ժ NO2003.47

Complexity Digest 2003.47 Nov. 24, 2003

Archive: http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror: http://www.comdig.de Asian
Mirror:
http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code) "I think the
next century will be the
century of complexity." Stephen Hawking

_________________________________________________________________


Content:

01. Scientists Hail New 'Map Of Life', BBC News
01.01. Cancer Robustness: Tumour Tactics, Nature
01.02. Cancers Obey Universal Law Of Growth, NewScientist
01.03. Circadian Clock Genes May Provide Targets For New Cancer Drugs,
ScienceDaily
01.04. A Genetic Screen in Drosophila for Metastatic Behavior, Science
02. Evolutionary Biology: Essence Of Mitochondria, Nature
03. The Shape We're In, Science
03.01. Human Population: The Next Half Century, Science
03.02. Prospects for Biodiversity, Science
04. Dynamical Motifs: Building Blocks of Complex Network Dynamics, arXiv
05. Grid "Building Blocks" Reduce Complexity, Grid Today
05.01. Smaller Computer Chips Built Using DNA as Template, NYTimes
05.02. "Hope Is a Lousy Defense.", Wired
06. An Evolved Spatial Memory Bias In A Nectar-Feeding Bird?, Animal Behaviour
06.01. A Self-Sustaining, Light-Entrainable Circadian Oscillator In The
Drosophila Brain, Current
Biol.
06.02. Long-Legged Flies Displaying Remarkable Wing Directional Asymmetry,
Proc. Biol. Sc.
07. Persistence of Memory in Drop Breakup: The Breakdown of Universality,
Science
08. A Heavenly Example of Scale Free Networks and Self-Organized
Criticality, arXiv
09. New Energy Policy, NPR Talk of the Nation
09.01. Pushing Energy Conservation Into the Back Seat of the S.U.V., NYTimes
10. Brain Model Puts Most Sophisticated Regions Front and Center, Science
10.01. Cognitive Control in the Human Prefrontal Cortex, Science
11. Brain Clues To Attention Disorder, NYTimes
12. Scientists Find Brain Areas Affected By Lack Of Sleep, ScienceDaily
13. The Promise and Pitfalls of Social Networking, Darwin Magazine
13.01. Evolution of the Social Brain, Science
13.02. Social Bonds of Female Baboons Enhance Infant Survival, Science
14. A Leadership Challenge: Spreading Access To Ideas, Babson Insight
15. Bridging The Gap Between Rationality And Adaptation In Social
Explanation, J. Evolutionary
Econ.
16. Bio-Cultural Effects In Medieval Populations, Econ. & Human Biol.
17. A Battle of Words Over War Intelligence, NYTimes
17.01. Freed From Conspiracy, NYTimes
18. Space and Time: Between Phenomenology and Neuroscience, Complexity
Digest Virtual Conference
Network
19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
19.01. Sec. Donald Rumsfeld & Gen. Richard Myers Town Hall Meeting, c-span
Video
19.02. 'Enemy Combatant' Sham, NYTimes
19.03. Analysts See Terrorism Paradox: A Weaker Al Qaeda Despite Attacks,
NYTimes
20. Links & Snippets
20.01. Other Publications
20.02. Webcast Announcements
20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements
20.04. ComDig Announcement: New ComDig Archive in Beta Test

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01. Scientists Hail New 'Map Of Life' , BBC News

Excerpts: Biologists have produced a detailed map of protein interactions
in a complex organism -
the fruit fly.

Proteins, which are made by genes, are the building blocks of tissues as
well as the basis for
molecular interactions that enable an organism to live.

The protein interaction map will allow a new insight into a highly complex
metabolic system,
similar in many ways to the human one. (?

This map is a starting point for what is being called a systems biology
modelling of animals
including humans,(?

* Scientists Hail New 'Map Of Life', Dr David Whitehouse  , 03/11/20, BBC News


_________________________________________________________________

01.01. Cancer Robustness: Tumour Tactics , Nature

Excerpts: Cancer is an extremely complex and heterogeneous disease that
exhibits a high level of
robustness against a range of therapeutic efforts. Robustness enables a
system to maintain
functionality in the face of various external and internal perturbations.
(? For example,
heterogeneity among tumour cells provides a high level of redundancy, and
hence increased chances
of survival and growth; these benefits are further enhanced by feedback
controls at the cellular
level. Viewing cancer as a robust system may provide insight for the
development of new drugs and
therapies.

* Cancer Robustness: Tumour Tactics, Hiroaki Kitano  , 03/11/13, DOI:
10.1038/426125a, Nature 426,
125


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01.02. Cancers Obey Universal Law Of Growth , NewScientist

Excerpts: A universal law that describes the growth of animals also seems
to describe the growth of
tumours. (? researchers are already using it to explore the way cancers
invade healthy tissue.

As an animal's mass increases, so does the number of cells within it. But
the blood supply that
feeds those cells grows more slowly. As a result, an increasing proportion
of the available
nutrients go towards maintaining existing cells rather than the growth of
new ones, so the rate of
growth slows and ultimately comes to a halt.

* Cancers Obey Universal Law Of Growth, 03/11/17, New Scientist


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01.03. Circadian Clock Genes May Provide Targets For New Cancer Drugs ,
ScienceDaily

Excerpts: A tumor's growth may be controlled by a complex, gene-controlled
"clock"- and jamming
that "clock" can offer a new way to fight cancer, according to two studies
(...). Tumor cell
circadian clock genes are rhythmically expressed in coordination with
rhythmic circadian growth and
thereby may represent new therapeutic targets (...). The results showed
that "tumors grew on
average twice as fast in the 'daily activity/dark circadian phase' than
during the 'sleep/light
phase' of the [24 hour] circadian cycle," the team reported. (...)
proportion of cancer cells
actively dividing, was also most prominent during the activity phase of the
circadian cycle.

