复杂性文摘 NO:2003.04



Complexity Digest 2003.04 January-26-2003

  Archive:  http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror:  http://www.comdig.de

Asian Mirror:  http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/resguide/comdig/ (Chinese GB-Code)

"I think the next century will be the century of complexity." Stephen
Hawking, 2000


1.      World Economic Forum Annual Meeting: Building Trust, Summaries and
1.      Divided We Stand???, Orgnet.com
2.      Creating a Culture of Ideas, Technology Review
1.      The Knowledge Economy and the Athenian Democratic Ideal, Harvard
Business Review
                    2.   Time for a Radical New Look at Teams, European
Business Forum
3.      IBM Aims To Get Smart About Artificial Intelligence, KurzweiAI.net
1.      Scientists Giddy About the Grid, Wired News
                   2.    Artificial Chemistry's Global Dynamic. Movements
in the Lattice of Organisation,                HC2002
                   3.    Research Centre Adds New Dimensions To Virtual
Reality, Alphagalileo
4.      Self-Organization of Sorted Patterned Ground, Science
1.      On Patterned Ground, Science
5.      Aerial Imagery To Overcome Economic, Environmental Challenges,
1.      Genetically Modified Crops Offer Hope For Endangered Wildlife,
Proc. Biol. Sc.
6.      New Species Of Flying Dinosaur Found, The San Francisco Chronicle
1.      Wing-Assisted Incline Running and the Evolution of Flight, Science
7.      Contrasting Evolutionary Strategies In A Population Of Bottlenose
Dolphins, Proc. Biol. Sc.
1.      Wild Female Baboons Bias Their Social Behaviour Towards Paternal
Half-Sisters, Proc. Biol. Sc.
                    2.   Genetic Biases For Showy Males, PNAS
                    3.   Calif. Penguins Swim In Mock Migration To Nowhere,
8.      Arctic Whales Dive For Science, New Scientist
         9.      Establishing Mutual-Belief Among Cooperative Agents, Int.
J. Pattern Recognition & Artificial   Intell.
       10.       Bone Marrow Generates New Neurons In Human Brains,
       11.       Telomeres And Cancer: A Tale With Many Endings, Current
Opinion in Genetics & Development
       12.       Immunology: Mobilizing The Army, Nature
       13.       Ink-Jet Printing Creates Tubes Of Living Tissue, New
       14.       3-D RNA Folds and Molds Like a Key for a Specialized Work,
1.      RNA Trades Bit Part for Starring Role in the Cell, NYTimes
       15.       Neuroscience: White Matter's the Matter, Science
       16.       Hormesis: The Dose-Response Revolution, Annu. Rev.
Pharmacol. Toxicol
       17.       Getting a Closer Look at the Eye, Wired News
       18.       Development: What Makes an Embryo Stick?, Science
1.      Secrets of Embryo Success Revealed, BBC news
                    2.   Secrets of Ageing Revealed, BBC news
       19.       Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
1.      U.N. Security Council Meeting on Combatting Terrorism, C-Span
                    2.   Researchers Urged to Self-Censor Sensitive Data,
                    3.   Economic Statecraft in an Age of Global Terrorism,
Brookings Institution Press
                    4.   Nanotechnology: The Potential For New WMD, Jane's
                    5.   Smallpox Vaccine Choice Raises Questions, AP/Newsday
20.     Links & Snippets
1.      Other Publications
                    2.   Webcast Announcements
                    3.   Conference Announcements
1.      Public Conference Calls
4.      ComDig Announcement: New ComDig Archive in Beta Test

1. World Economic Forum, Summaries and Webcasts

Excerpt: The 33rd Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum takes place
during an extraordinary climate of global uncertainty and complexity. The
past year witnessed the breakdown of trust in many sectors of society.
Restoring confidence in the future is the most important leadership
challenge today. Consequently, Building Trust, the theme of the Annual
Meeting, is more timely than ever.
For many corporate leaders, leadership today means coping with the hangover
from the boom years, managing overcapacity, realizing the benefits from
industry consolidation and adjusting to new corporate governance standards,
while navigating a difficult economic climate.

World Economic Forum, Davos, Switzerland, 03/01/23-28
See also World Social Forum, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 03/01/23-28

Prof Klaus Schwab, host of the meeting, explains the world, its problems
and opportunities using complexity principles using different terminology.
Welcome to the Annual Meeting, Pascal Couchepin, Klaus Schwab, Windows 16k
| 56k | 200k, Real Player 16k | 56k | 200k
Contributed by Dean LeBaron

Excerpt:  ...) two books are linked if they were bought together at a major
retailer on the web. I call these books -- purchased together -- 'buddy
books'. A link was drawn if either book of a pair listed the other as a
buddy. The data made public by the retailer shows just the 'best buddies'
-- the strongest ties. Other patterns may emerge with investigation of
weaker ties. The data was gathered January 2003.

Using snowball sampling -- following the connections between books -- two
distinct clusters emerge. There is only one book that spans both clusters.
Lightly-connected books, with two links or less, were removed. None of the
removed books played a key role in the network -- they were satellites, on
the periphery of one of the clusters.

