ժ NO2003.51

Complexity Digest 2003.51 Dec. 22, 2003

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think the
next century will be the
century of complexity." Stephen Hawking



01. Sustainability and the Commons, Science
01.01. The Struggle to Govern the Commons, Science
01.02. Social Capital and the Collective Management of Resources, Science
01.03. Understanding Conflict over Common Pool Resources, Science
01.04. Challenge of Long-Term Climate Change, Science
01.05. Science and Law in Environmental Policy, Science
02. Values, Environmental Concern, And Behavior: A Study Into Household
Energy Use, Env. & Behavior
03. U.S. Multinationals And The Home Bias Puzzle: An Empirical Analysis,
Global Finance J.
04. The Effects Of Job Complexity And Autonomy On Work Groups, J.
Organizational Behav.
05. An Internet-Based Design Game As A Mediator Of Children's Environmental
Visions, Env. &
06. Signal Characteristics Of Spontaneous Facial Expressions In Solitary
And Social Smiles, Biol.
07. Ancient Figurines Found From First Modern Humans?, National Geographic News
08. The Queue Quotient, Atlantic Unbound
08.01. Born Global, HBS Working Knowledge
08.02. The Value of Personal Networks, MIT Sloan Management Review
09. Review Basic Concepts: To Put It Simply..., Nature
10. Warm-Blooded Plants?, Science News
11. Geomorphology: Nature, Nurture And Landscape, Nature
11.01. Large Complex Earthquakes in the Los Angeles Area, Science
12. Geomorphology: Solitary Wave Behavior Of Sand Dunes, Nature
13. First Flight: How Wright Brothers Changed World, National Geographic News
13.01. The Kitty Hawk Flight, NPR Audio
14. Researchers Use Brainwaves To Predict When We Are Going To Make
Mistakes, Alphagalileo
15. A First Glance At Global Genetic Networks, ScienceDaily
15.01. Instant Stem Cells - Just Add Water, Natue Science update
16. Virus Evolution: Epidemics-In-Waiting, Nature
16.01. The Role Of Evolution In The Emergence Of Infectious Diseases, Nature
17. A Short Description Of The Influence Of "Scale-Free?Networks In The 1
Sonata, For Piano,
Michael Edward Edgerton
18. Web Futures: Saddam Boosts Bush, CNNMoney/Reuters
18.01. Rumsfeld: Saddam to Have POW Protections, Guardian
18.02. Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, UNHCHR
18.03. Expert Weighs in on Saddam's Interrogation, NPR Audio
18.04. Interrogating Saddam, NPR Audio
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
19.01. U.S. Courts Reject Detention Policy in 2 Terror Cases, NYTimes
19.02. In Debate on Antiterrorism, the Courts Assert Themselves, NYTimes
19.03. The Padilla Decision, NYTimes
19.04. Chief of Sept. 11 Panel Assesses Blame but Holds Off on Higher-Ups,
19.05. Boom, or Bust?, Nature
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements
20.04. ComDig Announcement: New ComDig Archive in Beta Test


01. Sustainability and the Commons , Science


  Earth from space, as seen from Apollo 17 in 1972

Thirty-five years ago, Science published a remarkable essay by Garret
Hardin entitled "Tragedy of
the Commons."

(...) accessible to many potential harvesters who can extract marginal
personal benefits at a cost
that is low because all other harvesters share it. (...)

The big question in the end is not whether science can help. Plainly it
could. Rather, it is
whether scientific evidence can successfully overcome social, economic, and
political resistance.
That was Hardin's big question 35 years ago, and it is now ours.

* Sustainability and the Commons, Donald Kennedy , Science Dec 12 2003: 1861


01.01. The Struggle to Govern the Commons , Science

Excerpts: Human institutions-ways of organizing activities-affect the
resilience of the
environment. Locally evolved institutional arrangements governed by stable
communities and buffered
from outside forces have sustained resources successfully for centuries,
although they often fail
when rapid change occurs. (...) Critical problems, such as transboundary
pollution, tropical
deforestation, and climate change, are at larger scales and involve
nonlocal influences. Promising
strategies for addressing these problems include dialogue among interested
parties, officials, and
scientists; complex, redundant, and layered institutions; a mix of
institutional types; and designs
that facilitate experimentation, learning, and change.

* The Struggle to Govern the Commons, Thomas Dietz , Elinor Ostrom ,  Paul
C. Stern , Science Dec
12 2003: 1907-1912


01.02. Social Capital and the Collective Management of Resources , Science

Excerpts: Yet communities have shown (...) that they can collaborate for
long-term resource
management. The term social capital captures the idea that social bonds and
norms are critical for
sustainability. Where social capital is high in formalized groups, people
have the confidence to
invest in collective activities, knowing that others will do so too. Some
0.4 to 0.5 million groups
have been established since the early 1990s for watershed, forest,
irrigation, pest, wildlife,
fishery, and microfinance management. These offer a route to sustainable
management and governance
of common resources.

* Social Capital and the Collective Management of Resources, Jules Pretty ,
Science Dec 12 2003:


01.03. Understanding Conflict over Common Pool Resources , Science

Excerpts: The management of common pool resources can be viewed as a
problem of collective action
and analyzed in terms of the costs and benefits of cooperation,
institutional development, and
monitoring, according to variables such as group size, composition, (...).
However, resulting
policy debates are often flawed because of the assumption that the actors
involved share an
understanding of the problem that is being discussed. They tend to ignore
the fact that the
assumptions, knowledge, and understandings that underlie the definition of
resource problems are
frequently uncertain and contested.