* Circadian Clock Genes May Provide Targets For New Cancer Drugs,
2003/11/19, ScienceDaily &Amer.
Asso. For Cancer Res.
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

01.04. A Genetic Screen in Drosophila for Metastatic Behavior , Science

Absract: A genetic screen was designed in Drosophila to interrogate its
genome for mutations
sufficient to cause noninvasive tumors of the eye disc to invade
neighboring or distant tissues. We
found that cooperation between oncogenic RasV12 expression and inactivation
of any one of a number
of genes affecting cell polarity leads to metastatic behavior, including
basement membrane
degradation, loss of E-cadherin expression, migration, invasion, and
secondary tumor formation.
Inactivation of these cell polarity genes cannot drive metastatic behavior
alone or in combination
with other tumor-initiating alterations. These findings suggest that the
oncogenic background of
tissues makes a distinct contribution toward metastatic development.

* A Genetic Screen in Drosophila for Metastatic Behavior, Raymond A.
Pagliarini  , Tian Xu  ,
03/11/14, Science: 1227-1231


_________________________________________________________________

02. Evolutionary Biology: Essence Of Mitochondria , Nature

Excerpts: For years, a unicellular creature called Giardia has occupied a
special place in biology
because it was thought to lack mitochondria. But it does have them ?though
tiny, they pack a
surprising anaerobic punch.

All known life-forms are either prokaryotes or eukaryotes; (?. Eukaryotic
cells have a nucleus and
compartments that are surrounded by two membranes, but prokaryotic cells
never do. The prokaryotes
came first; eukaryotes (all plants, animals, fungi and protists) evolved
from them, and to this day
biologists hotly debate how this transition took place, (?.

* Evolutionary Biology: Essence Of Mitochondria, Katrin Henze , William
Martin  , 03/11/13, DOI:
10.1038/426127a, Nature 426, 127 - 128


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03. The Shape We're In , Science

Excerpt: As global population increases, and the demands we make on our
natural resources grow even
faster, it becomes ever more clear that the well-being we seek is imperiled
by what we do.
Therefore, in an effort to encourage constructive thought about our
collective future, we
commissioned a group of short Viewpoints about some of the common
resources--air, fresh water,
fisheries, food and soil, energy--and key trends--in human population,
biodiversity, and
climate--that are most important for our general well-being.

* The Shape We're In, H. Jesse Smith  , 03/11/14, Science: 1171.


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03.01. Human Population: The Next Half Century , Science

Abstract: By 2050, the human population will probably be larger by 2 to 4
billion people, more
slowly growing (declining in the more developed regions), more urban,
especially in less developed
regions, and older than in the 20th century. Two major demographic
uncertainties in the next 50
years concern international migration and the structure of families.
Economies, nonhuman
environments, and cultures (including values, religions, and politics)
strongly influence
demographic changes. Hence, human choices, individual and collective, will
have demographic
effects, intentional or otherwise.

* Human Population: The Next Half Century, Joel E. Cohen  , 03/11/14,
Science: 1172-1175


_________________________________________________________________

03.02. Prospects for Biodiversity , Science

Abstract: Assuming no radical transformation in human behavior, we can
expect important changes in
biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2050. A considerable number of
species extinctions will have
taken place. Existing large blocks of tropical forest will be much reduced
and fragmented, but
temperate forests and some tropical forests will be stable or increasing in
area, although the
latter will be biotically impoverished. Marine ecosystems will be very
different from today's, with
few large marine predators, and freshwater biodiversity will be severely
reduced almost everywhere.
These changes will not, in themselves, threaten the survival of humans as a
species.

* Prospects for Biodiversity, Martin Jenkins  , 03/11/14, Science: 1175-1177


_________________________________________________________________

04. Dynamical Motifs: Building Blocks of Complex Network Dynamics , arXiv

Abstract: Spatio-temporal network dynamics is an emergent property of many
complex systems which
remains poorly understood. We suggest a new approach to its study based on
the analysis of
dynamical motifs -- small subnetworks with periodic and chaotic dynamics.
We simulate randomly
connected neural networks and, with increasing density of connections,
observe the transition from
quiescence to periodic and chaotic dynamics. We explain this transition by
the appearance of
dynamical motifs in the structure of these networks. We also observe
domination of periodic
dynamics in simulations of spatially distributed networks with local
connectivity and explain it by
absence of chaotic and presence of periodic motifs in their structure.

* Dynamical Motifs: Building Blocks of Complex Network Dynamics, Valentin
P. Zhigulin , 2003-11-13,
DOI: cond-mat/0311330, arXiv
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


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05. Grid "Building Blocks" Reduce Complexity , Grid Today

Excerpts: Sun announced the next phase of its Grid computing strategy that
uses "building blocks"
to tailor Grids to the specific needs of customers. Sun's building blocks
for Grid come in four
categories: access, data, computation and visualization. Sun's "access
software" enables efficient
usage of resources regardless of location and is provided through a new
Grid Portal solution that
relies on the Sun Grid Engine Enterprise Edition software and the industry
standard Globus toolkit.

* Grid "Building Blocks" Reduce Complexity, 03/11/17, Grid Today, 2003:
VOL. 2 NO. 46


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05.01. Smaller Computer Chips Built Using DNA as Template , NYTimes

Excerpts: The new technique takes advantage of a biological process known
as recombination, where a
segment of DNA is swapped out for an almost identical piece. The cell uses
recombination to repair
damaged DNA and to swap genes. A special protein helps connect the
replacement DNA to the desired
location.

By attaching a nanotube to the protein, the nanotube moves to an exact
location along the DNA
strand.

"The DNA serves as a scaffold, a template that will determine where the
carbon nanotubes will sit,"
(?.