Divided We Stand???, Valdis Krebs, Orgnet.com, 03/01

2. Creating a Culture of Ideas, Technology Review

  Excerpt: I am especially concerned about early education, which can (and
usually does) have a profoundly negative effect on creativity. In the race
to understand what children learn, we are far too enthusiastic about
celebrating their successes. What is more fascinating is what children do
wrong. Even the concept of "wrong" should get some attention. Though the
wind is not made by leaves flapping, as some children guess, the theory is
sufficiently profound that it should not be dismissed out of hand. In fact,
disassembling erroneous concepts is one of the best ways to find new ideas.
Creating a Culture of Ideas, Nicholas Negroponte, Technology Review, 03/02

Excerpt: Description: We live in a knowledge economy. The core assets of
the modern business enterprise aren't its buildings, machinery, and real
estate, but the intelligence, understanding, skills, and experience of its
employees. Harnessing the capabilities and commitment of knowledge workers
is arguably the central managerial challenge of our time. Unfortunately, it
is a challenge that has not yet been met. Corporate ownership structures,
governance systems, and incentive programs--despite the enlightened
rhetoric of business leaders--remain firmly planted in the industrial age.
(...) The Athenian model of organizational democracy offers a window into
how sizable groups of people can, in an atmosphere of dignity and trust,
successfully govern themselves without resorting to a stifling bureaucracy.

The Knowledge Economy and the Athenian Democratic Ideal, Brook Manville and
Josiah Ober, Harvard Business Review Article, Number: R0301C, January 2003

Excerpt: "Teams are back in fashion. It is not that organisations have done
without them, but the see-saw between motivating and developing the
individual, on the one hand, and teams on the other, is swinging noticeably
back towards the latter. One reason for this is that almost all
organisations are becoming more projectdriven and therefore need people to
be able to form and work well in ad hoc alliances. Another is the
recognition that knowledge - increasingly a key competence for
organisations - is stored largely in teams, rather than just in individuals."

Time for a Radical New Look at Teams, David Clutterbuck, European Business
Forum, January 2003

3. IBM Aims To Get Smart About Artificial Intelligence, KurzweiAI.net

Excerpt: In the coming months, IBM will unveil technology that it believes
will vastly improve the way computers access and use data by unifying the
different schools of thought surrounding artificial intelligence.
IBM's Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) is an
XML-based data retrieval architecture that will expand and enhance the
retrieval techniques underlying databases.

IBM Aims To Get Smart About Artificial Intelligence, KurzweiAI.net, 03/01/20

Excerpt: Users both big and small will be able to tap into the powers of

Astronomers are working on a kind of virtual universe that will offer
access to all astronomy knowledge. And NASA is using the grid to blend
supercomputer simulations of the various parts of a commercial airplane
engine into one giant simulation.(¡K)

With all the resources being thrown at grid computing, the day may come
when scientists "will exchange information not by publication of papers,
but by the instantaneous exchange of information (¡K).

Scientists Giddy About the Grid, Randy Dotinga, Wired News, 03/01/20

Abstract: As artificial life is the study of life as it could be,
artificial chemistry can be seen as the study of chemistry as it could be.
In such systems molecules interact to generate new molecules, possibly
different from the original ones. Here, we will focus on a general
theoretical approach to study artificial chemistries. In this approach we
consider the set of all possible organisations (closed and self-maintaining
sets) in an artificial chemistry. (...) this set generates a lattice. We
consider the dynamical movement of a system in this lattice, under the
influence of its inner dynamic and random noise. We notice that some
organisations, while being algebraically closed, are not stable under the
influence of random external noise. While others, while being algebraically
self-maintaining, do not dynamically self-maintain all their elements. This
leads to a definition of attractive organisations.
Artificial Chemistry's Global Dynamic. Movements in the Lattice of
Organisation, Pietro Speroni di Fenizio , Peter Dittrich, 2002, invited
paper for: HC2002. Fifth International Conference on Humans and Computers,
Contributed by Carlos Gershenson

Excerpts: The pioneering Virtual Engineering Centre (¡K) will enable
researchers to study complex technological systems not just with their eyes
and ears, but through an array of senses, including touch and smell (¡K)
with a simulated environment, offering boundless opportunities in many
fields such as industry and medicine. Powerful computer clusters connected
by a broadband network, modern imaging and sensing technologies as well as
sophisticated software replicate situations that are both multi-dimensional
and multi-sensory. Goggles and special gloves ensure that researchers can
explore their surroundings and experience feedback of pressure, weight and
textural information.
Research Centre Adds New Dimensions To Virtual Reality, E. Fitzsimons,
Alphagalileo, 2003/01/20
Contributed by Atin Das

4. Self-Organization of Sorted Patterned Ground, Science

  Excerpt: Striking circular, labyrinthine, polygonal, and striped patterns
of stones and soil self-organize in many polar and high alpine
environments. These forms emerge because freeze-thaw cycles drive an
interplay between two feedback mechanisms. First, formation of ice lenses
in freezing soil sorts stones and soil by displacing soil toward soil-rich
domains and stones toward stone-rich domains. Second, stones are
transported along the axis of elongate stone domains, which are squeezed
and confined as freezing soil domains expand. In a numerical model
implementing these feedbacks, circles, labyrinths, and islands form when
sorting dominates; (...).
Self-Organization of Sorted Patterned Ground, M. A. Kessler, B. T. Werner,
Science 2003 299: 380-383.