* Understanding Conflict over Common Pool Resources, William M. Adams , Dan
Brockington , Jane
Dyson , Bhaskar Vira , Science Dec 12 2003: 1915-1916.


01.04. Challenge of Long-Term Climate Change , Science

Excerpts: Climate policy needs to address the multidecadal to centennial
time scale of climate
change. Although the realization of short-term targets is an important
first step, to be effective
climate policies need to be conceived as long-term programs that will
achieve a gradual transition
to an essentially emission-free economy on the time scale of a century.
This requires a
considerably broader spectrum of policy measures than the primarily
market-based instruments (...).
A successful climate policy must consist of a dual approach focusing on
both short-term targets and
long-term goals.

* Challenge of Long-Term Climate Change, K. Hasselmann , M. Latif , G.
Hooss , C. Azar , O.
Edenhofer , C. C. Jaeger , O. M. Johannessen , C. Kemfert , M. Welp , A.
Wokaun , Science Dec 12
2003: 1923-1925


01.05. Science and Law in Environmental Policy , Science

Excerpts: Early environmental policy depended on science, with mixed
results. Newer approaches
continue to rely on science to identify problems and solve them, but use
other mechanisms to set
standards and legal obligations. Given the important role that science
continues to play, however,
several cautionary tales are in order concerning "scientific management,"
"good science," the lure
of money, and the tension between objectivity and involvement in important
issues of our time.
?(...) Therefore, you need to continue to make the lack of scientific
certainty the primary issue
in the debate..."

* Science and Law in Environmental Policy, Oliver Houck , Science Dec 12
2003: 1926-1929


02. Values, Environmental Concern, And Behavior: A Study Into Household
Energy Use , Env. &

Abstract: In this study, the role of values in the field of household
energy use is investigated by
using the concept of quality of life (QOL). Importance judgments on 22 QOL
aspects could be
summarized into seven clearly interpretable value dimensions. (...) home
and transport energy use
were especially related to sociodemographic variables like income and
household size. These results
show that it is relevant to distinguish between different measures of
environmental impact and
different types of environmental intent. Moreover, the results suggest that
using only attitudinal
variables, such as values, may be too limited to explain all types of
environmental behavior

* Values, Environmental Concern, And Environmental Behavior: A Study Into
Household Energy Use,
Poortinga W.  , Steg L.  , Vlek C. , Jan. 2004, DOI:
10.1177/0013916503251466, Environment &
* Contributed by Pritha Das


03. U.S. Multinationals And The Home Bias Puzzle: An Empirical Analysis ,
Global Finance J.

Abstract: While international portfolio investment has become much more
common among U.S.
investors, prior research has shown that they continue to exhibit a home
bias in equity holdings.
Hence, to gain the potential benefits of international diversification,
they must turn to U.S.
multinationals (MNCs), among other alternatives. The literature, however,
contains mixed evidence
on this, (...) covering the period of January 31, 1995, through May 31,
2001. Various tests applied
to dollar returns for major U.S. and international stock market indices
show weak correlations and
no long-term cointegrating relationships between the U.S. sets and the
foreign indices (...).

* U.S. Multinationals And The Home Bias Puzzle: An Empirical Analysis, M.
mehdi.salehizadeh@sdsu.edu , 2003/11/20 (In Press), DOI:
10.1016/j.gfj.2003.10.002, Global Finance
* Contributed by Pritha Das


04. The Effects Of Job Complexity And Autonomy On Work Groups , J.
Organizational Behav.

Abstract: Increased job complexity and autonomy have often been associated
with improved
performance in work groups. This study examines the mediating effect of
group cohesiveness. The
moderating effects of individualism/collectivism on the relationship
between job characteristics
(both complexity and autonomy) and cohesiveness are also tested. The sample
consists of 381 teams
drawn from the Hong Kong and U.S. branches of an international bank. The
findings indicate that an
increase in job complexity and/or task autonomy will increase group
cohesiveness, which
subsequently translates to better performance.

* The Effects Of Job Complexity And Autonomy On Cohesiveness In
Collectivistic And Individualistic
Work Groups: A Cross-Cultural Analysis, D. C. Man dman@business.hku.hk , S.
S. K. Lam , 2003/11/17,
DOI: 10.1002/job.227, Journal of Organizational Behavior
* Contributed by Atin Das


05. An Internet-Based Design Game As A Mediator Of Children's Environmental
Visions , Env. &

Abstract: This exploratory study examines howan Internet-assisted design
game succeeds in bringing
forth children's own visions for the environment where they live and their
definitions of a good
environment. Two connected concepts in environmental psychology, the theory
of person-environment
fit and the concept of affordances, are applied in the analysis of the
results of the design
process. The results indicate that children's design solutions are
sensitive to the geographical
context. The children generally enjoyed the Internet-based design game. The
girls designed more
affordances for simply being in peace, whereas the boys emphasized
affordances for playing games.