* Smaller Computer Chips Built Using DNA as Template, Kenneth Chang  ,
03/11/21, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

05.02. "Hope Is a Lousy Defense." , Wired

Excerpts: Sun refugee Bill Joy talks about greedy markets, reckless
science, and runaway
technology. (...)
I'm not saying the government should do it. Centralized strategies - things
like Admiral
Poindexter's Total Information Awareness program - don't work. What I'm
saying is "physician, heal
thyself." People in the various scientific communities have to police
themselves. (...)

I certainly think a Hippocratic Oath for scientists would be useful. And I
think an essential part
of getting control of technology will be for international organizations to
take a lead in
promoting ethical scientific behavior. The Pugwash organization's work on
sensible nuclear policy
is a strong example.

* "Hope Is a Lousy Defense.", Spencer Reiss  , 03/12, Wired, Issue 11.12


_________________________________________________________________

06. An Evolved Spatial Memory Bias In A Nectar-Feeding Bird? , Animal Behaviour

Abstract: Studies have shown that nectar-feeding birds more easily learn to
avoid a previously
rewarding location (to win-shift) than to return to such a location (to
win-stay). This pattern has
been interpreted as evidence of an evolved adaptation to the fact that
nectar is a depleting
resource; however, such a conclusion requires ruling out the possibility
that this tendency is a
consequence of the experience of individual birds (...). We tested the
tendency of captive-reared
Regent honeyeaters (...). The birds generally avoided rewarding locations
after a short retention
interval but returned to these locations after a long retention interval.

* An Evolved Spatial Memory Bias In A Nectar-Feeding Bird?, D. Burke
darrenb@vision.psy.mq.edu.au ,
B. J. Fulham , online 2003/09/16, DOI: 10.1006/anbe.2003.2246, Animal Behaviour
* Contributed by Atin Das


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06.01. A Self-Sustaining, Light-Entrainable Circadian Oscillator In The
Drosophila Brain , Current
Biol.

Abstract: The circadian clock of Drosophila is able to drive behavioral
rhythms for many weeks in
continuous darkness. We show that only a subset of the previously described
pacemaker neurons is
able to sustain PERIOD protein oscillations after 5 days in constant
darkness. In addition, we
identified a sustained and autonomous molecular oscillator in a group of
clock neurons in the
dorsal brain with heretofore unknown function. We found that these "dorsal
neurons" (DNs) can
synchronize behavioral rhythms (...) play a prominent role in controlling
locomotor behavior when
flies are exposed to natural light-dark cycles.

* A Self-Sustaining, Light-Entrainable Circadian Oscillator In The
Drosophila Brain, S. Veleri  ,
C. Brandes  , C. H.-Förster  , J. C. Hall  , R. Stanewsky
ralf.stanewsky@biologie.uni-regensburg.de
, online 2003/11/16, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2003.09.030, Current Biology
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

06.02. Long-Legged Flies Displaying Remarkable Wing Directional Asymmetry ,
Proc. Biol. Sc.

Abstract: A previously unknown group of flies is described whose males
exhibit directional
asymmetry, in that the left wing is larger than, and of a different shape
from, the right wing
(...) not previously been reported in an animal capable of flight. Such
consistent asymmetry must
result from a left-right axis during development, a level of
differentiation whose existence has
been questioned for insects. The 'handicap principle' provides a possible
explanation: females will
choose a mate with the greatest handicap because his survival, in spite of
his handicap, is a
measure of his genetic superiority.

* A New Genus Of Long-Legged Flies Displaying Remarkable Wing Directional
Asymmetry, Runyon  ,
Hurley , 2003/11/19, DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2003.0118, Proceedings: Biological
Sciences
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

07. Persistence of Memory in Drop Breakup: The Breakdown of Universality ,
Science

Abstract: A low-viscosity drop breaking apart inside a viscous fluid is
encountered when air
bubbles, entrained in thick syrup or honey, rise and break apart.
Experiments, simulations, and
theory show that the breakup under conditions in which the interior
viscosity can be neglected
produces an exceptional form of singularity. In contrast to previous
studies of drop breakup,
universality is violated so that the final shape at breakup retains an
imprint of the initial and
boundary conditions. A finite interior viscosity, no matter how small, cuts
off this form of
singularity and produces an unexpectedly long and slender thread. If
exterior viscosity is large
enough, however, the cutoff does not occur because the minimum drop radius
reaches subatomic
dimensions first.

* Persistence of Memory in Drop Breakup: The Breakdown of Universality,
Pankaj Doshi , Itai Cohen ,
Wendy W. Zhang , Michael Siegel , Peter Howell , Osman A. Basaran , Sidney
R. Nagel  , 03/11/14,
Science: 1185-1188


_________________________________________________________________

08. A Heavenly Example of Scale Free Networks and Self-Organized
Criticality , arXiv

Abstract: The sun provides an explosive, heavenly example of self-organized
criticality. Sudden
bursts of intense radiation emanate from rapid rearrangements of the
magnetic field network in the
corona. Avalanches are triggered by loops of flux that reconnect or snap
into lower energy
configurations when they are overly stressed. Our recent analysis of
observational data reveals
that the loops (links) and footpoints (nodes), where they attach on the
photosphere, embody a scale
free network. The statistics of the avalanches and of the network structure
are unified through a
simple dynamical model where the avalanches and network co-generate each
other into a complex,
critical state. This particular example points toward a general dynamical
mechanism for
self-generation of complex networks.

