ժ NO2004.11

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Complexity Digest 2004.11

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
Mirror:
http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think the
next century will be the
century of complexity." Stephen Hawking

_________________________________________________________________


Content:

01. The Evolution Of Social Geometry: General Principles Of The Evolution
Of Complex Systems,
Complexity
01.01. Using Artificial Life To Teach Evolutionary Biology, Cognitive
Processing
02. Beyond The Ivory Tower: Constructing Complexity in the Digital Age, Science
02.01. Study Finds a Nation of Polarized Readers, NY Times
03. Superfamilies of Evolved and Designed Networks, Science
04. The Tangled Webs That Neutrophils Weave, Science
04.01. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Kill Bacteria, Science
05. Cell Biology: A Cellular Choreographer, Nature
06. Ovaries May Replenish Eggs, NPR Audio
06.01. Lotion Speeds DNA Repair, Protects Mice From Skin Cancer, Science News
07. UCI Study Identifies How New Neurons Grow In Adult Brain, ScienceDaily
07.01. Watching Genes In Action: Method Is First To Show Three Genes At
Once In Higher Animals,
ScienceDaily
08. Quantum Computing Gets A Step Closer, Natue Science update
08.01. Physics: "Putting The Weirdness To Work", Business Week
08.02. Multilevel Molecular Memory, Physics News update
09. Method Produces Uniform, Self-Assembled Nanocells, Eureka Alert
09.01. 100-Metre Nanotube Thread Pulled From Furnace, New Scientist
10. Superconductivity: Turn Up The Temperature, Nature
10.01. An Explanation For A Universality Of Transition Temperatures In
Families Of Copper Oxide
Superconductors, Nature
11. Mount Fuji: A Sleeping Giant Stirs, Nature
12. From The Tallest To (One Of) The Fattest: Fate Of The American
Population, Econ. & Human Biol.
13. Intermingled Basins In A Two Species System, J. Math. Biol.
14. Optimal Traffic Organization In Ants Under Crowded Conditions, Nature
14.01. Fitness Consequences Of Avian Personalities In A Fluctuating
Environment, Alphagalileo &
Proc. Biol. Sc.
15. Apparent Competition And Recovery From Infection, J. Theor. Biol.
16. Calm Mind Creates Complex Tunes, BBC News Online
17. Pointed Questions on Missile Defense System, NY Times
17.01. The Internet and Political Campaigns, NY Times
17.02. Egypt rebuffs US over regional reform, The Guardian
18. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
18.01. Analysis: Madrid Terrorism Probe, NPR Audio
18.01.01. Britain Frees Citizens Sent Home from Cuba, NPR Audio
18.02. Guantanamo Update, NPR TON
19. Links & Snippets
19.01. Other Publications
19.02. Webcast Announcements
19.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements
19.03.01. Strategic Thinking in a Complex World, Smithsonian Resident
Associates Program

_________________________________________________________________

01. The Evolution Of Social Geometry: General Principles Of The Evolution
Of Complex Systems ,
Complexity

Excerpts: This essay takes that path, i.e., looking for general principles
that determine the laws
of specific complex systems. (...) there are no laws that describe and
explain physical,
biological, and social complexity in the literally same way. But there may
be principles in a
rather abstract sense that show that all the different laws, which
determine the dynamics (...) of
complex systems, are all variations to the same air. I believe that, e.g.,
by analyzing some
aspects of socio-cultural evolution, it is possible to unveil such a
principle: the evolution of
complex systems must be understood as the evolution of their geometry.

* The Evolution Of Social Geometry: Some Considerations About General
Principles Of The Evolution
Of Complex Systems, J. Kl er Online 2004/01/13 , DOI: 10.1002/cplx.10114,
Complexity
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

01.01. Using Artificial Life To Teach Evolutionary Biology , Cognitive
Processing

Abstract: Two groups of high school students received a standard lesson in
evolutionary biology
followed by a software session. The experimental group used the suite of
artificial life software
presented in this paper; the control group used a commercial multimedia
hypertext. At the end (...)
asked to fill in a simple multiple-choice questionnaire testing the
students knowledge of various
aspects of evolutionary biology. The results show that the group using the
artificial life software
performed significantly better than the control group. We argue that (...)
the artificial life
makes it possible for students to perform experiments, a possibility not
available to the control
group.

* Using Artificial Life To Teach Evolutionary Biology, O. Miglino
orazio.miglino@unina2.it , F.
Rubinacci  , L. Pagliarini  , H. H. Lund , Online 2004/02/24, DOI:
10.1007/s10339-004-0009-z,
Cognitive Processing
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

02. Beyond The Ivory Tower: Constructing Complexity in the Digital Age ,
Science

Expert: Over the centuries, architects have expressed their designs as one-
dimensional strings of
text, two- dimensional drawings, three-dimensional scale models, and--most
recently--digital
databases stored in computers. Successive advances in information
technology have enabled the
description and execution of increasingly ambitious projects. Today,
innovative applications of
computer-aided design and manufacturing technology are allowing architects
to transcend
long-standing limits on complexity and, thus, to respond more sensitively
and effectively to varied
human needs and construction contexts.  (...)This complexity may be
defined, for our purposes, as
the ratio of design content to construction content (...).