Excerpt: The self-organization perspective of Kessler and Werner (1) paper
brings up some interesting questions. If self-organized entities are
widespread in Earth's most desolate environments, are the milder climes
teeming with them unnoticed? Is self-organization as inevitable as gravity?
Self-organization entails self-making and self-maintaining, and these are
characteristics of living things. So where is the division? And do
self-organized entities compete with each other for growing space and for
the energy flows that sustain them? For instance, do sorted circles and
polygons somehow fight it out for possession?

On Patterned Ground, Daniel Mann, Science 2003 299: 354-355

5. Aerial Imagery To Overcome Economic, Environmental Challenges, ScienceDaily

Excerpts: Today's wheat growers face many economic and environmental
challenges, but arguably their greatest challenge is the efficient use of
fertilizer. Growers need to apply nitrogen-based fertilizer in sufficient
quantities to achieve the highest possible crop yields without
over-applying - a situation that could lead to serious environmental
effects. In wheat, a critical factor comes down to timing in order to
determine how efficiently plants will use nitrogen fertilizer. To assist
wheat growers, scientists at North Carolina State University recently
developed (¡K) Remote sensing - a relatively new technology to today's
modern agriculture that uses aerial photography and satellite imagery.
Aerial Imagery To Overcome Economic, Environmental Challenges,
ScienceDaily, 2003/01/16
Contributed by Atin Das

Abstract: In the first piece of research into how genetically modified (GM)
herbicide tolerant crops could be used to benefit the environment, (¡K)
show that creative use of GM crops could bring back increasing numbers of
endangered wildlife and birds such as skylarks and finches. The research is
based on a new weed-management system for GM sugar beet, demonstrating that
weeds can be retained for longer without affecting the crop yield. The
weeds and associated insects provide vital food and habitats for the
farmland birds and other wildlife, which have dramatically declined as a
result of intensive farming systems.

Genetically Modified Crops Offer Hope For Endangered Wildlife, A. M Dewar,
M. J May, I. P. Woiwood, L. A. Haylock, G. T. Champion, B. H. Garner, R. J.
Sands, A. Qi & J. D Pidgeon, Proc. Biol. Sc., 2003/01/15
Contributed by Pritha Das

6. New Species Of Flying Dinosaur Found, The San Francisco Chronicle

Excerpt: Fossils of a four-winged, feathered dinosaur that lived in trees
and glided to earth to seize its prey have been unearthed in China, a find
that American scientists say could revolutionize the long debate over the
origin of flight in birds.
Many key questions remain about just where these unique beasts fit along
the evolutionary path from dinosaurs to modern birds, but scientists have
never seen their like before and are already speculating about the
aerodynamics of the dinosaurs' strange anatomy. (...)

New Species Of Flying Dinosaur Found, David Perlman, The San Francisco
Chronicle, 1/23/03
Contributed by Mason A. Porter

Excerpts: Flapping wings of galliform birds are routinely used to produce
aerodynamic forces oriented toward the substrate to enhance hindlimb
traction. Here, I document this behavior in natural and laboratory
settings. Adult birds fully capable of aerial flight preferentially employ
wing-assisted incline running (WAIR), rather than flying, to reach elevated
refuges (such as cliffs, trees, and boulders). (¡K) WAIR provides insight
from behaviors observable in living birds into the possible role of
incipient wings in feathered theropod dinosaurs and offers a previously
unstudied explanation for the evolution of avian flight.

Wing-Assisted Incline Running and the Evolution of Flight, Kenneth P.
Dial,, Science 2003 299: 402

7. Contrasting Evolutionary Strategies In A Population Of Bottlenose
Dolphins, Proc. Biol. Sc.

Abstract: Male bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay form complex alliances to
sexually coerce females. In one strategy, males form stable pairs or trios
(primary alliances) with related males (¡K). In the second strategy - a
large secondary 'super-alliance' of up to 14 males with highly labile
primary alliances - males are not related. Participants in stable primary
alliances may benefit because of relatedness, while the size of the
super-alliance may allow individuals to hold their own in competition with
dolphins engaging in the first strategy. These findings add a further layer
of complexity to our understanding of dolphin social behaviour.
Contrasting Evolutionary Strategies In A Population Of Bottlenose Dolphins
(Tursiops Sp.), M Krutzen, W. B. Sherwin, R. C. Connor, L. M. Barre, T. Van
de Casteele, J. Mann, R. Brooks, Proc. Biol. Sc. Press Release, Jan. 2003
Contributed by Atin Das

Abstract: In many primate species, adult females exhibit strong social
bonds with maternal kin (animals to whom they are related through their
mother). Much less is understood about their behaviour towards paternal
kin. Similarly, little is known about how paternal kin might recognize each
other in social systems where males interact very little with their
offspring, which are usually sired with different females. Here we show
that wild female baboons bias their affiliative behaviour towards paternal
half-sisters in the same manner and to the same extent that they bias their
behaviour towards maternal half-sisters.