* An Internet-Based Design Game As A Mediator Of Children's Environmental
Visions, Kytt?M.
marketta.kytta@hut.fi , Kaaja M.  , Horelli L. , Jan. 2004, DOI:
Environment & Behavior
* Contributed by Pritha Das


06. Signal Characteristics Of Spontaneous Facial Expressions In Solitary
And Social Smiles , Biol.

Abstract: The assumption that the smile is an evolved facial display
suggests that there may be
universal features of smiling in addition to the basic facial
configuration. We show that smiles
include not only a stable configuration of features, but also temporally
consistent movement
patterns. In spontaneous smiles from two social contexts, duration of lip
corner movement during
the onset phase was independent of social context and the presence of other
facial movements,
including dampening. (...) consistency in onset and offset phases suggests
that portions of the
smile display are relatively stereotyped and may be automatically produced.

* Signal Characteristics Of Spontaneous Facial Expressions: Automatic
Movement In Solitary And
Social Smiles, K. L. Schmidt kschmidt@pitt.edu , J. F. Cohn  , Y. Tian ,
Dec. 2003 Biological
Psychology 10.1016/S0301-0511(03)00098-X
* Contributed by Pritha Das


07. Ancient Figurines Found From First Modern Humans? , National Geographic


  Ivory figurines like this "lionperson" found in Germany are among the
oldest examples of
figurative art known worldwide.

Photograph by Hilde Jensen, University of Tübingen

Humans have had a refined artistic bent for at least 33,000 years,
according to the discovery of
three deftly carved ivory figurines in a cave in southwestern Germany. The
miniature statues
include a horse, a diving waterfowl, and a half-man, half-lion.

The figurines come from an ongoing excavation of Hohle Fels Cave in the Ach
Valley and are dated to
a time when some of the earliest known relatives of modern humans populated
Europe, an era known as
the Aurignacian.

* Ancient Figurines Found From First Modern Humans?, John Roach  , December
17, 2003, National
Geographic News


08. The Queue Quotient , Atlantic Unbound

Excerpts: "Most of us have never considered that kindergarten's most
important lesson--that of
lining up--is somehow related to our society's ability to self-govern. For
[P.J.] O'Rourke, the mad
dash for food in Safwan [Iraq] represented something more than hunger or
desperation: 'Aid seekers
in England would queue automatically by needs, disabled war vets and
nursing mothers first.
Americans would bring lawn chairs and sleeping bags, camp out the night
before, and sell their
places to the highest bidders. Japanese would text-message one another,
creating virtual
formations, getting in line to get in line. Germans would await commands
from a local official,
such as the undersupervisor of the town clock. Even Italians know how to
line up, albeit in an
ebullient wedge. The happier parts of the world have capacities for
self-organization so
fundamental and obvious that they appear to be the pillars of
civilization...But here--on the road
to Ur, in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley...nothing was supporting the roof.'"

* Man on the Streets , Elizabeth Shelburne , 03/12, Atlantic Unbound


08.01. Born Global , HBS Working Knowledge

Excerpts: "More companies are being born global. In the '80s and the '90s,
our focus was really
more about how established successful companies adapted to the booming
global environment. The game
was being defined by giant American, European, and Japanese companies. But
now we see new
competitors come from smaller countries that, because their home markets
are too small to support
them, are moving immediately onto the global stage. We also see whole
industries that are being
born global, particularly the information-based, knowledge-intensive
service economy...Another big
change is that companies are finally recognizing that being global is not
just about entering
incremental overseas markets. It is also about accessing scarce resources.
And the scarcest of all
resources is the human resource, particularly management. So the assumption
that 'all the smart,
capable people were born within a ten-mile radius of our head office' is
being eroded."

* The New Global Business Manager, Cynthia D. Churchwell  , Christopher A.
Bartlett , 03/12/15,
Harvard Business School Working Knowledge


08.02. The Value of Personal Networks , MIT Sloan Management Review

Excerpts: "What separates high-performing knowledge workers from their
more-average peers? Superior
ability is part of the answer, as is superior expertise. But...what really
distinguishes high
performers from the rest of the pack is their ability to maintain and
leverage personal networks.
The most effective knowledge workers create and tap large, diversified
networks that are rich in
experience and span all organizational boundaries. Contrary to the popular
image of the
networker...the building and use of such networks is rarely motivated by
explicit political or
career-driven motives...high performers are much more than "social
butterflies," who tend to have
numerous relationships that don't scratch below the surface. Effective
knowledge workers focus on
building deeper relationships that will be mutually beneficial over
time...organizations should use
tools and readily available human-resources practices to hire people who
are likely to develop
large, widespread networks. Once on board, people should be encouraged
through incentives to
maintain their networks. Such important work - and it is work, even if
isn't usually visible -
shouldn't be left strictly to chance."

* The Social Side of Performance , Rob Cross , Thomas H. Davenport  , Susan
Cantrell , MIT Sloan
Management Review, Fall 2003


09. Review Basic Concepts: To Put It Simply... , Nature

Excerpts: Ideally, in a theory of concepts and in lexical semantics, the
term 'basic' ought to
cover the topmost level of abstraction (...). Or, at the other extreme ?in
a tradition that
extends back to the philosopher David Hume ?they have roots in our most
direct access to unadorned
sense impressions (a green splotch here and now in front of me).
Unfortunately, 'basic concepts'
sit comfortably at an intermediate level ?they are neither too general nor
too specific. Lunch is
a basic concept, but so are bread, spoon and banana, (...).