* A Heavenly Example of Scale Free Networks and Self-Organized Criticality,
Maya Paczuski , David
Hughes , 2003-11-13, DOI: cond-mat/0311304, arXiv
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

09. New Energy Policy , NPR Talk of the Nation

Excerpts: The House passed a mammoth energy bill Tuesday -- one that Sen.
John McCain, R-Ariz.,
called a "leave no lobbyist behind" bill. As the vote moves to the Senate,
we'll take a look at the
energy bill. What's missing, and how does the new bill shape energy
policy?  Guests: Harry Braun
III,
*Chairman and CEO, Sustainable Partners, Inc.
*Chairman, Hydrogen Political Action Committee,
*Advisory Board Member, International Association of Hydrogen Energy,
*Author of The Phoenix Project: Shifting from Oil to Hydrogen with Wartime
Speed

Vijay Vaitheeswaran,
*Energy and Environment Correspondent, The Economist,
*Author of Power to the People: How the Coming Energy Revolution Will
Transform an Industry, Change
Our Lives, and Maybe Even Save the Planet
Editor's Note:: Alternatives to a fast transition (within a decade) to a
hydrogen economy from
fossil fuels and a fleet of
windships  are discussed in this show.

* New Energy Policy, 03/11/21, NPR Talk of the Nation (Audio)


_________________________________________________________________

09.01. Pushing Energy Conservation Into the Back Seat of the S.U.V. , NYTimes

Excerpts: Many Americans would like to import less oil, (?. But that has
not stopped them from
buying bigger homes and cars.
As a result, the United States is importing an ever increasing share of its
oil needs, 55 percent
in the first seven months of this year. That compares with about 28 percent
20 years ago, at the
height of the consumer switch to vehicles that are more fuel efficient, and
with nearly 35 percent
in 1973, before the first Arab oil embargo.

* Pushing Energy Conservation Into the Back Seat of the S.U.V., Neela
Banerjee  , 03/11/22, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

10. Brain Model Puts Most Sophisticated Regions Front and Center , Science

Excerpt: The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that brainstorms.
Brain imaging studies
show that it's activated when someone solves problems, juggles competing
hypotheses, or remembers
to stick to a tight schedule. Given this variety of responsibilities, many
cognitive
neuroscientists have overheated their own prefrontal cortices trying to
figure out how this area of
the brain is organized. Now a study on  page 1181  proposes that the
prefrontal cortex has a
hierarchical organization built around a set of nested general functions.

* Brain Model Puts Most Sophisticated Regions Front and Center, Laura
Helmuth  , 03/11/14, Science:
1133.


_________________________________________________________________

10.01. Cognitive Control in the Human Prefrontal Cortex , Science

Abstract: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves cognitive control: the
ability to coordinate
thoughts or actions in relation with internal goals. Its functional
architecture, however, remains
poorly understood. Using brain imaging in humans, we showed that the
lateral PFC is organized as a
cascade of executive processes from premotor to anterior PFC regions that
control behavior
according to stimuli, the present perceptual context, and the temporal
episode in which stimuli
occur, respectively. The results support an unified modular model of
cognitive control that
describes the overall functional organization of the human lateral PFC and
has basic methodological
and theoretical implications.

* Cognitive Control in the Human Prefrontal Cortex, Etienne Koechlin ,
Chryst& 37609;e Ody , Fr&
23982;& 24296;ique Kouneiher , 03/11, Science


_________________________________________________________________

11. Brain Clues To Attention Disorder , NYTimes

Excerpts: "This tells us more than we knew already about the parts of the
brain that are affected
by ADHD," (?.

"Children with ADHD have symptoms of over-activity, impulsivity and poor
concentration, but
previous scans have only highlighted differences in part of the brain
related to one of these
problem areas - attention.

"This suggested that we were either missing something in the brain, or we
did not understanding the
clinical problems sufficiently.

"Now the clinical condition and the brain imaging are beginning to join up
and can explain one
another."

  ADHD is linked to brain abnormalities

* Brain Clues To Attention Disorder, 03/11/21, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

12. Scientists Find Brain Areas Affected By Lack Of Sleep , ScienceDaily

Excerpts: (...) investigators have found that sleeping only a few hours a
night over a long period
of time impairs memory and alertness. Another study shows that sleep
deprivation for a short period
may actually enhance memory for some tasks. Still another study provides a
glimpse into what areas
of the brain are impaired by sleep deprivation and how this in turn affects
decision-making. (...)
have used a molecular approach to investigate what happens during sleep.
They have screened more
than 15,000 genes to identify all those whose expression changes during
sleep compared to waking,
and also after sleep deprivation.

* Scientists Find Brain Areas Affected By Lack Of Sleep, 2003/11/14,
ScienceDaily & Society For
Neuroscience
* Contributed by Atin Das


_________________________________________________________________

13. The Promise and Pitfalls of Social Networking , Darwin Magazine

Excerpts: The premises of social networking are simple and intuitive.
People are social, and will
naturally form groups, share information and contacts, and advance their
personal agendas through
interaction with others. The Internet is an amplifier for this sort of
interaction.

Social networks have been studied for decades, and some of that research
has made its way into
popular culture, such as the notion of "six degrees of separation." This is
the premise that there
are no more than five intermediates between any two people on earth (?.

* The Promise and Pitfalls of Social Networking, Stowe Boyd  , 03/11,
Darwin Magazine


_________________________________________________________________

13.01. Evolution of the Social Brain , Science

Excerpts: We share with our monkey and ape cousins a particularly intense
form of social life that,
so far as we can tell, is not found in any other group of animals. For
primatologists that raises
two leading questions: Why are we so social (in simple evolutionary terms,
does sociality confer
fitness benefits?), and are unique cognitive capacities needed to service
the formation of such
tight social bonds? Two papers in this issue (? report field studies of
baboons that go some way
toward answering these two questions.