* Beyond The Ivory Tower: Constructing Complexity in the Digital Age,
William J. Mitchell , Science
5 March 2004: 1472-1473


_________________________________________________________________

02.01. Study Finds a Nation of Polarized Readers , NY Times

Expert: "Bush at War" and "Sleeping With the Devil" are just two of the
political books that have
dominated the best-seller list of The New York Times (...). But according
to Valdis Krebs, (...),
these volumes - the first a blow-by-blow account of White House
deliberations in the aftermath of
Sept. 11, the second an expose of corruption and hypocrisy in
American-Saudi relations - share an
unusual distinction. They occupy a sparsely populated middle ground, rare
titles that have been
bought by people who generally tend to shop for much more partisan polemics.

* Study Finds a Nation of Polarized Readers, Emily Eakin , 04/03/13, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

03. Superfamilies of Evolved and Designed Networks , Science

Expert: Complex biological, technological, and sociological networks can be
of very different sizes
and connectivities, making it difficult to compare their structures. Here
we present an approach to
systematically study similarity in the local structure of networks, based
on the significance
profile (SP) of small subgraphs in the network compared to randomized
networks. We find several
superfamilies of previously unrelated networks with very similar SPs. (E)
Additional superfamilies
include power grids, protein-structure networks and geometric networks,
World Wide Web links and
social networks, and word-adjacency networks from different languages.

* Superfamilies of Evolved and Designed Networks, Ron Milo , Shalev
Itzkovitz , Nadav Kashtan ,
Reuven Levitt , Shai Shen-Orr , Inbal Ayzenshtat , Michal Sheffer , Uri
Alon , Science 5 March
2004: 1538-1542.


_________________________________________________________________

04. The Tangled Webs That Neutrophils Weave , Science

Expert: (...) extracellular killing may be riskier, because neutrophils can
potentially damage
surrounding host tissues. (...) a tool that neutrophils produce to kill
extracellular bacteria in a
way that minimizes damage to host cells. Brinkmann et al. observed that
when neutrophils are
stimulated with cytokines or bacterial endotoxin, these cells generate a
web of extracellular
fibers composed of DNA, histones, and granule proteins such as elastase
(see the figure). These
fibers, nicknamed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), bind to both
Gram-positive and
Gram-negative bacteria and display bactericidal activity.

* The Tangled Webs That Neutrophils Weave, Warren L. Lee , Sergio Grinstein
, Science 5 March 2004:
1477-1478


_________________________________________________________________

04.01. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Kill Bacteria , Science

Abstract: Neutrophils engulf and kill bacteria when their antimicrobial
granules fuse with the
phagosome. Here, we describe that, upon activation, neutrophils release
granule proteins and
chromatin that together form extracellular fibers that bind Gram-positive
and -negative bacteria.
These neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) degrade virulence factors and
kill bacteria. NETs are
abundant in vivo in experimental dysentery and spontaneous human
appendicitis, two examples of
acute inflammation. NETs appear to be a form of innate response that binds
microorganisms, prevents
them from spreading, and ensures a high local concentration of
antimicrobial agents to degrade
virulence factors and kill bacteria.

* Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Kill Bacteria, Volker Brinkmann , Ulrike
Reichard , Christian
Goosmann , Beatrix Fauler , Yvonne Uhlemann , David S. Weiss , Yvette
Weinrauch , Arturo Zychlinsky
, Science 5 March 2004: 1532-1535.


_________________________________________________________________

05. Cell Biology: A Cellular Choreographer , Nature

Expert: During this time, the epithelial cells adhere tightly to each other
within the sheet to
provide a protective barrier between the 'outside' and 'inside'
environments. But the upper and
lower surfaces of the sheet have different surroundings and carry out
different functions. For
example, the upper surface is involved in taking up nutrients from the food
that passes through the
intestine, whereas the lower surface transports these nutrients into the
blood supply (...).
Knowledge of how this asymmetry, or polarization, is established is only
just emerging.

* Cell Biology: A Cellular Choreographer, W. James Nelson , 04/03/04, DOI:
10.1038/428028a, Nature
428, 28 - 29


_________________________________________________________________

06. Ovaries May Replenish Eggs , NPR Audio

Expert: Researchers studying mouse ovaries report a startling discovery:
Ovaries are constantly
replenishing their supply of eggs. The finding challenges scientific dogma,
which holds that female
mammals are born with a finite supply of eggs that dwindles as they age.
Experts say the research
could revolutionize fertility treatments for middle-age women.

* Ovaries May Replenish Eggs, Jon Hamilton , 04/03/11, NPR Audio


_________________________________________________________________

06.01. Lotion Speeds DNA Repair, Protects Mice From Skin Cancer , Science News

Expert: Snippets of DNA that activate a cell's DNA repair process may
protect mice from skin cancer
caused by ultraviolet radiation. (...) Dermatologists warn that not even
the best sunscreens
prevent all the potentially cancer-causing damage that ultraviolet light
(UV) does to skin. A new
study, however, suggests that incorporating certain snippets of DNA into
sunscreens could prompt
skin to repair UV-induced genetic damage before it leads to cancer. Indeed,
scientists have found
that slathering such DNA fragments onto UV-exposed hairless mice thwarts
skin cancer.