* Review Basic Concepts: To Put It Simply..., Massimo
Piattelli-Palmarini  , 03/12/11, DOI:
10.1038/426607a, Nature 426, 607


10. Warm-Blooded Plants? , Science News


    HOT STUFF. The skunk cabbages in Japan melt snow and show the
most-precise temperature
regulation yet recorded in a plant.

(...) Ito and his Iwate colleagues (...) have been searching for the
temperature sensor and other
compounds that operate in the skunk cabbage's heat production. (...)
"This sort of biological algorithm could be used as a new brain to control
nonbiological devices,
such as air conditioners," (...). The system used by a skunk cabbage,
"which is a typical chaotic
system, is totally different," he says. Ito's team has recently succeeded
in operating an
artificial heater with this algorithm. "I really think we can learn a lot
from skunk cabbages,"

* Warm-Blooded Plants? OK, there's no blood, but they do make their own
heat, Susan Milius  ,
03/12/13, Science News, Vol. 164, No. 24, (Audible format)


11. Geomorphology: Nature, Nurture And Landscape , Nature

Excerpts: Those studying erosion in mountain regions wrestle with factors
such as what builds
mountains, and how climate affects erosive forces. (...)

The endless debate over the relative importance of nature and nurture in
child development has its
equivalent in geomorphology. In this case, the argument is about the roles
of tectonics and climate
in mountain erosion. Tectonics (nature) sets the initial conditions by
raising Earth's surface and,
where active, renewing topography. Climate (nurture) shapes the surface
into its various forms
through its effect on glaciers and rivers.

* Geomorphology: Nature, Nurture And Landscape, Peter Molnar  , 03/12/11,
DOI: 10.1038/426612a,
Nature 426, 612 - 614


11.01. Large Complex Earthquakes in the Los Angeles Area , Science

Excerpts: Faults in complex tectonic environments interact in various ways,
including triggered
rupture of one fault by another, that may increase seismic hazard in the
surrounding region. (...)
We find that rupture of the Sierra Madre-Cucamonga thrust fault system is
unlikely to trigger
rupture of the San Andreas or San Jacinto strike-slip faults. However, a
large northern San Jacinto
fault earthquake could trigger a cascading rupture of the Sierra
Madre-Cucamonga system,
potentially causing a moment magnitude 7.5 to 7.8 earthquake on the edge of
the Los Angeles
metropolitan region.

* Large Complex Earthquakes in the Los Angeles Area, Greg Anderson , Brad
Aagaard , Ken Hudnut ,
03/12/12, Science: 1946-1949


12. Geomorphology: Solitary Wave Behavior Of Sand Dunes , Nature


   Time series of the solitary-wave behaviour of two barchan sand dunes.

Colliding dunes appear to traverse through one another and emerge unscathed.

Barchan sand dunes are highly mobile, crescent-shaped dunes that occur in
areas where sand is
sparse and the wind is unidirectional. Here we show mathematically how two
such loose-grained dunes
are able to pass through one another while still preserving their shape.
The crucial parameters for
this solitary-wave behaviour, which is consistent with field observations,
are the heights of the
two colliding dunes.

* Geomorphology: Solitary Wave Behavior Of Sand Dunes, Veit Schwämmle ,
Hans J. Herrmann ,
03/12/11, DOI: 10.1038/426619a, Nature 426, 619 - 620


13. First Flight: How Wright Brothers Changed World , National Geographic News


  One hundred years ago today, a machine carrying a person made a brief and
wobbly flight. As Wilbur
Wright watched his brother Orville guide their flying machine into the air,
the past and the future
separated and the world started shrinking.

Thursday, December 17, 1903, dawned windy and cold on North Carolina's
Outer Banks. At Kill Devil
Hills, the thermometer hovered around the freezing mark, and a 25-mile-per-hour
(40-kilometer-per-hour) wind blowing out of the north made it feel even colder.

Orville and Wilbur Wright had a few doubts about whether this was a good
day to try to get their
flying machine off the ground. They'd had one setback three days earlier
when Wilbur lost control
of the craft as he was trying to take off, damaging a wing.

* First Flight: How Wright Brothers Changed World, 03/12/17, National
Geographic News


13.01. The Kitty Hawk Flight , NPR Audio

Excerpts: A soaring moment in American history occurred 100 years ago
today: The Wright Brothers
made their first flights in Kitty Hawk, N.C. As NPR's Joe Palca reports,
the basic principles they
built into their Wright Flyer remain a part of every aircraft flying today.

* The Kitty Hawk Flight, 03/12/12, NPR Audio


14. Researchers Use Brainwaves To Predict When We Are Going To Make
Mistakes , Alphagalileo

Excerpts: Now, by monitoring our brainwaves (...) has developed a way of
predicting when we are
about to make these mistakes. "It's the sort of mistakes you make
especially when you're feeling
tired or sleepy, like accidentally putting coffee on your cornflakes
instead of milk. But you have
to remember that these sorts of mistakes have also been implicated in the
Chernobyl disaster and
the three-mile island accident." The clue lies in a particular set of
brainwaves, known as P300
waves. "We looked at P300 waves and we found that if they began to fall, we
knew a mistake was
likely to happen."