* Evolution of the Social Brain, Robin Dunbar  , 03/11/14, Science: 1160-1161


_________________________________________________________________

13.02. Social Bonds of Female Baboons Enhance Infant Survival , Science

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Psychology



Social Bonds of Female Baboons Enhance Infant Survival
Joan B. Silk,1* Susan C. Alberts,2,4 Jeanne Altmann3,4,5

Among nonhuman primates, females often form strong bonds with kin and other
group members. These
relationships are thought to have adaptive value for females, but direct
effects of sociality on
fitness have never been demonstrated. We present 16 years of behavioral
data from a well-studied
population of wild baboons, which demonstrate that sociality of adult
females is positively
associated with infant survival, an important component of variation in
female lifetime fitness.
The effects of sociality on infant survival are independent of the effects
of dominance rank, group
membership, and environmental conditions. Our results are consistent with
the evidence that social
support has beneficial effects on human health and well-being across the
life span. For humans and
other primates, sociality has adaptive value.

* Social Bonds of Female Baboons Enhance Infant Survival, Joan B. Silk ,
Susan C. Alberts , Jeanne
Altmann  , 03/11/14, Science: 1231-1234


_________________________________________________________________

14. A Leadership Challenge: Spreading Access To Ideas , Babson Insight

Excerpts: Think about what stops ideas from spreading in an organization:





Fear of losing credit
Dislike for the leadership or goals of the organization
Belief that sharing ideas will create jealousy or resentment
Lack of knowledge that anyone knows what is desired
Belief that only very special people (in one's inner circle) have a chance
of possessing knowledge
worth pursuing
Lack of knowledge of how to find it if anyone does
Stove-piped organization that discourages knowledge of or contact with
others (...)





* A Leadership Challenge: Spreading Access To Ideas, Allan Cohen  , 03/11,
Babson Insight


_________________________________________________________________

15. Bridging The Gap Between Rationality And Adaptation In Social
Explanation , J. Evolutionary
Econ.

Abstract: This paper focuses on the uneasy alliance of rational choice and
evolutionary
explanations in modern economics. While direct evolutionary explanations
rule out "purposeful"
rational choice by assuming "zero-intelligence" and pure rational choice
explanations leave no room
for "selective" adaptation, the indirect evolutionary approach integrates
both perspectives.
Subsequently we go stepwise "from teleology to evolution" and thereby study
the model spectrum
ranging from pure rational choice over indirect to direct evolutionary
approaches. We believe that
knowledge of this spectrum can help us to choose more adequate models of
economic behavior that
incorporate both teleological and evolutionary elements.

* From Teleology To Evolution: Bridging The Gap Between Rationality And
Adaptation In Social
Explanation, S. Berninghaus Siegfried.Berninghaus@wiwi.uni-karlsruhe.de ,
W. Gth  , H. Kliemt ,
Oct. 2003, DOI: 10.1007/s00191-003-0161-0, Journal of Evolutionary Economics
* Contributed by Pritha Das


_________________________________________________________________

16. Bio-Cultural Effects In Medieval Populations , Econ. & Human Biol.

Abstract: Male skeletons from medieval archaeological sites are analysed to
assess differences in
stature and body proportions related to the bio-cultural environment, such
as social, economic, and
health factors. Environmental factors, such as climate change in the course
of the Middle Ages, did
not have statistically significant effect on body proportions in these
samples. A high-status
monastic population is characterised by a stocky build, i.e., increased
weight for height and
relatively shorter limbs, while a medieval parish population has a linear
build, i.e., relatively
long limbs for height and decreased weight for height.

* Bio-Cultural Effects In Medieval Populations, S. A. Pandit  , C. P. van
Schaik vschaik@duke.edu ,
online 2003/11/26, DOI: 10.1016/j.ehb.2003.09.002, Economics & Human Biology
* Contributed by Pritha Das


_________________________________________________________________

17. A Battle of Words Over War Intelligence , NYTimes

Excerpts: Intelligence ?or rather bad intelligence ?has become an obsession
in Washington. Fueled
by the growing casualties among American soldiers in Iraq and the
administration's failure to find
weapons of mass destruction there, the Central Intelligence Agency,
Congress, an independent
commission and scores of private experts and government analysts have been
fiercely debating what
went wrong in Iraq and, (?, the state of the government's intelligence
capabilities.(?
"Is Keegan right in arguing that intelligence is overrated? Yes," Mr.
Holbrooke said. "But
intelligence is also indispensable. And its greatest successes are
preventative."

* A Battle of Words Over War Intelligence, Judith Miller  , 03/11/22, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

17.01. Freed From Conspiracy , NYTimes

Excerpts: There are, of course, conspiracies in American life: Watergate
was one; Enron seems to be
another. And conspiracy theories have oozed through the history of the
republic from the days of
anti-Masonry onward. But it was Kennedy's murder, (?, that left our era
more inclined to reach for
conspiracy as the explanation for certain events ?from Roswell to the moon
landing to Whitewater ?(?. Few recent political pronouncements have been
more depressing than Senator Edward Kennedy's
declaration that the Iraq war was "a fraud" that had been "made up in Texas."

* Freed From Conspiracy, Thomas Mallon  , 03/11/21, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

18. Space and Time: Between Phenomenology and Neuroscience , Complexity
Digest Virtual Conference
Network

Note: Audio files are in downloadable mp3 format for portable mp3 players
or any mp3 software
players. Video files are in asf format and can be played e.g. with windows
media player. For the
sound codec a (free) plugin might be required, but the download should be
automatic.

* Space and Time: Between Phenomenology and Neuroscience, 2003-11-21
* Contributed by Carlos Gershenson


_________________________________________________________________

19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks





_________________________________________________________________

19.01. Sec. Donald Rumsfeld & Gen. Richard Myers Town Hall Meeting , c-span
Video

Transcript Excerpt: (44:53min): What it will look like -I think- that is to
say what victory will
look like, what the end of this will look like will be a return to a
circumstance where people,
when they walk out of the door, and not fearful, they are able to send
their children to school and
know that they're gonna come home; they are able to get on an airplane and
not feel the feeling
that Dick Myers mentioned that most people feel -and understandably so- and
it's the kind of a task
- given the nature of human beings- I'm afraid that we'll have to stay at
for some period of time.