Wild Female Baboons Bias Their Social Behaviour Towards Paternal
Half-Sisters, K Smith, S. C Alberts, J. Altmann, Proc. Biol. Sc., 2003/01/20
Contributed by Pritha Das

Excerpts: Male secondary sexual characters (conspicuous ornaments, signals,
colors) are among nature's most striking features. Yet, it is unclear why
certain groups of organisms are more likely than others to evolve these
traits. One explanation for such taxonomic biases is that some genetic
systems may be especially conducive to sexual selection(¡K) We also present
empirical data showing that male secondary sexual characters are better
developed in diploid than haplodiploid species (¡K). Thus, taxonomic biases
for showy males may stem from differences in sex chromosome systems.

Genetic Biases For Showy Males: Are Some Genetic Systems Especially
Conducive To Sexual Selection?, Hudson Kern Reeve, David W. Pfennig, PNAS
published 22 January 2003, 10.1073/pnas.0337427100

Excerpt: The penguins at the San Francisco Zoo are swimming around in
circles for hours at a time because they have been bamboozled by six new
birds into performing a mock migration, officials said on Thursday.

The marathon began late last month when the newcomers joined the colony,
leaving the zoo's penguin keeper Jane Tollini scratching her head as to how
the birds from an Ohio theme park, convinced the 46 others to start in with
the frenzied swimming.

Calif. Penguins Swim In Mock Migration To Nowhere, Michael Kahn, Reuters,

8. Arctic Whales Dive For Science, New Scientist

Excerpt: Ocean scientists have recruited wild arctic whales to their team
to probe the waters deep beneath an Arctic island fjord for the first time.
Sensors attached to the backs of the whales collected data as they dived
deep beneath the fjord. The data was relayed back to the researchers via a
satellite link each time the whales surfaced.

The sensors revealed a previously unknown influx of warm North Atlantic
water beneath the Storfjorden Svalbard Arctic fjord during the winter months.

Arctic Whales Dive For Science, Will Knight, New Scientist, 03/01/22

9. Establishing Mutual-Belief Among Cooperative Agents, Int. J. Pattern
Recognition & Artificial Intell.

Abstract: Mutual-belief is one important premise to ensure that cooperation
among multiple agents goes smoothly. In this paper, we adapt a method based
on the position-exchange principle (PEP) to reason about mutual-belief
among agents. By reasoning about mutual-belief among agents, we can judge
whether cooperation among agents can go on rationally or not. However, if
there are malicious agents involved in cooperation, the profit of honesty
agents will be injured. To make cooperation useful, agents should be able
to reason about cheating behaviors of malicious agents during cooperation.
Establishing Mutual-Belief Among Cooperative Agents, W. Jiao, Int. J.
Pattern Recognition, Artificial Intell., Vol. 16, No. 8, pp:973-993, Dec.
2002, doi:10.1142/S0218001402002118
Contributed by Pritha Das

10. Bone Marrow Generates New Neurons In Human Brains, ScienceDaily

Excerpts: A new study strongly suggests that some cells from bone marrow
can enter the human brain and generate new neurons and other types of brain
cells. If researchers can find a way to control these cells and direct them
to damaged areas of the brain, this finding may lead to new treatments for
stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other neurological disorders.
"This study shows that some kind of cell in bone marrow, most likely a stem
cell, has the capacity to enter the brain and form neurons."
Bone Marrow Generates New Neurons In Human Brains, ScienceDaily, 2003/01/21
Contributed by Atin Das

11. Telomeres And Cancer: A Tale With Many Endings, Current Opinion in
Genetics & Development

Abstract: Telomerase activity is necessary to maintain the integrity of
telomeres, which in turn prevent chromosome ends from being processed and
signaled as damaged DNA. That cancer cells rely on telomerase to maintain
functional telomeres and to divide indefinitely has highlighted the
potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches that target telomerase.
Telomeres And Cancer: A Tale With Many Endings, Maria A Blasco, Current
Opinion in Genetics & Development, 2003, 13:170-76,

12. Immunology: Mobilizing The Army, Nature

Excerpt: Our bodies respond to injury and infection by mobilizing
inflammatory cells, which, on reaching an afflicted area, kill
microorganisms, eliminate any debris and regulate tissue repair.
Neutrophils, which are generated in the bone marrow and circulate through
the bloodstream, are the first such cells to arrive on the scene. Armed
with potent protein-digesting enzymes and oxidants, neutrophils are
consummate microbe killers. But if these cells accumulate and are activated
in an uncontrolled way, they can cause excessive inflammation and injure
the very tissues they are designed to protect.
Immunology: Mobilizing The Army, Steven D. Shapiro, Nature 421, 223 - 224
(2003); doi:10.1038/421223a,

13. Ink-Jet Printing Creates Tubes Of Living Tissue, New Scientist

Excerpts: Three-dimensional tubes of living tissue have been printed using
modified desktop printers filled with suspensions of cells instead of ink.
The work is a first step towards printing complex tissues or even entire
The printers are adapted by washing out the ink cartridges and refilling
them with suspensions of, say, cells. (¡K)

To create 3D structures, Boland and Mironov used a "thermo-reversible" gel
(¡K). The non-toxic, biodegradable gel is liquid below 20 ¢XC and
solidifies above 32 ¢XC.