* Researchers Use Brainwaves To Predict When We Are Going To Make Mistakes,
M. Leggett
mleggett@physoc.org , 2003/12/16, Alphagalileo
* Contributed by Atin Das


15. A First Glance At Global Genetic Networks , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Although the regulatory details of individual gene groups varied,
the researchers found
common ground in the overall landscape of the expression data. The
transcription programs exhibit
properties typical of dynamically evolving "real-world" networks that are
designed to perform in
uncertain environments and maintain connections between elements
independent of scale. These
properties were originally identified in studies of social networks and the
World Wide Web, but
they aptly describe the real-world challenges of the cell. (...) nodes
(i.e., genes and proteins)
added at an early stage (much like highly conserved genes) are more likely
to develop many
connections, acting as a hub.

* A First Glance At Global Genetic Networks, 2003/12/16, ScienceDaily &
Public Library Of Science
* Contributed by Atin Das


15.01. Instant Stem Cells - Just Add Water , Natue Science update


  Cell membranes crack if they are overly parched.

Researchers are honing a technique to create dried stem cells that can be
revived just by adding
water. The 'instant' cells might make mobile therapies for remote regions
or the battlefield.

Because some stem cells can make fresh bone, muscle or blood, doctors hope
to use them to repair
tissues. But, like transplant organs kept on ice, their shelf life will be
limited (...).

Several scientists are looking for a way to air-dry cells, comparable to
the technique that turns
grapes to raisins.

* Instant Stem Cells - Just Add Water, Helen Pearson , 03/12/19, Nature
Science Update


16. Virus Evolution: Epidemics-In-Waiting , Nature

Excerpts: Could the next SARS-like virus reach epidemic proportions?
Quantifying the likely threat
of emerging diseases isn't easy, but evolution is a crucial factor that may
tip the balance in
favour of such human parasites.
One of the oldest tenets of evolutionary biology is that it is easier to
change a little than a
lot. We also know that evolutionary change is more easily selected for in a
large population than
in a small one.
(...)certain parasites are specially poised to evolve so that they can
cause epidemics.

* Virus Evolution: Epidemics-In-Waiting, Jim Bull , Dan Dykhuizen  ,
03/12/11, DOI:
10.1038/426609a, Nature 426, 609 - 610


16.01. The Role Of Evolution In The Emergence Of Infectious Diseases , Nature

Excerpts: It is unclear when, where and how novel pathogens such as human
immunodeficiency virus
(HIV), monkeypox and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) will cross
the barriers that separate
their natural reservoirs from human populations and ignite the epidemic
spread of novel infectious
diseases. New pathogens are believed to emerge from animal reservoirs when
ecological changes
increase the pathogen's opportunities to enter the human population and to
generate subsequent
human-to-human transmission. (...) Here we show that, (...), the
probability of pathogen evolution
(...) can increase markedly.

* The Role Of Evolution In The Emergence Of Infectious Diseases, Rustom
Antia , Roland R. Regoes ,
Jacob C. Koella , Carl T. Bergstrom , 03/12/11, DOI: 10.1038/nature02104,
Nature 426, 658 - 661


17. A Short Description Of The Influence Of "Scale-Free?Networks In The 1
Sonata, For Piano ,
Michael Edward Edgerton

* A Short Description Of The Influence Of "Scale-Free?Networks In The 1
Sonata, For Piano, Michael
Edward Edgerton


18. Web Futures: Saddam Boosts Bush , CNNMoney/Reuters

Excerpts: Tradesports.com say 'futures' contracts for Bush's re-election
soared to 70.7 percent.
The odds on President Bush being re-elected next year posted their biggest
daily gain Monday after
the weekend capture of Saddam Hussein, according to an Irish-based online
betting exchange.

* Web Futures: Saddam Boosts Bush, 03/12/15, CNNMoney/Reuters


18.01. Rumsfeld: Saddam to Have POW Protections , Guardian

Excerpts: Saddam was taken to an undisclosed location where, Rumsfeld said,
``he would be accorded
the privileges as though he were a prisoner of war - not that he
necessarily is one.''

If it is found that Saddam was involved in the attacks against coalition
troops, he might be placed
in a different category, Rumsfeld said, (...).

``One need not worry that he'll be treated in a humane and professional
way,'' governed by the
Geneva Convention that spells out the treatment that prisoners must
receive, the secretary said on
CBS' ``60 Minutes.''

* Rumsfeld: Saddam to Have POW Protections, Larry Margasak  , 03/12/15,


18.02. Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War , UNHCHR

Excerpts: Article 13: (...) Likewise, prisoners of war must at all times be
protected, particularly
against acts of violence or intimidation and against insults and public
Article 17: Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, is bound
to give only his
surname, first names and rank, date of birth, and army, regimental,
personal or serial number, or
failing this, equivalent information. If he wilfully infringes this rule,
he may render himself
liable to a restriction of the privileges accorded to his rank or status. (...)
No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion, may be
inflicted on prisoners of war
to secure from them information of any kind whatever. Prisoners of war who
refuse to answer may not
be threatened, insulted, or exposed to any unpleasant or disadvantageous
treatment of any kind.

* Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, United
Nations High Commissioner
for Human Rights, 50/10/21


18.03. Expert Weighs in on Saddam's Interrogation , NPR Audio

Excerpts: Intelligence officials are trying to glean as much information
from captured Iraqi leader
Saddam Hussein as they can. NPR's Michele Norris talks with Reuel Marc
Gerecht of the American
Enterprise Institute and formerly a Middle Eastern specialist for the
Central Intelligence Agency.