* Lotion Speeds DNA Repair, Protects Mice From Skin Cancer, 04/03/06,
Science News


_________________________________________________________________

07. UCI Study Identifies How New Neurons Grow In Adult Brain , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: (...) study on cell growth in the adult brain may provide
important clues to the
potential use of stem cells in the treatment of memory-related diseases
such as Alzheimer's. The
study shows for the first time how newborn neurons in the adult brain grow
and integrate into the
area involved with learning and memory. The findings may prove significant
because these new
neurons begin in a primitive state similar to stem cells (...) that new
neurons in the adult brain
grow neural signaling appendages in a similar way to those found in
developing brains.

* UCI Study Identifies How New Neurons Grow In Adult Brain, 2004/03/12,
ScienceDaily & University
Of California - Irvine
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

07.01. Watching Genes In Action: Method Is First To Show Three Genes At
Once In Higher Animals ,
ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Using chicken embryos and colorful fluorescent dyes, (...) have
demonstrated for the
first time in a higher animal that it is possible to simultaneously show
three genes working within
an embryo, body tissue or even a single cell. "This method allows us to
visualize how embryos
develop in more detail and with greater clarity than ever before. We can
look at three different
genes in the same embryo at the same time - even when they overlap." Mauch
says the new method
should help (...) creating artificial organs such as kidneys for people
whose own organs have
failed.

* Watching Genes In Action: Method Is First To Show Three Genes At Once In
Higher Animals,
2004/03/08, ScienceDaily & University Of Utah
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

08. Quantum Computing Gets A Step Closer , Natue Science update

Expert: These mobile bits of quantum information, known as 'flying qubits',
have the potential to
travel over many kilometres, (...). "Ultimately a quantum link over a very
long distance could be
created," (...). Researchers have already entangled pairs of atoms, and
pairs of photons. But this
is the first time that scientists have seen a single atom entangled with a
single photon. "This has
probably been going on in other experiments, it is just that no one has
looked for it before," says
Monroe.

* Quantum Computing Gets A Step Closer, Mark Peplow , 04/03/11, Natue
Science update


_________________________________________________________________

08.01. Physics: "Putting The Weirdness To Work" , Business Week

Expert: (...) putting Bose-Einstein condensate atoms into the valleys of an
optical lattice. His
special twist is creating two simultaneous lattices with two different
"colors" of laser beams. He
also puts his atoms in two states at the same time. Then he can move one of
the landscapes so that
the atom particles interact in new ways. "We can entangle hundreds of
thousands of atoms and
measure the state of each particle," he says. "It is a completely new way
of thinking about a
quantum computer."

* Physics: "Putting The Weirdness To Work", John Carey , 04/03/15, Business
Week


_________________________________________________________________

08.02. Multilevel Molecular Memory , Physics News update

Expert: (...) would like to store information in the form of parcels of
charge placed at several
active sites around a single molecule. A USC/NASA-Ames collaboration has
taken a step in the
direction of such a chemical memory by producing a memory cell with three
different controllable
bit states, with a total of 8 (2 raised to the 3rd power) distinct levels.
This multilevel
molecular memory unit works by charging or discharging "molecular wires"
consisting of molecules
(attached to an underlying nanowire) into different chemically reduced or
oxidized (redox) states.

* Multilevel Molecular Memory, Phil Schewe , James Riordon , Ben Stein ,
04/03/10, Physics News
update, Number 676 #2


_________________________________________________________________

09. Method Produces Uniform, Self-Assembled Nanocells , Eureka Alert

Expert:      The peaks on this three-dimensional plot indicate a high
concentration of liposomes
forming in a microchannel.     The new NIST method uses micrometer-size
channels etched into a
device to produce self-assembled liposomes of specific sizes from as large
as about 240 nanometers
(nm) to as small as about 100 nm. A stream of natural fats (lipids)
dissolved in alcohol is
directed at an intersection of two channels that looks like a micro version
of a four-way stop. A
water-based liquid containing medicines or other substances is sent toward
the lipid stream from
two opposing directions. Rather than mixing with the water, the lipids
surround it, forming
self-assembled nanocells.

* Method Produces Uniform, Self-Assembled Nanocells, 04/03/11, Eureka Alert


_________________________________________________________________

09.01. 100-Metre Nanotube Thread Pulled From Furnace , New Scientist

Expert: A thread of carbon nanotubes more than 100 metres long has been
pulled from a fiery
furnace. The previous record holder was a mere 30 centimetres long. Carbon
nanotubes are stronger
than steel and better conductors than copper, but are often just a
thousandth of a millimetre in
length. (...) The carbon nanotubes are made by injecting ethanol into a
fast-flowing stream of
hydrogen gas. The gas carries the carbon-containing molecules into the
centre of a furnace where
temperatures soar above 1000 yC.