Ink-Jet Printing Creates Tubes Of Living Tissue, Charles Choi, New
Scientist, 03/01/22

14. 3-D RNA Folds and Molds Like a Key for a Specialized Work, NYTimes

Excerpt: RNA is not only a tape, but a shape.
Most scientists view RNA as a tape, a string of letters of the genetic
code. The important thing is the information it holds.

But it turns out that RNA can also fold into three-dimensional shapes that
can bind to something like a protein by shape, as a key fits in a lock.
That is important because proteins in a cell bind to one another by shape,
and drugs often work by fitting into their target by shape.

3-D RNA Folds and Molds Like a Key for a Specialized Work, Andrew Pollack,
NYTimes, 03/01/21,

Excerpt: In the family of genetic material, RNA has long been the poor
cousin of DNA. DNA makes up the genes, the master instructions of life,
while RNA merely conveys those instructions to other parts of the cell.
But surprising new discoveries are showing that cells contain an army of
RNA snippets that do much more than act as DNA's messenger. The discoveries
are helping to refine the prevailing theories of genetics - or even upend them.

RNA Trades Bit Part for Starring Role in the Cell, Andrew Pollack, NYTimes,

15. Neuroscience: White Matter's the Matter, Science

Excerpts: Scientists have long known that connections somehow go awry in
the brains of people with schizophrenia. Now advances in imaging and gene
technology are allowing them to trace the axons that connect from neuron to
neuron and make up the brain's white matter.
(¡K) diffusion tensor technology, showing that the alignment of axons is
askew in the frontal lobes of patients with schizophrenia. The new data
comport with earlier observations from postmortem brains indicating that
even though schizophrenia patients aren't short on brain cells, connecting
fibers are sparse.

Neuroscience: White Matter's the Matter, Holden, Constance, Science 2003
299: 334-

16. Hormesis: The Dose-Response Revolution, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol

Excerpt: Hormesis, a dose-response relationship phenomenon characterized by
low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition, has been frequently observed
in properly designed studies and is broadly generalizable as being
independent of chemical/physical agent, biological model, and endpoint
measured. This under-recognized and -appreciated concept has the potential
to profoundly change toxicology and its related disciplines with respect to
study design, animal model selection, endpoint selection, risk assessment
methods, and numerous other aspects, including chemotherapeutics. This
article indicates that as a result of hormesis, fundamental changes in the
concept and conduct of toxicology and risk assessment should be made,
including (a) the definition of toxicology, (b) the process of hazard
(e.g., including study design, selection of biological model, dose number
and distribution, endpoint measured, and temporal sequence) and risk
assessment [e.g., concept of NOAEL (no observed adverse !
effect level), low dose modeling, recognition of beneficial as well as
harmful responses] for all agents, and (c) the harmonization of cancer and
noncancer risk assessment.

Hormesis: The Dose-Response Revolution, Edward J. Calabrese, Linda A.
Baldwin, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2003. 43:175-197.

17. Getting a Closer Look at the Eye, Wired News

Excerpt: Eye diseases such as glaucoma and macular degeneration often
aren't discovered until a patient is well on his way to blindness. But a
new imaging technology promises to deliver diagnoses at critical early stages.
The technology, called adaptive optics, was originally developed for
peering into outer space. It made headlines most recently for giving
astronomers rare views of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

However, researchers studying the human eye are discovering the technology
has applications in their field as well.

Getting a Closer Look at the Eye, Kristen Philipkoski,, Wired News, Jan.
23, 2003

18. Development: What Makes an Embryo Stick?, Science

Excerpt: How does an embryo know where and when to become attached to the
lining of the uterus, which is accommodating for only a narrow window of
time? Implantation of the embryo is a complex biological process that is
species specific. In humans, successful implantation requires an
orchestrated synchrony between an appropriately developed embryo and the
hormonally primed receptive endometrium. In clinical medicine, the past two
decades have seen a revolution in the treatment of infertility, yet embryo
implantation still remains a major limiting factor in assisted reproductive
Development: What Makes an Embryo Stick?, Fazleabas, Asgerally T., Kim, J.
Julie, Science 2003 299: 355-356

Excerpts: Scientists may have found out what makes a human embryo stick to
the wall of the womb and start developing. (...) Dr Roger Searle, director
of anatomy and clinical skills at the University of Newcastle, UK,said:
"It's a radical idea, which is gaining more support, that the embryo is
actually communicating with the uterus. "It used to be thought that
everything was down to the mother, but now it seems more likely that there
is this dialogue going on."
Secrets of Embryo Success Revealed, 2003-01-20, BBC news
Contributed by Nadia Gershenson