* Expert Weighs in on Saddam's Interrogation, 03/12/16, NPR Audio


18.04. Interrogating Saddam , NPR Audio

Excerpts: The CIA is questioning Saddam Hussein. NPR's Scott Simon talks
nuts-and-bolts with former CIA counter terrorism specialist Phil Giraldi.
?...) you could make him adopt an uncomfortable position while you are
questioning him, make him
lean against a wall or you could make him get down to a push-up position or
something like that.?(...) "He might be stopped from going to the
bathroom.?Editor's Note: There seems to be a discrepancy between the U.S.
Government's definition of
"torture" and that of the Geneva convention.

* Interrogating Saddam , 03/12/20, NPR Weekend Edition Audio


19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks


19.01. U.S. Courts Reject Detention Policy in 2 Terror Cases , NYTimes

Excerpts: The twin blows to the underpinnings of the administration's
elaborate legal strategy
erected after the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks make it all the more likely
that the Supreme Court
will have the final say on matters that the administration had argued did
not belong in the courts
in the first place.

The Supreme Court agreed (...) to hear the case of the detainees at
Guantnamo and is widely
expected to rule as well on the issues raised in the case of Jose Padilla,
the American declared an
enemy combatant.

* U.S. Courts Reject Detention Policy in 2 Terror Cases, Neil A. Lewis  ,
William Glaberson ,


19.02. In Debate on Antiterrorism, the Courts Assert Themselves , NYTimes

Excerpts: The broad presidential powers invoked by the Bush administration
after Sept. 11, 2001, to
detain suspected terrorists outside the civilian court system is now being
challenged by the
federal courts, the very branch of the government the White House hoped to

The two separate appellate court rulings on Thursday swept away crucial
parts of the
administration's legal strategy to handle terrorist suspects outside the
criminal justice system
and incarcerate them indefinitely without access to lawyers or to the
evidence against them.

* In Debate on Antiterrorism, the Courts Assert Themselves, David Johnston
, 03/12/19, NYTimes


19.03. The Padilla Decision , NYTimes

Excerpts: (...) that there are constitutional limits on the president's
power to deny basic civil
liberties in the name of fighting terrorism ?is one that protects the
liberty of all Americans.

The two-judge majority underscored that it was not denying the serious
threat that Al Qaeda poses,
nor the president's responsibility to protect the nation. (...) Rather, the
decision correctly
found that the president possesses no inherent constitutional authority as
commander in chief to
detain as enemy combatants American citizens seized on American soil, away
from the zone of combat.

* The Padilla Decision, 03/12/19, NY Times


19.04. Chief of Sept. 11 Panel Assesses Blame but Holds Off on Higher-Ups ,

Excerpts: The chairman of the panel investigating the Sept. 11 attacks said
that the attacks could
have been prevented had low- and mid-level government employees done their
jobs. (...)
Mr. Kean, whose bipartisan 10-member panel is to issue a final report in
May, said he was surprised
that some midlevel officials at the F.B.I. and in federal immigration
agencies had not been removed
from their jobs, given errors before the Sept. 11 attacks that may have
allowed the hijacking plot
to go undetected.

* Chief of Sept. 11 Panel Assesses Blame but Holds Off on Higher-Ups,
Philip Shenon , 03/12/19, NY


19.05. Boom, or Bust? , Nature

Excerpts: Hundreds of millions of dollars are pouring into US biodefence
research. You might expect
scientists working on infectious diseases to be unequivocally delighted.
But things aren't that
simple (...)
Some researchers fear that it will distort priorities in infectious-disease
research, sucking money
away from work to understand and counter natural disease outbreaks that
ultimately pose a greater
threat to public health. Experts in weapons proliferation, meanwhile, are
concerned that the
expansion of labs working on potential bioweapons agents will increase the
risk of these pathogens
getting into terrorists' hands.

* Boom, or Bust?, Erika Check  , 03/12/11, DOI: 10.1038/426598a, Nature
426, 598 - 601


