carbon nanotubes into a foamlike material with ideal
properties for making lightweight shock absorbers.
- Bacteria Churn Out New Type Of Electronic Paper, 04/04/17, Science News,
Researchers have developed a new way of making flexible electronic paper
displays using cellulose derived from bacteria.
- A Drug To Stop Diabetes' Onset?, 04/04/17, Science News, Individuals
susceptible to developing type 1 diabetes may find hope in a vaccinelike drug
that is showing promise in mouse studies.
- Flame-Retardant Cotton Gets A Boost From Clay, 04/04/17, Science News, Mixing
cotton fibers with nanoparticles of clay increases the materials' heat
tolerance, ultimately rendering new cotton fabrics flame retardant.
- Rock-Solid Choices Of First Toolmakers, 04/04/17, Science News, Human
ancestors who took up stone toolmaking in Africa around 2.6 million years ago
already showed a proclivity for choosing high-quality pieces of rock, a new
study finds.
- Israeli Cave Yields Stone Age Kills, 04/04/17, Science News, A recently
discovered Israeli cave has yielded some of the earliest known evidence of
hunting by humans or our evolutionary ancestors, from around 300,000 to 200,000
years ago.
- Drug For Preemies Linked To Problems, 04/04/17, Science News, A steroidal
drug used to combat lung inflammation in premature infants appears to have
long-term negative effects.


20.02. Webcast Announcements

Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H.,
Internet-First University Press, 1994

World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland   Riding the Next Democratic
Wave, Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic
Forum, 04/01/25
  The Future of Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan,
Martin, Schwab, World Economic Forum, 04/01/25  Why Victory Against Terrorism
Demands Shared Values  The Process of Curricular Review: Redefining a
World-Class Education, Benedict Gross, Thomas Bender, Harvard@home, 04/01/21,
Dean of Harvard College Benedict Gross discusses Harvard's first comprehensive
review of the undergraduate curriculum in almost 3 decades. This program
introduces the process of curricular review by presenting two segmented
lectures. The first, by Dean Gross, outlines the approach and considerations in
undertaking the current review. The second lecture, presented by NYU Professor
Thomas Bender, presents a historical perspective on academic culture.   Cancer
Biology , NPR Talk of the Nation, 04/01/16, How the spread of cancer is like
wound healing gone awry.   Tracking Ebola , NPR Talk of the Nation, 04/01/16, A
new study might help scientists predict where Ebola may! strike next.

  CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And
Intelligent Systems, 2004 Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10 EVOLVABILITY &
INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of Communication, Signaling, and
Perception in the Dynamics of Social Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10 The
Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and Practicalities,
Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on
Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany, 03/09/14-17 New Santa Fe Institute
President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role, (Video, Santa Fe, NM,
03/06/04) SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM,
2003/06/01-04 NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio
Report, 03/05/11 13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life
Sciences, Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10 CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos
of Archived Lectures and Live Events Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video
Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998 Edge Videos


20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

  New Horizons In Search Theory
, Newport, RI, 04/04/26-28

Human Systems Dynamics at Work: Complexity Tools for Today, Minneapolis,
Minnesota, 04/04/27-28

Life, a Nobel Story , Brussels, BE, 04/04/28

  Vulnerability and Network Failure: Constructions and Experiences
  of Emergencies, Crises and Collapse,  Manchester, UK,

  Strategic Thinking in a Complex World, Smithsonian Resident Associates
Program, 04/05/01-22

What Really Matters ?The Global Forum 2004, Santa Fe, NM, 04/05/02-04

   International Conference on the Ontology of Spacetime,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 04/05/11-14

  International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS2004),
  Boston, MA, USA, 04/05/16-21

Understanding Complex Systems: Networks, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois,

  3rd Intl Conf on
  Systems Thinking in Management (ICSTM 2004) "Transforming
  Organizations to Achieve Sustainable Success",
  Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 04/05/19-21

4th Intl Conf on
Fractals And Dynamic Systems In Geoscience, München, Germany, 04/05/19-22

  Annual Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interaction Agents
  (WEHIA04), Kyoto, Japan, 2004/05/27-29

  International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious
  Diseases, Toulon, France, 04/06/03-05!

  Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,

  An Intl Tribute to Francisco Varela, Paris,04/06/18-20

Intl Conf on Linking Systems Thinking, Innovation,Quality, Entrepreneurship and
Environment (STIQE),
MARIBOR, SLOVENIA, 04/06/24-26

Biannual Meeting Society for Research on Biological Rhythms, Whistler, BC,

NAACSOS 2004, North American Association for Computational Social and
Organizational Science, Pittsburgh PA, 04/06/27-29

Statphys - Kolkata V An International Conference on Complex Networks:
Structure, Function and Processes , Kolkata, India, 04/06/27-30

ICAD 2004 10th International Conference on Auditory Display, Sydney, Australia,

3rd Intl School Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics Discrete Dynamical Systems and
Applications , Urbino (Italy), 04/07/07-09

  `Perspectives on Nonlinear Dynamics 2004 (PNLD-2004), Chen!
nai, India, 04/07/12-15

  From Animals To Animats
  8, 8th Intl Conf On The Simulation Of Adaptive Behavior
  (SAB'04), Los Angeles, USA, 04/07/13-17

  14th Annual International Conference The Society for Chaos Theory in
Psychology & Life Sciences , Milwaukee, WI, USA, 04/07/15-18

Facing Complexity, Wellington, NZ, 04/07/15-17

  Interdisciplinary Colloquium, Security Bytes, Security/Life/Terror
, Lancaster, 04/07/17-19

  Gordon Research Conference on "Oscillations & Dynamic Instabilities In
Chemical Systems", Lewiston, ME, 04/07/18-23

Intl Conf Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems Conference (AAMAS 2004), New
York City, 04/07/19-23

Intl Workshop on: Trust in Agent Societies , New York City, 04/07/19-20

  World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and
  Informatics, Orlando, Florida, USA, 04/07/18-21

The 4 th International Workshop on Meta-Synthesis and Complex Systems
(MCS'2004) , Beijing, 04/07/22-23

  Summer Simulation MultiConference (SummerSim'04), San Jose
  Hyatt, San Jose, California, 04/07/25-29

  SME 2004 Symposium on Modeling
  and Control of Economic Systems , University in Redlands, CA, 04/07/28-31

  International Mathematica Symposium (IMS 2004), Banff,
  Canada, 04/08/02-06

   Fractals and Natural Hazards at
32nd Intl Geological Congress (IGC), Florence, Italy, 04/08/20-28

ICCC 2004, IEEE International Conference on Computational Cybernetics, ,
Vienna, Austria, 04/08/30-09/01

  2004, 4th International Workshop on Ant Colony
  Optimization and Swarm Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium,

An Inquiry into Systems, Emergence, Levels of Reality,
  and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy,

  Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems
  (ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts, 04/09/12-15

  TNew Economic Windows 2004: Complexity Hints for Economic Policy, Salerno,
Italy, 04/09/16-18

Verhulst 200 on Chaos, Brussels, BELGIUM, 04/09/16-18

  8th Intl Conf on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature
  (PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22

  XVII Brazilian
  Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao -
  Brazil, 04/09/22-24

   TEDMED Conference ,
Charleston SC, 04/10/12-15

  Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois,

  6th Intl Conf on Electronic Commerce
ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape,  Delft, The Netherlands,

   Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio de Janeiro,

[ Discussion ]

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