Excerpts: Scientists have found a way to measure the tiny mechanism within
the body's cells which many believe may hold the key to the ageing process.
(...) It is widely thought that the number of times a cell can divide - and
thus reinvigorate tissue - is controlled by the length of a microscopic
structure called a telomere. (...) Previously it has only been possible to
establish an average telomere length from hundreds of thousands of cells.
The new technique, called STELA, can measure telomere length in a single
cell from any tissue sample.
Secrets of Ageing Revealed, 2003-01-20, BBC news
Contributed by Nadia Gershenson

19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks

U.N. Security Council Meeting on Combatting Terrorism, C-Span, 03/01/20

Excerpts: Do it yourself--before the government does it to you. That's the
advice U.S. bioscientists received last week at a workshop on developing
guidelines to handle research findings that could threaten national security.

The current debate over what kinds of biomedical research findings
shouldn't be published began after the anthrax mail attacks in fall 2001.
But it picked up steam after major scientific journals published papers
containing data that critics said could aid terrorists. Science, (¡K)
published a paper (¡K), showing how to assemble a working poliovirus from
off-the-shelf chemicals.

Researchers Urged to Self-Censor Sensitive Data, Malakoff, David, Science
2003 299: 321-

Excerpt: Policymakers will need all the tools at their disposal to craft an
effective response to international terrorism and to protect and promote
other U.S. interests in the coming decades. In this quest to shape the
right strategies for the challenges ahead, economic instruments will play a
central role.

Economic Statecraft in an Age of Global Terrorism, Meghan L. O'Sullivan,
International Economics, Brookings Institution Press, 03/01

Excerpts: While specialists agree that its widespread use by the military
is some ways off, it is likely that it will be increasingly employed,
especially as this new science develops. Under such monikers as
"micromechanical engineering" and "microelectromechanical systems" (MEMS),
the field of NT was born 30 years ago in nuclear weapons laboratories. Its
present application has been to refine existing nuclear weapon designs. (¡K)

Nanotechnology has the potential to create entirely new weapons.
Fourth-generation nuclear weapons are new types of nuclear explosives that
would use inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities.

Nanotechnology: The Potential For New WMD, Jane's, 03/01/15

Excerpt: Across the country, doctors, nurses and public health officials
are making some hard choices about whether to get the smallpox shot for the
good of the country.

In the coming weeks, health care workers will be deciding whether to
volunteer to be vaccinated so they can be ready to respond to a smallpox
bioterrorist attack. The first shots will be given Friday in Connecticut,
the first state ready with the vaccine. (...)

Worries about the vaccine's fierce side effects and the threat that it may
even sicken people near those vaccinated has prompted a number of nurses to
refuse. (...)

Smallpox Vaccine Choice Raises Questions, AP/Newsday, 1/23/03
Contributed by Mason A. Porter