20. Links & Snippets


20.01. Other Publications

- Dendritic Branching Of Pyramidal Cells In The Visual Cortex Of The
Nocturnal Owl Monkey: A
Fractal Analysis, H. F. Jelinek  , G. N. Elston , Dec. 2003, Fractals, DOI:
- Scaling In The Distribution Of Marks In High School, M. Gligor  , M.
Ignat , Dec. 2003, Fractals,
DOI: 10.1142/S0218348x03002257
- Ana's Golden Fractal, J. L. Pe , Dec. 2003, Fractals, DOI:
- Discharge Of Inferior Olive Cells During Reaching Errors And
Perturbations, K. M. Horn
khorn@chw.edu , M. Pong  , A. R. Gibson , 2003/12/03, Brain Research, DOI:
- Understanding The Emotional Labor Process: A Control Theory Perspective,
J. M. Diefendorff
jdiefen@lsu.edu , R. H. Gosserand , 2003/11/17, Journal of Organizational
Behavior, DOI:
- Opals Manufactured By Beetles, B. Hottbarbara hott@admin.ox.ac.uk ,
2003/12/16, Alphagalileo
- Autumn Colouration As A Signal Of Tree Condition, S. B. Hagen  , S.
Debeausse  , N. G. Yoccoz  ,
I. Folstad , 2003/12/15, Alphagalileo & Biology Letters
- Sex-Specific Response Of A Mosquito To Parasites And Crowding, M. Tseng ,
Alphagalileo & Biology Letters
- Lunar Orientation In A Beetle, M. Dacke  , M. J. Byrne  , C. H. Scholz  ,
E. J. Warrant ,
2003/12/15, Alphagalileo & Proceedings Biological Sciences
- Weak Compensation Of Harvest Despite Strong Density-Dependent Growth In
Willow Ptarmigan, H. C.
Pedersen  , H. S. Steen  , L. Kastdalen  , H Brøseth  , R. A. Ims  , W.
Svendsen  , N. G. Yoccoz ,
2003/12/15, Alphagalileo & Proceedings Biological Sciences
- Champagne And Bubbles: Smaller Is Better, 2003/12/16, ScienceDaily &
American Chemical Society
- Scientists Discover How Anthrax Creates Its Deadly Spores, 2003/12/17,
ScienceDaily & Univ. Of
Michigan Health Sys.
- Comparing Ecological Impacts Of Fishing Gears, 2003/12/18, ScienceDaily &
Ecological Society Of
- Power-Law Species-Area Relationships And Self-Similar Species
Distributions Within Finite Areas,
Sizling A. L.  , Storch D. , Jan. 2004, Ecology Letters, DOI:
- Community Structure Of Fishes Inhabiting Aquatic Refuges In A Threatened
Karst Wetland And Its
Implications For Ecosystem Management, R. M. Kobza  , J. C. Trexler
trexlerj@fiu.edu , W. F. Loftus
  , S. A. Perry , Apr. 2004, Biological Conservation, DOI:
- Gains In Pain Research Past Failures Push Investigators To Be More
Innovative In Their Treatment
Approaches, Jill U. Adams  , 03/12/15, The Scientist
- Trade Dilemma US balances free trade and protectionism as 2004 election
looms , Stephen Evans  ,
03/12/15, BBC
- Carbon Nanotubes Show Drug Delivery Promise, 03/12/16, NewScientist.com
- Materials Retain Useful Properties At Nanoscale Researchers Find,
03/12/16, Nanotechweb.org
- Nanowire Sensors To Allow Instant Medical Tests, 03/12/16, KurzweilAI.net
- New York and Microsoft File Suits on E-Mail Spam, Saul Hansell
, The New York state attorney general and Microsoft filed suits charging
one of the nation's most
prominent e-mail marketers with fraud.
- Change the Channel, Bob Herbert , Americans are the best-informed people
in the history of the
world. But we are experts at distancing ourselves from any real unpleasantness.
- Telling It Right, Paul Krugman
, The message of this war seems to be that as long as you wave the flag
convincingly enough, it
doesn't matter whether you tell the truth.
- Learning to Break the Rules, Bruce Berkowitz

, In the hunt for Saddam Hussein, intelligence analysts employed new
strategies that were vital to
the success of the mission.
- Separating the Killers From the Boys, By Joan Jacobs Brumberg  ,
03/12/18, NYTimes
- Signal Transduction: Molecular Monogamy , Drew End. Michael B. Yaffe
myaffe@mit.edu , 03/12/11,
Nature 426, 614 - 615, The interactions between cellular proteins must be
highly specific, or cells
will stop functioning. Some clever protein-manipulation experiments have
revealed how this
specificity has evolved in yeast., DOI: 10.1038/426614a
- Links Between Erosion, Runoff Variability And Seismicity In The Taiwan
Orogen, Simon J. Dadson ,
Niels Hovius , Hongey Chen , W. Brian Dade , Meng-Long Hsieh , Sean D.
Willett , Jyr-Ching Hu ,
Ming-Jame Horng , Meng-Chiang Chen , Colin P. Stark , Dimitri Lague ,
Jiun-Chuan Lin , 03/12/11,
Nature 426, 648 - 651, DOI: 10.1038/nature02150
- Decoupling Of Erosion And Precipitation In The Himalayas, D. W. BURBANK ,
OJHA  , 03/12/11, Nature 426,
652 - 655, DOI: 10.1038/nature02187
- Visual Control Of Action But Not Perception Requires Analytical
Processing Of Object Shape , TZVI
GANEL  , MELVYN A. GOODALE , 03/12/11, Nature 426, 664 - 667, DOI:
- Model Mice: Blood reveals signs of pancreatic cancer, Science News, Vol.
164, No. 24, 03/12/13, (
Audible format). Mice that develop pancreatic cancer show signs of the
disease long before
malignant tumors arise, just as people with this type of cancer do.
- Slowing Puberty? Pesticide may hinder development in boys, Science News
Vol. 164, No. 24,
03/12/13, ( Audible format).Long-term exposure to the pesticide endosulfan
may delay the onset of
puberty in boys.
- Worried to Death: Lifelong inhibitions hasten rodents' deaths, 03/12/13,
Science News, Vol. 164,
No. 24, ( Audible format).In rats with a fear of novel situations, an
exaggerated hormonal response
to minor types of stress adds up to a shorter life than that of bold rats.
- Sweet Lurkers: Cryptic Fungi Protect Chocolate-Tree Leaves, 03/12/13,
Science News, Vol. 164, No.
24, ( Audible format).A whole world of fungi thrives inside tree leaves
without causing any harm,
and researchers now say these residents may help fight disease.
- Ketones to the Rescue, 03/12/13, Science News, Vol. 164, No. 24, (
Audible format).Medical
researchers are investigating a slew of possible applications for acids
called ketones, which the
body produces naturally when deprived of carbohydrates and protein.
- Genome Made Quickly From Scratch, 03/12/13, Science News, Vol. 164, No.
24, ( Audible
format).Scientists have synthesized a viral genome in record time.