* 100-Metre Nanotube Thread Pulled From Furnace, Jenny Hogan , 04/03/04,
New Scientist


_________________________________________________________________

10. Superconductivity: Turn Up The Temperature , Nature

Expert: High-temperature superconductors are far more complex than their
low-temperature
counterparts, and there are many indications that their unique properties
result from the
competition between more than one type of order parameter. The electron
correlations that are
responsible for high-temperature superconductivity are still a mystery.
(...) using the
order-parameter approach to analyse the interaction between the
superconductivity in each layer of
the material. The authors have melded these ideas of tunnelling, charge
transfer and order into a
simple Landau-Ginzburg expression for the total energy of the system.

* Superconductivity: Turn Up The Temperature, Piers Coleman , 04/03/04,
DOI: 10.1038/428026a,
Nature 428, 26 - 28


_________________________________________________________________

10.01. An Explanation For A Universality Of Transition Temperatures In
Families Of Copper Oxide
Superconductors , Nature

Expert: A remarkable mystery of the copper oxide
high-transition-temperature (Tc) superconductors
is the dependence of Tc on the number of CuO2 layers, n, in the unit cell
of a crystal. (...) Here
we show that the quantum tunnelling of Cooper pairs between the layers2
simply and naturally
explains the experimental results, (...). We calculate the bell-shaped
curve and show that, if
materials can be engineered so as to minimize the charge imbalance as n
increases, Tc can be raised
further.

* An Explanation For A Universality Of Transition Temperatures In Families
Of Copper Oxide
Superconductors, Sudip Chakravarty , Hae-Young Kee  , Klaus Volker ,
04/03/04, DOI:
10.1038/nature02348, Nature 428, 53 - 55


_________________________________________________________________

11. Mount Fuji: A Sleeping Giant Stirs , Nature

Expert: If that movement portends an eruption, the consequences could be
dire. "Nowhere in the
world is a large capital city so close to a huge volcano," says Koyama. At
the very least, dust and
ash would bring Tokyo to a halt by stopping traffic, grounding planes and
even corrupting computer
hard drives. (...) Even more worrying is new evidence that Fuji has at
times produced deadly
pyroclastic flows - hot surges of gas, ash and rock that can travel at up
to 150 kilometres per
hour.

* Mount Fuji: A Sleeping Giant Stirs, David Cyranoski , 04/03/04, DOI:
10.1038/428012a, Nature 428,
12 - 13


_________________________________________________________________

12. From The Tallest To (One Of) The Fattest: Fate Of The American
Population , Econ. & Human Biol.

Abstract: The American height advantage over Western and Northern Europeans
was between 3 and 9 cm
in mid-19th century, and Americans tended to be underweight. However,
today, the exact opposite is
the case as the Dutch, Swedes, and Norwegians are the tallest, and the
Danes, British and
Germans-even the East-Germans--are also taller, (...) by as much as 3-7 cm.
Americans also have
shorter lives. The hypothesis is worth considering that this adverse
development is related to the
greater social inequality, an inferior health care system, and fewer social
safety nets (...) in
spite of higher per capita income.

* From The Tallest To (One Of) The Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate Of The
American Population In The
20th Century, J. Komlos jk@econhist.de , M. Baur , online 2004/02/25, DOI:
10.1016/j.ehb.2003.12.006, Economics & Human Biology
* Contributed by Pritha Das


_________________________________________________________________

13. Intermingled Basins In A Two Species System , J. Math. Biol.

Abstract: We present simple examples of (competitive) two species systems
with complicated dynamic
behaviour. From almost all initial conditions one of the two species dies
out. But the survivor is
unpredictable: The basins of the two chaotic one-species attractors are
everywhere dense and
intermingled.

* Intermingled Basins In A Two Species System, F. Hofbauer  , J. Hofbauer
Josef.Hofbauer@univie.ac.at , P. Raith  , T. Steinberger , online:
2004/02/06, DOI:
10.1007/s00285-003-0253-3, Journal of Mathematical Biology
* Contributed by Pritha Das


_________________________________________________________________

14. Optimal Traffic Organization In Ants Under Crowded Conditions , Nature

Expert: Here, we present an experimental study of ants confronted with two
alternative routes. We
find that pheromone-based attraction generates one trail at low densities,
whereas at a high level
of crowding, another trail is established before traffic volume is
affected, which guarantees that
an optimal rate of food return is maintained. This bifurcation phenomenon
is explained by a
nonlinear modelling approach. (...) The balancing mechanism between
cohesive and dispersive forces
appears to be generic in natural, urban and transportation systems.

* Optimal Traffic Organization In Ants Under Crowded Conditions, Audrey
Dussutour , Vincent
Fourcassie , Dirk Helbing  , Jean-Louis Deneubourg , 04/03/04, DOI:
10.1038/nature02345, Nature
428, 70 - 73


_________________________________________________________________

14.01. Fitness Consequences Of Avian Personalities In A Fluctuating
Environment , Alphagalileo &
Proc. Biol. Sc.

Abstract: Animals, like humans, differ in personality. The existence of
genetic variation in
personality poses the question how variation in animal personality is
maintained in natural
populations. We measured a personality trait (exploratory behaviour in a
novel environment) in a
common garden bird, the great tit, and studied how personality affects
survival and offspring
production in the wild. We show that certain types do better in certain
years, whereas other types
do better in other years. Such fluctuating selection may explain why
different personality types
can coexist in natural populations.