20. Links & Snippets

20.1 Other Publications

Science: Fickle Evolution: Winged, to Wingless, to Winged, Carol Kaesuk
Yoon, NYTimes, 03/01/21, Researchers have reported evidence that wingless
stick insects have re-evolved wings at least four times in the history of
the group.
New York Region: 11-Digit Local Dialing Starts in New York City on Feb. 1,
Lydia Polgreen, NYTimes, 03/01/21, New Yorkers will have to start using an
area code when calling a local telephone number, even if it is in the same
area code.
Health: Babies Pick Up Emotional Clues From TV, Experts Find, Erica Goode,
NYTimes, 03/01/21, Even young babies can be influenced by emotional
messages delivered through a television screen.
Business: Doubling Up of Taxation Isn't Limited to Dividends, Daniel
Altman, NYTimes, 03/01/21, Corporate dividends are not the only kind of
income that is taxed twice. Other taxes create a double, triple or even
quintuple burden.
Disordered Mind And Brain, P. C. Fletcher,Brain 2003 February 1; 126(2): p.
510-511, book report on: Disordered Mind And Brain, Peter F. Liddle, 2001.
London: Gaskell Publications Dept, Price ¢FG40. pp. 320. ISBN 190124265X.
Rewarding Work Through the Tax Code: The Power and Potential of the Earned
Income Tax Credit in 27 Cities and Rural Areas, Alan Berube; Brookings
Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, (January 2003)
Least Effort And The Origins Of Scaling In Human Language, Ramon Ferrer i
Cancho, Ricard V. Sole, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA published 22 January
2003, 10.1073/pnas.0335980100
International: Refusal by French and Germans to Back U.S. on Iraq Has
Undercut Powell's Position, Steven R. Weisman, NYTimes, 03/01/24, Secretary
of State Colin L. Powell is described by associates as having less leverage
to stop military action in an administration dominated by hawks and less
inclination to try.
Modular Organization Of Cellular Networks, Alexander W. Rives and Timothy
Galitski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA published 21 January 2003,
Expression And Assembly Of A Fully Active Antibody In Algae, Stephen P.
Mayfield, Scott E. Franklin, Richard A. Lerner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
2003 January 21; 100(2): p. 438-442
Genetic Diversity, Asymmetrical Aggression, And Recognition In A Widespread
Invasive Species, Neil D. Tsutsui, Andrew V. Suarez, Richard K. Grosberg,
PNAS published 21 January 2003, 10.1073/pnas.0234412100
A Review Of Electrophysiology In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:
I. Qualitative And Quantitative Electroencephalography, Robert J. Barry,
Adam R. Clarke, Stuart J. Johnstone, Clinical Neurophysiology, 2003,
A Review Of Electrophysiology In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:
II. Event-Related Potentials,Robert J. Barry, Stuart J. Johnstone, Adam R.
Clarke, Clinical Neurophysiology, 2003, 114:2184-198
Dipstick Gives Rapid Plague Diagnosis, NewScientist.com News Service, New
Scientist, 1/17/03
Spatiotemporal Coherent Control of Lattice Vibrational Waves, T. Feurer,
Joshua C. Vaughan,Keith A. Nelson, p. 374
Contributions of the Visual Ventral Pathway to Long-Range Apparent
Motion,Yan Zhuo, Tian Gang Zhou, Heng Yi Rao, Jiong Jiong Wang, Ming Meng,
Ming Chen, Cheng Zhou, and Lin Chen, Science 2003 299: 417
Moving Stadium Dents Team Performance, Switching to a plush new home cuts
the home advantage enjoyed by a sports team by a quarter which might just
cost the championship
US Officials Urge Biologists To Vet Publications For Bioterror Risk, Erika
Check, Nature 421, 197 (2003); doi:10.1038/421197a
Loss And Recovery Of Wings In Stick Insects, Michael F. Whiting, Sven
Bradler, Taylor Maxwell, Nature 421, 264 - 267 (2003); doi:10.1038/nature01313
Speciation Along Environmental Gradients, Michael Doebeli, Ulf Dieckmann,
Nature 421, 259 - 264 (2003); doi:10.1038/nature01274.
Parasitology:A Game of Cat and Mouth, Sarah K. Volkman, Daniel L. Hartl,
Science 2003 299: 353-354
Selective Pressures on Genomes in Molecular Evolution, Charles Ofria,
Christoph Adami, Travis C. Collier, 2003-01-15, DOI: quant-ph/0301075, arXiv
Deterministic and Stochastic Influences on Japan and US Stock and Foreign
Exchange Markets. A Fokker-Planck Approach. K. Ivanova, M. Ausloos and H.
Takayasu. arXiv. 2003-01-09
Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics and Economics. Constantino Tsallis,
Celia Anteneodo, Lisa Borland and Roberto Osorio. arXiv. 2003-01-09
Power Market Dynamics: The Statistical Mechanics of Transaction-based
Control. David P. Chassin. arXiv. 2003-01-09
The Construction of Large Number Representations in Adults, Hilary Barth,
Nancy Kanwisher, Elizabeth Spelke, 2003-01, DOI:
10.1016/S0010-0277(02)00178-6, Cognition 86(3):201-221
Selective Pressures on Genomes in Molecular Evolution, Charles Ofria,
Christoph Adami, Travis C. Collier, 2003-01-15, DOI: quant-ph/0301075, arXiv
Evolutionary Coherence Of The Mammalian Amygdala, Barton, Aggleton &
Grenyer, Proc. Biol. Sc., 2003/01/21, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2002.2276
Sample Complexity For Function Learning Tasks Through Linear Neural
Networks,A. H. Aguirre, C.  Koutsougeras & B. Buckles, Int. J. Artificial
Intell. Tools, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp:499-511, Dec. 2002,
Pose Estimation In Automated Visual Inspection Using ANN, S. Hati &  S.
Sengupta, , Int. J. of Neural Sys., Vol. 12, No. 6, pp:483-496, Dec. 2002,
Medical Image Compression Using JPEG-2000 And JPEG: A Comparison Study, O.
T. Hui & R. Besar, J. of Mech. in Med. & Biol., Vol. 2, Nos. 3 & 4,
pp:313-328 , Dec. 2002, doi:10.1142/S021951940200054X
Packet Transport On Scale-Free Networks, B. Tadic &  G. J. Rodgers, Adv. in
Complex Sys., Vol. 5, No. 4, pp:445-456, Dec. 2002,
Singing Concrete, O. Maksimenko, Alphagalileo,2003/01/17
Researchers Find Link Between Improved Memory And The Use Of Neurofeedback,
T. Stephenson , Alphagalileo, 2003/01/22
Night Blindness May Explain Fear Of The Dark, E. Dickinson, Alphagalileo,
Research Project Promises Faster, Cheaper And More Reliable Microchips,
ScienceDaily, 2003/01/20
Scientists Find Geochemical Fingerprint Of World Trade Center Collapse,
ScienceDaily, 2003/01/21
Earth Likely Spared From One Form Of Cosmic Doom, ScienceDaily, 2003/01/22
The Periodic Predator-Prey Lotka-Volterra Model With Impulsive Effect, S.
Tang &  L. Chen, J. of Mech. in Med. & Biol., Vol. 2, Nos. 3 & 4,
pp:267-296 , Dec. 2002, doi:10.1142/S021951940200040X
Incremental Learning In Biological And Machine Learning Systems, S. K.
Chalup, Int. J. of Neural Sys., Vol. 12, No. 6, pp: 447-465, Dec. 2002,
Decision Making Using Hybrid Rough Sets And Neural Networks, Y. Hassan, E.
Tazaki, S. Egawa & K. Suyama, Int. J. of Neural Sys.,  Vol. 12, No. 6,
pp:435-446, Dec. 2002, doi:10.1142/S012906570200131X