20.02. Webcast Announcements

   Presentation Webcasts from Scientific Sessions 2003,
   American Heart Association
   EVOLVABILITY & INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of
   Communication, Signaling, and Perception in the Dynamics of Social
   Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10
   The Semantic Web
   and Language Technology - Its Potential and Practicalities,
   Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08
   ECAL 2003, 7th
   European Conference on Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany,
   IMA International
   Conference Bifurcation 2003, Univ. Southampton, UK, 27-30 July,
   New Santa
   Fe Institute President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role,
   (Video, Santa Fe, NM, 03/06/04)
   SPIE's 1st Intl Symp
   on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM, 2003/06/01-04
   NAS Sackler
   Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio Report,
   Uncertainty and
   Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable,
   The University of Texas Austin, Texas USA, 2003/04/10-12
   13th Ann Intl Conf,
   Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life Sciences, Boston, MA, USA,
   Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and
   Live Events
   LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since
   February 1998
   Edge Videos


20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements

  American Society for Cell Biology 43rd Annual Meeting, San
  Francisco, 03/12/13-17

  International Workshop on the Mathematics and Algorithms of Social
  Insects, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Georgia, USA;

  WSEAS Intl Conf on Non-linear Analysis, Non-linear Systems
  and Chaos, Athens, Greece, 03/12/29-31

  Physical, Biological and Social Systems, MIT, Cambridge,
  MA, 04/01/05-09

  Biennial Seminar on the Philosophical, Epistemological, and
  Methodological Implications of Complexity Theory, Havana,
  Cuba, 04/01/07-10

  Western Simulation MultiConference (WMC'04), San Diego,
  CA., USA, 04/01/18-24

  Mathematica Gulf Conference, Muscat, Oman, 04/01/26

  International Workshop on Biologically Inspired Approaches to
  Advanced Information Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland,

  of Socio-Economic Systems, 1st Intl Winter School
  2004, Konstanz, Germany, 04/02/16-20

  in Molecular Electronics: From molecular materials to single
  molecule devices, Dresden, Germany, 04/02/23

  Leadership in
  Rapidly Changing Business Environments -Learning and Adapting in
  Time, Cambridge, MA, 04/02/26-27

  Intl ICSC Symposium Engineering Of Intelligent Systems (EIS
  2004), Island of Madeira, Portugal, 04/02/29-03/02

  on Longevity , Sydney, Australia, 04/03/05-07

  Physik sozio-ökonomischer Systeme Jahrestagung
  (AKSOE), Regensburg, Germany, 04/03/08-12

  Science 2004, Washington, 04/03/20-21

  Fractal 2004,
  "Complexity and Fractals in Nature", 8th Intl
  Multidisciplinary Conf, Vancouver, Canada, 04/04/04-07

  6th German Workshop on Artificial Life 2004 (GWAL-6), Bamberg, Germany,

  9th IEEE Intl Conf on Engineering of Complex Computer
  Systems, Florence, Italy, 04/04/14-16

  Advanced Simulation Technologies Conference (ASTC'04),
  Arlington, VA., USA, 04/04/18-22

  (New Kind of Science) 2004 Conference and Minicourse,
  Boston, Massachusetts, 04/04/22-25

  Vulnerability and Network Failure: Constructions and Experiences
  of Emergencies, Crises and Collapse, Manchester, UK,

  International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS2004),
  Boston, MA, USA, 04/05/16-21

  3rd Intl Conf on
  Systems Thinking in Management (ICSTM 2004) "Transforming
  Organizations to Achieve Sustainable Success",
  Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 04/05/19-21

  Annual Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interaction Agents
  (WEHIA04),, Kyoto, Japan, 2004/05/27-29

  International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious
  Diseases, Toulon, France, 04/06/03-05

  Experimental Chaos Conference, Florence, Italy,

  From Animals To Animats
  8, 8th Intl Conf On The Simulation Of Adaptive Behavior
  (SAB'04), Los Angeles, USA, 04/07/13-17

Intl Conf Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems Conference (AAMAS 2004),
New York City,

Intl Workshop on: Trust in Agent Societies , New York City, 04/07/19-20

  World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and
  Informatics, Orlando, Florida, USA, 04/07/18-21

  Summer Simulation MultiConference (SummerSim'04), San Jose
  Hyatt, San Jose, California, 04/07/25-29

  International Mathematica Symposium (IMS 2004), Banff,
  Canada, 04/08/02-06

  2004, 4th International Workshop on Ant Colony
  Optimization and Swarm Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium,

  Ontology, An Inquiry into Systems, Emergence, Levels of Reality,
  and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy,

  Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems
  (ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts, 04/09/12-15

Verhulst 200 on Chaos, Brussels, BELGIUM, 04/09/16-18

  8th Intl Conf on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature
  (PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22

  XVII Brazilian
  Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao Luis, Maranhao -
  Brazil, 04/09/22-24

   TEDMED Conference ,
Charleston SC, 04/10/12-15

  Technology Conference, Champaign, Illinois,


20.04. ComDig Announcement: New ComDig Archive in Beta Test

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format with improved search
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