* Fitness Consequences Of Avian Personalities In A Fluctuating Environment,
N. J. Dingemanse  , C.
Both  , P. J. Drent  , J. M. Tinbergen , 2004/03/08, Alphagalileo &
Proceedings Biological Sciences
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

15. Apparent Competition And Recovery From Infection , J. Theor. Biol.

Abstract: We use mathematical models to analyse how the recovery rate from
infection influences the
fitness of a host in a setting of interspecific competition. We show that
sub-optimal immunity
against pathogens can be advantageous for the host (...). Weaker immunity
allows the parasite to be
used as a biological weapon, and this increases the fitness of the host
relative to a competitor. A
parameter region is observed in which the outcome of competition depends on
the initial conditions.
We extend this model (...) find that the outcome depends on the migration
rate of the host species.

* Apparent Competition And Recovery From Infection, D. Wodarz
dwodarz@uci.edu , A. Sasaki , online
2004/02/05, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2003.11.027, Journal of Theoretical Biology
* Contributed by Pritha Das


_________________________________________________________________

16. Calm Mind Creates Complex Tunes , BBC News Online

Expert: Researchers are developing a system that will play more intricate
music the more relaxed
you are      Peace Composed could be used for stress management     "The
piece consists of seven
distinct layers, including bass, piano, strings and flutes," (...). "As the
user relaxes the layers
are peeled back and they drift deeper into the music."  (...) They detect
specific changes in
conductivity that happen - a Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) - dependent upon
a person's state.  The
difficult part is concentrating on relaxing in order to "unlock" the seven
different layers of the
music, and some who have tried the system have only heard a bass line,
indicating their stress
management is ineffective.

* Calm Mind Creates Complex Tunes, Jo Twist , 04/03/12, BBC News Online


_________________________________________________________________

17. Pointed Questions on Missile Defense System , NY Times

Expert: Weapons experts outside the Pentagon have argued that there is no
imminent threat that
would justify the program's huge expenditures, up $1.2 billion from the
previous year, and the
deployment of a system whose capabilities are unknown. (...) "The idea of
fly before buy is very
difficult for this system," (...) "This is fly as we buy." (...) The office
said that while the
program had addressed many earlier criticisms, none of the components of
the system had been tested
in "its deployed configuration."

* Pointed Questions on Missile Defense System, James Glanz , NY Times


_________________________________________________________________

17.01. The Internet and Political Campaigns , NY Times

Expert: Television and print media are one way.(...). The Internet is
two-way communication between
the candidate and the supporters. And it's multi-way. The supporters can
talk to each other. They
can all talk to the candidate in the campaign. And so there's an ownership
of the campaign that
happens. And in real involvement, a totally different level - a networking
that people do among
their friends.(...) There's only one medium in the world that can change
this country, let all
these Americans come together and they get the change they want.

* The Internet and Political Campaigns, David Pogue , 04/03/11, NY Times


_________________________________________________________________

17.02. Egypt rebuffs US over regional reform , The Guardian

Expert: Democratic reform cannot be imposed on the Middle East from
outside, the Egyptian
president, Hosni Mubarak, told Tony Blair yesterday, rebuffing US proposals
for the region. "The
president reiterated that any modernization has to stem from the traditions
and the culture in the
area," (...). "There is no magic wand that you can use to bring democracy
overnight and definitely
it cannot be dictated," Mr Kaffas added, though he said Egypt would welcome
US and European support
"to help the nations in the area reach peace and prosperity".

* Egypt rebuffs US over regional reform, Brian Whitaker , 04/03/08, The
Guardian


_________________________________________________________________

18. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks

Expert:



_________________________________________________________________

18.01. Analysis: Madrid Terrorism Probe , NPR Audio

Expert: NPR's Bob Edwards talks with terrorism analyst Charles Shoebridge,
founder of the Crime
Consultancy in London, Thursday's terrorist attacks in Madrid.

* Analysis: Madrid Terrorism Probe, 04/02/12, NPR Audio


_________________________________________________________________

18.01.01. Britain Frees Citizens Sent Home from Cuba , NPR Audio

Expert: The British government has set free all five British citizens flown
home this week from the
U.S. prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. All five men were let go without
charges. Many Britons are
questioning why it took Prime Minister Tony Blair two years to win their
freedom if the evidence
against the men did not warrant a U.K. trial.

* Britain Frees Citizens Sent Home from Cuba, Emily Harris , 04/03/11, NPR
Audio


_________________________________________________________________

18.02. Guantanamo Update , NPR TON

Expert: The latest on the five former Guantanamo prisoners to Britain
earlier this week. The men
were let go without charges and flown home this week from the U.S. prison
in Cuba.