If you think about it, we could almost say: "When will we not need
policemen?"  And I'm afraid
there gonna be people that are gonna be inclined to do damage to other
human beings and so just as
we need policemen in our own society we're gonna need to be able to deal
with those people who are
determined to go out and kill large numbers of innocent people.
Editor's Note: If the fight against terrorist networks is a form of
international law enforcement,
then it does not constitute a "State of War?with harsh legal restrictions
to civil liberties.

* Sec. Donald Rumsfeld & Gen. Richard Myers Town Hall Meeting, Sec. Donald
Rumsfeld , 03/11/21,
c-span
  Video


_________________________________________________________________

19.02. 'Enemy Combatant' Sham , NYTimes

Excerpts: The Bush administration insists that it can hold American
citizens in secret as long as
it wants, without access to lawyers, simply by calling them "enemy
combatants." A New York federal
appeals court heard a challenge to that policy this week by the so-called
dirty bomber, Jose
Padilla. The administration's position makes a mockery of the Constitution
and puts every
American's liberty at risk. (...) "As terrible as 9/11 was,"` Judge
Rosemary Pooler observed, "it
didn't repeal the Constitution."

* 'Enemy Combatant' Sham, 03/11/19, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

19.03. Analysts See Terrorism Paradox: A Weaker Al Qaeda Despite Attacks ,
NYTimes

Excerpts: The recent surge in terrorist strikes on "soft targets" like
consulates, banks and
synagogues in places like Turkey and Saudi Arabia is worrying, but
paradoxically reflects progress
by the United States and Europe in disrupting Al Qaeda, especially its
leadership structure,
American and European intelligence officials said Friday.

"We continue to disrupt Al Qaeda's activities and capture more of their
leaders, but the attacks
are escalating," a senior counterterrorism official in Europe said. "This
is a very bad sign. There
are fewer leaders but more followers."

* Analysts See Terrorism Paradox: A Weaker Al Qaeda Despite Attacks,
Douglas Jehl, Don Van Natta
Jr. , 03/11/22, NYTimes