20.2 Coming and Ongoing Webcasts

2002 Financial Management Conference, 02/10/16-19
The Center for Business Innovation Bi-Monthly Web Cast, 03/01/15, TOPIC:
CBI Future Scan Version 6.0, WHO: David McIntosh, Director of the CBI Network
Artificial Life Conference (A-Life 8), Sydney, Australia, 02/12/09-13
Universes, Edge Video, 02/11
Novel Properties of Nano-Materials Symposium, Natl Taiwan Normal Univ,
Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998

20.3 Conference Announcements

World Economic Forum Meeting "Building Trust", Davos, Switzerland, 03/01/23-28
World Social Forum, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 03/01/23-28
INSC 2003, International Nonlinear Sciences Conference Research and
Applications in the Life Sciences,Vienna, Austria, 03/02/07-09
2003 AAAS Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 03/02/13-18
Complexity Science In Practice: Understanding & Acting To Improve Health
and Health Care, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota USA, 03/03/21-22
Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Data Engineering and
Automated Learning (IDEAL'03), Hong Kong, 03/03/21-23
2003 AAAI Spring Symposium Series, Computational Synthesis: From Basic
Building Blocks To High Level Functionality, Stanford, 03/03/24-27
Jahrestagung 2003 des AKSOE (Physics of Socio-Economical Systems), Dresden,
Germany, 03/03/24-28
Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected, U. of
Texas at Austin, Texas, 03/04/10-12
7th Annual Swarm Researchers and Users Meeting (SwarmFest2003), Notre Dame,
IN, 03/04/13-14
Agent-Based Simulation 4, Montpellier, France, 03/04/28-30
SPIE's 1st Intl Symp on Fluctuations and Noise, Santa Fe, NM, 03/06/01-04
21st ICDE World Conf on Open Learning and Distance Education, Hong Kong,
17th Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Simulation (PADS 2003), San
Diego, California, 03/06/10-13
2003 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC '03), Montreal, Canada,
5th Intl Conf "Symmetry in Nonlinear Mathematical Physics", Kiev, Ukraine,
03/06/23-29, Mirror
9th International Conference on Auditory Display, Boston, MA, 03/07/07-09,
Wkshp on Assistive Technologies for the Blind, 03/07/06
2003 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2003), Chicago,
2nd Intl Joint Conf on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems
(AAMAS-2003), Melbourne, Australia, 03/07/14-18
7th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI
2003), Orlando, Florida, 03/07/27-30
13th Annual International Conference, Soc f Chaos Theory in Psych & Life
Sciences,Boston, MA, USA, 03/08/08-10
1st German Conference on Multiagent System Technologies (MATES'03), Erfurt,
Germany, 03/09/22-25
7th European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL-2003), Dortmund, Germany,
2003 IEEE/WIC Intl Joint Conf. Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent
Technology, Beijing, China, 03/10/13-17
ICDM '03: The Third IEEE International Conference on Data Mining,
Melbourne, Florida, USA, 03/11/19-22
3rd International Workshop on Meta-Synthesis and Complex System, Guangzhou,
China, 03/11/29-30
2nd International Workshop on the Mathematics and Algorithms of Social
Insects, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 03/12/15-17

20.3.1 Public Conference  Calls

PlexusCalls - Pat Rush & Bob Lindberg in health concern conversation with
Keith McCandless and Linda Rusch, 03/01/10, Audio File Available Now, mp3
PlexusCalls - John Holland in Conversation - Audio File Available Now, mp3
Are Disease and Aging Information/Complexity Loss Syndromes?, PlexusCalls,
02/11/08, 1 - 2 pm EST (To learn more about Ary Goldberger¡¦s work and
HeartSongs, Music of the Heart.) Audio File Available Now, mp3 (27mb)
Brenda Zimmerman in Conversation - Audio File Available Now, mp3 (24mb)
The Complexity of Entrepreneurship: A Launchcyte Story, PlexusCalls,
02/11/22, 1 - 2 pm EST

20.4 ComDig Announcement: New ComDig Archive in Beta Test

We are in the process of upgrading the Complexity Digest archives to a
format with improved search capabilities. Also, we will finally be able to
adequately publish the valuable feedback and comments from our knowledgable
readers. You are cordially invited to become a beta tester of our new
ComDig2 archive.

Complexity Digest <http://www.comdig.org/>  is an independent publication
available to organizations that may wish to repost ComDig to their own
mailing lists. ComDig
is published by Dean LeBaron <http://www.deanlebaron.com/index.html>  and
edited by Gottfried J. Mayer
<http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/g/x/gxm21/> . For individual e-mail
subscriptions send requests to: subscriptions@comdig.org.