* Guantanamo Update, Jackie Northam , Emily Harris , Eugene Fidell , Robert
Turner , 04/03/11, NPR
TON


_________________________________________________________________

19. Links & Snippets

Expert:



_________________________________________________________________

19.01. Other Publications

Expert:

- Online Secure Chatting System Using Discrete Chaotic Map, H. S. Kwok
hskwok@ee.cityu.edu.hk , W.
K. S. Tang  , K. F. Man , Jan. 2004, International Journal of Bifurcation
and Chaos, DOI:
10.1142/S0218127404009053
- New Evidence Of Animal Consciousness, D. R. Griffin  , G. B. Speck
gayle@wjh.harvard.edu ,
online: 2003/12/05, Animal Cognition, DOI: 10.1007/s10071-003-0203-x
- Ethics, Science, And The Mechanisation Of The World Picture, H.
Rosenbrock , online: 2003/12/03,
AI & Society, DOI: 10.1007/s00146-003-0293-7
- Assessment And Assortment: How Fishes Use Local And Global Cues To Choose
Which School To Go To,
A. J. W. Ward  , P. J. B. Hart  , J Krause , 2004/03/08, Alphagalileo &
Biology Letters
- Do Positive Interactions Increase With Abiotic Stress?, F. T. Maestre  ,
J. Cortina , 2004/03/08,
Alphagalileo & Biology Letters
- Forelimb Proportions And The Evolutionary Radiation Of Neornithes, R. L.
Nudds  , G. J. Dyke  ,
J. M. V. Rayner , 2004/03/08, Alphagalileo & Biology Letters
- Temperature At Birth Linked To Health Later In Life, E. Dickinson
edickinson@bmj.com ,
2004/03/09, Alphagalileo
- Getting Personal With Your Wearable Network, T. Morris
tmorris@gopa-cartermill.com , 2004/03/10,
Alphagalileo
- To Understand Butterfly Wing Colors, Biologists Develop First Transgenic
Butterflies, 2004/03/08,
ScienceDaily & University At Buffalo
- Key Gene Identified For Development Of Inner-ear Structure Required For
Balance, 2004/03/10,
ScienceDaily & The Jackson Laboratory
- Computational Model Of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Unified
Explanation Of The Treatments, S.
Kubota kubota@sat.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp , K. Aihara , Jan. 2004, International
Journal of Bifurcation and
Chaos, DOI: 10.1142/S0218127404009156
- A Branching Model For The Spread Of Infectious Animal Diseases In Varying
Environments, P.
Trapman trapman@vet.uu.nl , R. Meester  , H. Heesterbeek , online:
2004/03/03, Journal of
Mathematical Biology, DOI: 10.1007/s00285-004-0267-5
- Human Leg Design: Optimal Axial Alignment Under Constraints, M. G ther
guenther@tat.physik.uni-tuebingen.de , V. Keppler  , A. Seyfarth  , R.
Blickhan , online:
2004/03/04, Journal of Mathematical Biology, DOI: 10.1007/s00285-004-0269-3
- Consequences Of Symbiosis For Food Web Dynamics, B.W. Kooi  , L. D. J.
Kuijper  , S.A. L. M.
Kooijman , online: 2004/01/02, Journal of Mathematical Biology, DOI:
10.1007/s00285-003-0256-0
- Trade Deficit Explainer, 04/03/11, NPR TOTN, NPR's Neal Conan and guests
look at the trade
defecit -- what it means and how it affects the economy. Guest: Mike
Santoli *Senior editor at
Barron's
- Microbiology: Reconstructing The Wild Types, Edward F. Delong , 04/03/04,
Nature 428, 25 - 26, A
challenging way to characterize the world's naturally occurring microbes is
to piece together whole
genomes from complex communities. An unusually acidic microbial habitat
provides the setting for a
ranging shot on that target., DOI: 10.1038/428025a
- Cell Division: Feeling Tense Enough?, Iain M. Cheeseman  , Arshad Desai ,
04/03/04, Nature 428,
32 - 33, DOI: 10.1038/428032b
- Deconfined Quantum Critical Points, T. Senthil , Ashvin Vishwanath , Leon
Balents , Subir Sachdev
, Matthew P. A. Fisher , Science 5 March 2004: 1490-1494.
- Late Miocene Teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and Early Hominid Dental
Evolution, Yohannes
Haile-Selassie , Gen Suwa  , Tim D. White , Science 5 March 2004: 1503-1505
- European Seasonal and Annual Temperature Variability, Trends, and
Extremes Since 1500, Jurg
Luterbacher , Daniel Dietrich , Elena Xoplaki , Martin Grosjean , Heinz
Wanner , Science 5 March
2004: 1499-1503.
- Functional Anatomy of the Attentional Modulation of Time Estimation,
Jennifer T. Coull , Franck
Vidal , Bruno Nazarian , Francoise Macar , Science 5 March 2004: 1506-1508.
- Anthropology: The Earliest Hominins--Is Less More?, David R. Begun ,
Science 5 March 2004:
1478-1480
- Planetary Science: A Wet Early Mars Seen in Salty Deposit, Richard A.
Kerr , Science 5 March
2004: 1450
- Killer Waves, 04/03/06, Science News, Scientists are using sophisticated
computer models, field
studies of coastal geology, and data from tidal gauges to assess the
tsunami risk for coastal
residents.
- Early Ancestors Come Together: Humanity's Roots May Lie In Single,
Diverse Genus, 04/03/06,
Science News, Newly discovered fossil teeth in eastern Africa that are more
than 5 million years
old suggest that the earliest members of the human family evolved as a
single, anatomically diverse
genus.
- Bubble Fusion: Once-Maligned Claim Rebounds, 04/03/06, Science News,
Researchers who reported 2
years ago that they created nuclear-fusion reactions inside bubbles
imploding in a vat of liquid
acetone have now bolstered their controversial claim with new evidence.
- Body Builders, 04/03/06, Science News, By growing stem cells on three-
dimensional polymer
scaffolds, tissue engineers hope to mimic natural tissue development and
ultimately produce
replacement body parts.
- Keeping Abreast Of Serotonin's Roles, 04/03/06, Science News, Serotonin,
a chemical typically
associated with the brain, also controls milk production in mammary glands.
- Gene Transfer Puts Good Fats In Mammals, 04/03/06, Science News,
Scientists have used a worm gene
to genetically engineer mice whose tissues are unusually rich in the
heart-healthy fats found
mainly in fish.
- Quantum Sentinels, 04/03/06, Science News, Quantum physics may soon help
physicians track whether
a cancer has spread.