_________________________________________________________________

20. Links & Snippets





_________________________________________________________________

20.01. Other Publications



- 2 P2P or Not 2 P2P?, Mema Roussopoulos , Mary Baker , David S. H.
Rosenthal , TJ Giuli , Petros
Maniatis , Jeff Mogul , 2003-11-14, arXiv, DOI: cs.NI/0311017
- Boolean Dynamics Of Networks With Scale-Free Topology, M. Aldana
maximino@control.uchicago.edu ,
online 2003/11/18, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, DOI:
10.1016/S0167-2789(03)00174-X
- Stochastic Self-Similar And Fractal Universe, G. Iovane
iovane@diima.unisa.it , E. Laserra  , F.
S. Tortoriello , online 2003/09/23, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, DOI:
10.1016/j.chaos.2003.08.004
- Influences On The Avoidance And Approach Behaviour Of Dairy Cows Towards
Humans On 35 Farms, S.
Waiblinger susanne.waiblinger@vu-wien.ac.at , C. Menke  , D. W. Fölsch ,
online 2003/10/13, Applied
Animal Behaviour Science, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1591(03)00148-5
- Physical Law Not Natural Selection As The Major Determinant Of Biological
Complexity In The
Subcellular Realm: New Support For The Pre-Darwinian Conception Of
Evolution By Natural Law, M. J.
Denton mikedenton30@hotmail.com , P. K. Dearden  , S. J. Sowerby , online
2003/10/22, Biosystems,
DOI: 10.1016/S0303-2647(03)00100-X
- Chaos And Coherence: A New Framework For Interest-Rate Modelling,
Brody  , Hughston , 2003/11/10,
Proceedings: Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences, DOI:
10.1098/rspa.2003.1236
- Superprocesses In A Brownian Environment, D. Crisan , 2003/11/12,
Proceedings: Mathematical,
Physical & Engineering Sciences, DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2003.1242
- The Influence Of Top-Down, Bottom-Up And Abiotic Factors On The Moose
(Alces Alces) Population Of
Isle Royale, Vucetich  , Peterson , 2003/11/20, Proceedings: Biological
Sciences, DOI:
10.1098/rsbl.2003.2589
- Developmental Stress, Social Rank And Song Complexity In The European
Starling (Sturnus
Vulgaris), Spencer  , others , 2003/11/20, Proceedings: Biological
Sciences, DOI:
10.1098/rsbl.2003.0122
- Researchers Find New Form Of Hormone That Helps Songbirds Reproduce,
2003/11/18, ScienceDaily &
Univ. Of Washington
- Climate Linked To Reproduction Of Right Whales, 2003/11/20, ScienceDaily
& Cornell Univ. News
Service
- Ancient Wings: Animating The Evolution Of Butterfly Wing Patterns , S.
Arbesman  , L. Enthoven  ,
A. Monteiro monteiro@buffalo.edu , online 2003/10/22, Biosystems, DOI:
10.1016/S0303-2647(03)00086-8
- On Parallel Computation Of Blood Flow In Human Arterial Network Based On
1-D Modelling, B. V. R.
Kumar  , A. Quateroni  , L. Formaggia  , D. Lamponi , 2003/12/01,
Computing, DOI:
10.1007/s00607-003-0025-3
- The Eye As A Replicating And Diverging, Modular Developmental Unit, T. H.
Oakley
oakley@lifesci.ucsb.edu , online 2003/09/19, Trends in Ecology & Evolution,
DOI:
10.1016/j.tree.2003.09.005
- A Neuro-Fuzzy Technique For Document Binarisation, N. Papamarkos
papamark@ee.duth.gr ,
2003/11/08, Neural Computing & Applications, DOI: 10.1007/s00521-003-0382-z
- Exchange Rate Of The US Dollar And The J Curve: The Case Of Oil Exporting
Countries, A. Yousefia
, T. S. Wirjanto , Nov. 2003, Energy Economics, DOI:
10.1016/S0140-9883(03)00044-6
- Abstruse Expressionism, "Complexity" Exhibit at the Federal Reserve
Board, 20th and C streets
Contributed by  T. Irene Sanders
- The Connectors, Meet The Hypernetworked Nodes Who Secretly Run The World,
Jeff Howe  , Wired,
Issue 11.11 - 03/11
- Are Memorial Designs Too Complex to Last?, Julie V. Iovine  , 03/11/22,
NYTimes
- An Alternate History, 03/11/21, NYTimes
- Hand-Held Device Detects Impaired Drivers, 03/11/19, New Scientist
- Smooth Aircraft Approach Cuts Noise Pollution, 03/11/24, New Scientist
- Mini-Copter Stars At Robot Show , 03/11/19, BBC News
- Whale Species Is New To Science, BBC News, 03/11/19, The Tsunoshima
specimen was accidentally
killed in a boat collision A previously unidentified species of whale has
been recorded by
researchers.
- Extreme Bugs Found In Slag Dump, BBC News, 03/11/19 The microbes under a
phase-contrast
microscope  The world's most alkaline lifeforms are living in contaminated
water in the US.
- Bacteria Linked To Colon Cancer, Sean Lawler  , 03/11/19, The Scientist,
A peptide formed by a
bacterial protease may stimulate cancer cell motility and invasion
- 'Mistakes Were Made', William Safire  , 03/11/19, NYTimes
- Nanodevices Get Connected, Robert F. Service  , 03/11/21, Science Now
- Detection of a Human Influence on North American Climate, David J. Karoly
, Karl Braganza , Peter
A. Stott , Julie M. Arblaster , Gerald A. Meehl , Anthony J. Broccoli ,
Keith W. Dixon  , Science,
03/11/14: 1200-1203
- Islet Regeneration During the Reversal of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD
Mice, Shohta Kodama , Willem
K& 57698;treiber , Satoshi Fujimura , Elizabeth A. Dale , Denise L.
Faustman  , Science, 03/11/14:
1223-1227
- Flux Quanta on the Move, Hans Hilgenkamp , Victor V. Moshchalkov , Peter
Kes  , Science,
03/11/14: 1159-1160
- Immunology: Switching Off TCR Signaling, Bernard Malissen  , Science,
03/11/14: 1162-1163
- Competing Research Teams Create Long-Sought State of Matter, Charles
Seife  , Science, 03/11/14:
1129
- Mobile Users Told To 'Chase Bush', BBC News, 03/11/18 Protesters angry
about the "security
bubble" around President George Bush on his UK visit are being asked to use
gadgets to be heard and
seen,
- Measuring Reconstruction and Security, The Brookings Iraq Index, The
Brookings Institution has
launched the   Iraq Index  , an online resource designed to offer a
balanced measure of America's
reconstruction and security efforts.
- Bush's Priority in Iraq Is Not Democracy, Ivo Daalder , James Lindsay;  ,
Financial Times,
03/11/11
- President Bush's Speech on Global Democracy and Freedom, interview with
Ivo Daalder; NPR's Talk
of the Nation, 03/11/10 op President Bush's Policies: Foreign Effects,
http://www.brookings.edu/views/interviews/daalder/20031110b.htm Ivo
Daalder; CNN Wolf Blitzer
Reports, 03/11/10
- Materials Science: Close-Up On Cracks, Jay Fineberg  , 03/11/13, Nature
426, 131 - 132, DOI:
10.1038/426131a
- Rapid Body Size Decline In Alaskan Pleistocene Horses Before Extinction,
R. Dale Guthrie  ,
Nature 426, 169 - 171 , 03/11/13, DOI: 10.1038/nature02098
- Whiffs Of Perception: Sniffing Activates The Mind's Nose, Science News,
Vol. 164, No. 20,
03/11/15, available in  Audible format People spontaneously sniff while
imagining various smells,
an act that intensifies odor perception.
- Plastic Memories: Polymer Materials Store Data Permanently, Science News,
Vol. 164, No. 20,
03/11/15, available in  Audible format Researchers have fabricated a memory
device that stores data
permanently in electrically-conducting polymers.
- Micro Sculptors, Science News, Vol. 164, No. 20, 03/11/15, available
in  Audible format. Snippets
of RNA that control biochemical reactions by squelching the creation of
specific proteins play a
role in the development of leaves.
- Attack Of The Rock-Eating Microbes!, Science News, Vol. 164, No. 20,
03/11/15, available in
Audible format Geologists who examine mineral transformations increasingly
see bacteria at work,
leading the scientists to conclude that if microbes aren't driving the
underlying chemical
reactions, at least they're taking advantage of the energy that's released.
- Learning Teamwork by Making Music, Amy Zipkin  , 03/11/16, NTYTimes
- The Good Side Of A Viral Infection?, Science News, Vol. 164, No. 20,
03/11/15, available in
Audible format Hepatitis A infections may protect people from allergies and
asthma.