_________________________________________________________________

19.02. Webcast Announcements

   Voices of Public Intellectuals Lecture Series: Democracy's Response to
the Terrorist Threat Now
in its fifth year, the Radcliffe Institute Voices of Public Intellectuals
lecture series brings
issues affecting civic life to a public forum. This year's series of three
lectures features
experts in the study of terrorism and the prosecution of terrorists to
explore the effects of
terrorism on democracy. These lectures take place in Cambridge on February
26, March 4, and March
11 at 4 p.m.  World Economic Forum 2004, Davos, Switzerland   Riding the
Next Democratic Wave,
Al-Thani, Khan, Vike-Freiberga, Wade, Soros, Zakaria, World Economic Forum,
04/01/25  The Future of
Global Interdependence, Kharrazi, Held, Owens, Shourie, Annan, Martin,
Schwab, World Economic
Forum, 04/01/25  Why Victory Against Terrorism Demands Shared Values  The
Process of Curricular
Review: Redefining a World-Class Education, Benedict Gross, Thomas Bender,
Harvard@home, 04/01/21,
Dean of Harvard College Benedict Gross discusses Harvard's first
comprehensive review of the
undergraduate curriculum in almost 3 decades. This program introduces the
process of curricular
review by presenting two segmented lectures. The first, by Dean Gross,
outlines the approach and
considerations in undertaking the current review. The second lecture,
presented by NYU Professor
Thomas Bender, presents a historical perspective on academic
culture.   Cancer Biology , NPR Talk
of the Nation, 04/01/16, How the spread of cancer is like wound healing
gone awry.   Tracking Ebola
, NPR Talk of the Nation, 04/01/16, A new study might help scientists
predict where Ebola may!
strike next.   Animal Thought and Communication, NPR Talk of the Nation,
04/01/16, How do animals
think and communicate with each other? And what can studying animals tell
us about the evolution of
language in humans? In this hour, NPR's Ira Flatow and guests look at
thought and communication in
apes, gorillas and monkeys. What can non-human primates tell us about
communication in humans?
CODIS 2004, International Conference On Communications, Devices And
Intelligent Systems, 2004
Calcutta, India, 04/01/09-10 EVOLVABILITY & INTERACTION: Evolutionary
Substrates of
Communication, Signaling, and Perception in the Dynamics of Social
Complexity, London, UK,
03/10/08-10 The Semantic Web and Language Technology - Its Po tential and
Practicalities,
Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08 ECAL 2003, 7th European Conference on
Artificial Life, Dortmund,
Germany, 03/09/14-17 New Santa Fe Institute President About His Vision for
SFI's Future Role,
(Video, Santa Fe, NM, 03/06/04) SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and
Noise, Santa Fe, NM,
2003/06/01-04 NAS Sackler Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains,
Video/Audio Report, 03/05/11
13th Ann Intl Conf, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life Sciences,
Boston, MA, USA, 2003/08/08-10
CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and Live Events
Dean LeBaron's Archive
of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998 Edge Videos