_________________________________________________________________

20.02. Webcast Announcements


   Presentation Webcasts from Scientific Sessions 2003,
   American Heart Association
   EVOLVABILITY & INTERACTION: Evolutionary Substrates of
   Communication, Signaling, and Perception in the Dynamics of Social
   Complexity, London, UK, 03/10/08-10
   The Semantic Web
   and Language Technology - Its Potential and Practicalities,
   Bucharest, Romania, 03/07/28-08/08
   ECAL 2003, 7th
   European Conference on Artificial Life, Dortmund, Germany,
   03/09/14-17
   IMA International
   Conference Bifurcation 2003, Univ. Southampton, UK, 27-30 July,
   2003
   New Santa
   Fe Institute President About His Vision for SFI's Future Role,
   (Video, Santa Fe, NM, 03/06/04)
   SPIE's 1st Intl Symp
   on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM, 2003/06/01-04
   NAS Sackler
   Colloquium on Mapping Knowledge Domains, Video/Audio Report,
   03/05/11
   Uncertainty and
   Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable,
   The University of Texas Austin, Texas USA, 2003/04/10-12
   13th Ann Intl Conf,
   Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life Sciences, Boston, MA, USA,
   2003/08/08-10
   CERN
   Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and
   Live Events
   Dean
   LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since
   February 1998
   Edge Videos





_________________________________________________________________

20.03. Conference & Call for Papers Announcements


   4th
   Intl Conf on Systems Science and Systems Engineering,
   Hong Kong, 03/11/25-28

   3rd
   International Workshop on Meta-Synthesis and Complex
   System, Guangzhou, China, 03/11/29-30

   Artificial
   Intelligence and Law, Special Issue on Electronic
   Democracy, Submissions Deadline: 03/11/30

   Plexusinstitute
   Organizational Management Conference With Ralph Stacey,
   Washington, DC, 03/12/02-04

   Learning
   with Everett Rogers and Ralph Stacey: Bridging the Quality
   Chasm Between Medical Knowledge and Clinical Practice,
   Rockville, MD, 03/12/02-03

   Learning
   with Ralph Stacey: On Thinking and Learning About Complex
   Responsive Processes, Rockville, MD, 03/12/03-04

   Intl Wkshp Networks
   of Interacting Machines: Industrial Production Systems and
   Biological Cells, Berlin, Germany, 03/12/11-13

   2nd
   International Workshop on the Mathematics and Algorithms of
   Social Insects, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Georgia, USA;
   03/12/15-17

   2nd
   WSEAS Intl Conf on Non-linear Analysis, Non-linear
   Systems and Chaos, Athens, Greece, 03/12/29-31

   Complex
   Physical, Biological and Social Systems, MIT,
   Cambridge, MA, 04/01/05-09

   2nd
   Biennial Seminar on the Philosophical, Epistemological, and
   Methodological Implications of Complexity Theory,
   Havana, Cuba, 04/01/07-10

   2004
   Western Simulation MultiConference (WMC'04), San Diego,
   CA., USA, 04/01/18-24)

   1st
   International Workshop on Biologically Inspired Approaches to
   Advanced Information Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland,
   04/01/29-30

   Physics
   of Socio-Economic Systems, 1st Intl Winter School
   2004, Konstanz, Germany, 04/02/16-20

   Leadership in
   Rapidly Changing Business Environments -Learning and Adapting
   in Time, Cambridge, MA, 04/02/26-27

   4th
   Intl ICSC Symposium Engineering Of Intelligent Systems (EIS
   2004), Island of Madeira, Portugal, 04/02/29-03/02

   Arbeitskreis
   Physik sozio-ökonomischer Systeme Jahrestagung
   (AKSOE), Regensburg, Germany, 04/03/08-12

   Capital
   Science 2004, Washington, 04/03/20-21

   Fractal
   2004, "Complexity and Fractals in Nature", 8th Intl
   Multidisciplinary Conf, Vancouver, Canada, 04/04/04-07

   The
   9th IEEE Intl Conf on Engineering of Complex
   Computer Systems, Florence, Italy, 04/04/14-16

   2004
   Advanced Simulation Technologies Conference (ASTC'04),
   Arlington, VA., USA, 04/04/18-22

   Urban
   Vulnerability and Network Failure: Constructions and
   Experiences of Emergencies, Crises and Collapse,
   Manchester, UK, 04/04/29-30

   5th
   International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS2004),
   Boston, MA, USA, 04/05/16-21

   3rd Intl Conf
   on Systems Thinking in Management (ICSTM 2004) "Transforming
   Organizations to Achieve Sustainable Success",
   Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 04/05/19-21

   9th
   Annual Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interaction
   Agents (WEHIA04),, Kyoto, Japan, 2004/05/27-29

   13th
   International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious
   Diseases, Toulon, France, 04/06/03-05

   From Animals To
   Animats 8, 8th Intl Conf On The Simulation Of
   Adaptive Behavior (SAB'04), Los Angeles, USA,
   04/07/13-17

   8th
   World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and
   Informatics, Orlando, Florida, USA, 04/07/18-21

   2004
   Summer Simulation MultiConference (SummerSim'04), San
   Jose Hyatt, San Jose, California, 04/07/25-29

   ANTS
   2004, 4th International Workshop on Ant Colony
   Optimization and Swarm Intelligence, Brussels, Belgium,
   04/09/05-08

   Dynamic
   Ontology, An Inquiry into Systems, Emergence, Levels of
   Reality, and Forms of Causality, Trento, Italy,
   04/09/08-11

   9th
   Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems
   (ALIFE9), Boston, Massachusetts, 04/09/12-15

   The
   8th Intl Conf on Parallel Problem Solving from
   Nature (PPSN VIII), Birmingham, UK, 04/09/18-22

   XVII
   Brazilian Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Sao
   Luis, Maranhao - Brazil, 04/09/22-24






_________________________________________________________________

20.04. ComDig Announcement: New ComDig Archive in Beta Test

We are in the process of upgrading the Complexity Digest archives to a
format with improved search
capabilities. Also, we will finally be able to adequately publish the
valuable feedback and
comments from our knowledgable readers. You are cordially invited to become
a beta tester of our
new ComDig2 archive.





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