_________________________________________________________________

19.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

      Interdisciplinary Colloquium, Security Bytes, Security/Life/Terror ,
Lancaster, 04/07/17-19
Arbeitskreis Physik sozio-ökonomischer Systeme Jahrestagung (AKSOE),
Regensburg, Germany,
04/03/08-12 11th Annual Winter Chaos Conference Dynamical Systems Thinking
in Science and Society,
Stony Creek, CT, USA, 04/03/12-14  Alife Mutants' Hackingsession on Systems
and Organisms,
Bielefeld (Germany), 04/03/06-13 Capital Science 2004, Washington, 04/0!
3/20-21 Fractal 2004,
"Complexity and Fractals in Nature", 8th Intl Multidisciplinary Conf,
Vancouver, Canada,
04/04/04-07 6th German Workshop on Artificial Life 2004 (GWAL-6), Bamberg,
Germany, 04/04/14-16 The
9th IEEE Intl Conf on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems, Florence,
Italy, 04/04/14-16
Complexity Science and the Exploration of the Emerging World, Austin, TX,
04/04/17 2004 Advanced
Simulation Technologies Conference (ASTC'04), Arlington, VA., USA,
04/04/18-22 NKS (New Kind of
Science) 2004 Conference and Minicourse, Boston, Massachusetts,
04/04/22-25  IDS'04 - Intentional
Dynamic Systems Symposium, Memphis, TN, USA,  04/04/24-26    New Horizons
In Search Theory ,
Newport, RI, 04/04/26-28  Urban Vulnerability and Network Failure:
Constructions and Experiences of
Emergencies, Crises and Collapse,  Manchester, UK, 04/04/29-30  What Really
Matters ?The Global
Forum 2004, Santa Fe, NM, 04/05/02-04 5th International Conference on
Complex Systems (ICCS2004),
Boston, MA, USA, 04/05/16-21 3rd Intl Conf on Systems Thinking in
Management (ICSTM 2004)
"Transforming Organizations to Achieve Sustainable Success", Philadelphia,
Pa, USA, 04/05/19-21 4th
Intl Conf on Fractals And Dynamic Systems In Geoscience, München,
Germany, 04/05/19-22 9th
Annual Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interaction Agents
(WEHIA04), Kyoto, Japan,
2004/05/27-29 13th International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious
Diseases, Toulon,
France, 04/06/03-05 ECC8 Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,
04/06/14-17 An Intl
Tribute to Francisco V arela, Paris,04/06/18-20 7th Intl Conf on Linking
Systems Thinking,
Innovation,Quality, Entrepreneurship and Environment (STIQE), MARIBOR,
SLOVENIA, 04/06/24-26
NAACSOS 2004, North American Association for Computational Social and
Organizational Science,
Pittsburgh PA, 04/06/27-29  Statphys - Kolkata V An International
Conference on Complex Networks:
Structure, Function and Processes , Kolkata, India, 04/06/27-30  ICAD 2004
10th International
Conference on Auditory Display, Sydney, Australia, 04/07/06-09  3rd Intl
School Topics in Nonlinear
Dynamics Discrete Dynamical Systems and Applications , Urbino (Italy),
04/07/07-09 `Perspectives on
Nonlinear Dynamics 2004 (PNLD-2004), Chennai, India, 04/07/12-15 From
Animals To Animats 8, 8th
Intl Conf On The Simulation Of Adaptive Behavior (SAB'04), Los Angeles,
USA, 04/07/13-17 14th
Annual International Conference The Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology
& Life Sciences ,
Milwaukee, WI, USA, 04/07/15-18   Facing Complexity, Wellington, NZ,
04/07/15-17 Gordon Research
Conference on "Oscillations & Dynamic Instabilities In Chemi! cal Systems",
Lewiston, ME,
04/07/18-23 3rd Intl Conf Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
Conference (AAMAS 2004), New York
City, 04/07/19-23 7th Intl Workshop on: Trust in Agent Societies , New York
City, 04/07/19-20 8th
World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando,
Florida, USA,
04/07/18-21 2004 Summer Simulation MultiConference (SummerSim'04), San Jose
Hyatt, San Jose,
California, 04/07/25-29 SME 2004 Symposium on Modeling and Control of
Economic Systems , University
in Redlands, CA, 04/01/28-31 6th International Mathematica Symposium (IMS
2004), Banff, Canada,
04/08/02-06  Fractals and Natural Hazards at 32nd Intl Geological Congress
(IGC), Florence, Italy,
04/08/20-28  ICCC 2004, IEEE International Conference on Computational
Cybernetics, , Vienna,
Austria, 04/08/30-09/01 ANTS 2004, 4th International Workshop on Ant Colony
Optimization and Swarm
Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium, 04/09/05-08 Dynamic Ontology, An Inquiry
into Systems, Emergence,
Levels of Reality, and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy, 04/09/08-11 9th
Intl Conf on the
Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems (ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts,
04/09/12-15 The
Verhulst 200 on Chaos, Brussels, BELGIUM, 04/09/16-18 The 8th Intl Conf on
Parallel Problem Solving
from Nature (PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22 XVII Brazilian
Symposium on Artificial
Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao - Brazil, 04/09/22-24  TEDMED Conference ,
Charleston SC,
04/10/12-15 Wolfram Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois, 04/10/21-23
6th Intl Conf on
Electronic C! ommerce ICEC'2004: Towards A New Services Landscape,  Delft,
The Netherlands,
04/10/25-27   Complexity and Philosophy Workshop - 2-Day Conference ,  Rio
de Janeiro, 04/11




_________________________________________________________________

19.03.01. Strategic Thinking in a Complex World , Smithsonian Resident
Associates Program

Expert:     Recognizing the world as one vast interconnected system is
essential to understanding
the level of complexity in today's global environment.     This course is
designed to give you a
working knowledge of complexity science, and to show how to apply insights
from the new science to
your life and work, and to world events.

* Strategic Thinking in a Complex World, T. Irene Sanders  , David Rejeski
, 04/05/01-22,
Smithsonian Resident Associates Program



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